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University of 
St. Michael s College, Toronto 






W. D. ROSS, M.A. 










Oxford University Press 

London Edinburgh Glasgow Copenhagen 
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Bombay Calcutta Madras Shanghai 
Humphrey Milford Publisher to the UNIVERSITY 




Professor of Greek in the University of Sheffield 
Formerly Scholar of Oriel College 



To fivvarbv yap 17 (f>i\ia In-t^ref, ov TO KO.T afciav 
yap effriv \v iraat, KaOdnep \v raf? irpos TOVJ Qeoiis 
Kal TOVJ yoveis ovSels yap rrjv aiav TTOT av 

Aristotle, Eth. Nic. u63 b i5. 


THE inclusion of the Problemata in the Aristotelian 
Corpus is no doubt due to the fact that Aristotle is known 
to have written a work of this kind, to which reference is 
made in his .genuine works and by other writers. An 
examination of these references shows that some of them 
can be connected with passages in the Problemata, while 
others cannot ; from which it may be concluded that, while 
the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it 
nevertheless contains an element derived from such a work. 
It is also obviously indebted to other Aristotelian treatises, 
especially those on Natural History, to the Hippocratean 
writings, and to Theophrastus. The repetitions and con 
tradictions which occur in the work seem to show that it 
was a gradual compilation by several hands ; and, if one 
may judge from the late forms of words which occur in 
several passages, it did not reach its final form until some 
time after the beginning of the Christian Era. Some critics 
would date its completion as late as the fifth or sixth 
century A.D. The doctrine throughout is Peripatetic, and 
the variety of subjects treated shows the wide interests of 
that school. 

The text used for this translation is that of Ruelle- 
Knoellinger-Klek (Leipzig, Teubner, 1922). The preface 
to that edition contains a complete account of the MSS. 
and a valuable bibliography. 1 Wherever any other reading 
is adopted the fact is stated in the foot-notes. 

1 An important contribution to the text (not mentioned in this 
bibliography) is that of the late Mr. H. P. Richards in his Aristotelica 
(London, Grant Richards, 1915). This only came into my hands after 
I had completed the first draft of my translation ; it confirmed in 
several passages conclusions at which I had arrived independently. 


Professor W. D. Ross has been good enough to read the 
translation both in MS. and in proof; a small part of the 
debt which I owe him is indicated in the foot-notes, but 
there are innumerable other passages in which his vast 
knowledge of Aristotelian usage has enabled me to intro 
duce material improvements. I have also to thank Sir 
Henry Hadow, D.Mus., Vice-Chancellor of the University 
of Sheffield, and my colleague Mr. G. E. Linfoot, Mus.Bac., 
B.Sc., for generous assistance in elucidating the Musical 



i Feb. 1926. 



859 a 


866 b 


87i a 


876 a 


88o b 


88 5 b 


886 a 


887 b 


88 9 b 


8 9 i a 


8 9 8 b 


9o6 a 


9 o 7 b 


9 o 9 a 


9 IO b 


9 i 3 a 


9 J 5 b 


9i6 b 


91 7 b 


9 2 3 a 


9 27 a 


93 o a 


93i a 


93 6 a 


937 b 


9 40 a 


947 b 


949 a 


95 o a 


953 a 


957 a 


9 6o a 


9 6i b 


9 6 3 b 


9 6 4 b 


9 6 5 b 


9^5 b 


g66 b 




The Drinking of Wine and Drunkenness. 

Sexual Intercourse. 


The Positions assumed in Lying down and in other 


Sympathetic Action. 
Chill and Shivering. 
Bruises, Scars, and Weals. 
Summary of Physical Problems. 
The Voice. 

Things of Pleasant Odour. 
Things of Unpleasant Odour. 
The Effect of Locality on Temperament. 
Mathematical Theory. 
Inanimate Things. 
Animate Things. 
Literary study. 

Shrubs and Vegetables. 
Barley-meal, Barley-cake, &c. 

Salt Water and the Sea. 
Hot Water. 
The Air. 
The Winds 
Fear and Courage. 
Temperance and Intemperance, Continence and 

Justice and Injustice. 
Prudence, Intelligence, and Wisdom. 
The Eyes. 
The Ears. 
The Nose. 

The Mouth and its parts. 
The Effects of Touch. 
The Face. 
The Whole Body. 
The Coloration of the Flesh. 



1 WHY is it that great excesses cause disease ? Is it because 859* 
they engender excess or defect, and it is in these after all 
that disease consists ? 

2 But why is it that diseases can often be cured if the 
patient indulges in excess of some kind ? And this is the 5 
treatment used by some doctors; for they cure by the 
excessive use of wine or water or salt, or by over-feeding 
or starving the patient. Is it because the causes of the 
disease are opposites of one another, so that each reduces 
the other to the mean ? 

3 Why is it that the changes of the seasons and the winds 
intensify or stop diseases and bring them to a crisis and 10 
engender them ? Is it because the seasons are hot and cold 
and moist and dry, while diseases are due to excess of these 
qualities and health to their equality ? In that case, if the 
disease is due to moisture or cold, a season which has the 
opposite characteristics stops it ; but if a season of the 
opposite kind 1 follows, the same admixture of qualities 
being caused as before intensifies the disease and kills the 
patient. For this reason the seasons even cause disease in 15 
healthy persons, because by their changes they destroy the 
proper admixture of qualities ; for it is at the same time 
improved by suitable seasons, times of life, and locali 
ties. The health therefore requires careful management at 
times of change. And what has been said generally as to 
the effect of the seasons applies also in detail ; for changes 
of winds and of age and of locality are to some extent 20 
changes of season. These also therefore intensify and stop 
diseases and bring them to a crisis and engender them, as 

1 i, e. wet or cold. 


do the seasons and the risings of certain constellations, such 
as Orion and Arcturus and the Pleiads and the Dogstar, 1 
since they cause 2 wind and rain and fine weather and 
storms and sunshine. 

25 Why ought emetics to be avoided at the changes of the 4 
seasons ? Is it in order that there may be no disturbance 
when the excretions 3 are being altered by such changes ? 

859 b Why is it that the feet swell both of those who are 5 
bilious and of those who are suffering from starvation ? Is 
it in both cases the effect of wasting ? For those who are 
starving waste because they do not receive any nourishment 
at all, while the bilious waste because they do not derive 
any benefit from the nourishment which they take. 

5 Why it is that, though the diseases due to bile occur 4 in 6 
the summer (the season when fevers are at their height), 
acute diseases due to bile occur rather in the winter ? Is it 
because, being accompanied by fever, they are acute 
because they are violent, and violence is unnatural ? For 
fervent inflammation is set up when certain parts of the body 
] are moist, and inflammation, being due to an excess of heat, 
engenders fevers. In the summer, therefore, diseases are 
dry and hot, but in the winter they are moist and conse 
quently acute (for they soon kill the patient), for concoction 
will not take place because of the abundance of the excre 

15 Why is it that the plague alone among diseases infects 7 
particularly persons who come into contact with those who 
are under treatment for it? Is it because it is the only 
disease to which all men alike are liable, and so the plague 
affects any one who is already in a low state of health ? For 

1 Cp. Hippocr. de aere, &c., II (Gundermann, p. 26, 24 ff.). 

2 The triple repetition of dxr/rep points to some corruption in the 

text, and the clause (ocnrep Tr^fv/zarcov . . . dXeas cannot be translated. 
It is probable that cocr/rep has displaced some such words as airiat 
oucrai ; Theodore Gaza s version (quoted hereafter as T. G.) renders 
qui flatus imbresqiie excitant, qui serenitates frigora teporesve solent 

3 For the various excretions see D A. W. Thompson s note on 

* Reading vocr^/zdrwz (fivrav} eV T-&> 6fpi from T. G. 

BOOK I. 7 859 

they quickly become infected by the inflammatory matter 
caused by the disease which is communicated by the patient. 20 

8 Why is it that, when north winds have been prevalent 
in the winter, if the spring is rainy and characterized by 
south winds the summer is unhealthy with fever and oph 
thalmia? 1 Is it because the summer finds the body full 
of alien humours, and the earth, and any place in which 25 
men dwell, becomes moist and resembles localities which 
are regarded as permanently unhealthy ? The result is 
that, first, ophthalmia occurs when the excretion in the 
region of the head liquefies, and, secondly, fever ensues. 
For it is noticeable that anything which admits of extreme 86o J 
cold also admits of extreme heat, water, for example, and 

a stone, of which the former boils quicker than other things, 
the latter burns more. 2 As, therefore, in the air a stifling 
heat occurs when it grows warm owing to its density, so 
likewise in the body stifling and heat are engendered, and 
heat in the body is fever and in the eyes ophthalmia. 
Generally speaking the change which occurs when a warm, 5 
dry summer follows immediately on a wet spring, being 
violent has a deleterious effect upon the body. The effect 
is still worse if the summer is rainy ; for then the sun finds 
material, which it will cause to boil in the body as in the 
earth and air ; the result is fever and ophthalmia. 10 

9 Why is it that, if the winter is characterized by south 
winds and rainy and if the spring is dry with the wind in 
the north, both the spring and the summer are unhealthy ? 3 
Is it because in the winter owing to the heat and moisture 15 
the body assimilates its condition to that of the season, since 

it must necessarily be moist and relaxed ? When the body 
is in this state, the spring being cool congeals and hardens it 
owing to its dry ness. The result is that women who are 
pregnant run a risk of abortion in the spring because of 

1 This problem is clearly derived from Hippocr. de aere, &c., 
10 ad fin. (Gundermann, p. 26, 14 ff.). 

2 The sense requires TO /neV Vt, 6 fie *aet for 6 \ilv ft, TO 5e aa. This 
is clearly the reading which T. G. renders, fervet etenim ilia, urit hie 

3 The source of this problem is Hippocr. de aere, &c., 10 (Gunder 
mann, p. 22, 25 ff.). 

B 2 


ao the inflammation and mortification caused by the dry cold, 
since the necessary moisture is not secreted, and the foetus 
in the womb becomes weakly and defective owing to the 
excess of cold ; for children who are born at this season in 
fine weather become strong and receive nourishment in 
the womb. In the case of other persons because in the 

25 spring the phlegm is not purged away owing to its excess 
(as happens when the weather is warm), but congeals 
owing to the cold when the summer and warmth succeeds, 
setting up violent liquefaction, humours form in those who 
are bilious and dry because their bodies lack moisture and 
are naturally parched ; but these humours are slight and so 

30 such people suffer from dry ophthalmia. Those on the 
other hand who are phlegmatic are afflicted with sore 
throats and catarrh of the lungs. Women suffer from 
dysentery owing to their natural moisture and cold ; while 
elderly persons are afflicted with apoplexy, when moisture 
being all set free at once overcomes them and solidifies 
owing to the weakness of their natural heat. 

35 Why is it that, when the summer is dry and northerly 10 
winds prevail and the autumn on the contrary is wet and 
characterized by south winds, headaches and sore throats 
and coughs occur in the ensuing winter and then terminate 
86o b in phthisis ? * Is it because the winter finds a considerable 
amount of matter in the body and so it is a difficult task for 
it to solidify the moisture and form phlegm ? 2 Conse 
quently, when moisture is engendered in the head, it causes 
5 a feeling of heaviness, and if it is plenteous and cold, it 
causes mortification ; but if, owing to its abundance, it does 
not solidify, it flows into the nearest region of the body, 3 
and thus coughs are caused and sore throats and wasting. 

But why is it that if the summer and autumn are dry and n 
northerly winds prevail, this weather suits those who are 
10 phlegmatic, and women? 4 Is it because in both cases 

1 This problem is derived from Hippocr. de acre, c., 10 (Gunder- 
mann, p. 24, 29 ff.). 

2 For phlegm see G. A. 725* 15 ff., and A. Platt s note. 

3 i. e. the throat and chest. 

4 This problem is derived from Hippocr. de aere> etc., 10 (Gunder- 
mann, p. 26, 3 ff.). 

BOOK I. ii 86o l 

nature tends to an excess in one direction, and so the 
season exerting its influence in the opposite direction 
establishes an equable temperament, and they are healthy 
at the time, 1 unless they themselves do anything which 
harms them, and, when the winter comes on, they are not 
in a moist condition, ^having heat in them with which to 
resist the cold ? 

12 Why is it that a dry summer and autumn in which 15 
northerly winds prevail is unhealthy for those who are 
bilious ? 2 Is it because their bodily condition and the 
season have the same tendency and it is like adding fire to 
fire ? 3 For the body becoming dry (the freshest 4 element 
in it becoming evaporated) and being overheated, dry 20 
ophthalmia must necessarily ensue owing to solidification; 5 
but because the remaining humours are full of bile and 
these become overheated, acute fevers must ensue caused 
by the bile, which is undiluted, and in some cases madness, 
where black bile is naturally present; for the black bile 
comes to the surface as the contrary humours are dried up. 25 

13 Why do they say that a change of drinking-water is 
unhealthy, but not a change of air ? Is it because water 
becomes nutriment, with the result that it gets into one s 
system and has an effect upon one, which is not the case 
with air ? Further there are many kinds of water differing 7 
intrinsically from one another, but not of air ; this then 30 
may also be a reason. For even when we change our 
place of dwelling we continue to breathe practically the 
same 8 air, but we drink different waters. It is, therefore, 

1 i. e. in the summer and autumn. 

2 This problem is derived from Hippocr. de aere, &c., 10 (Gunder- 
mann, p. 26, 5 if.). 

3 A very common phrase in Aristotle ; see Bonitz, j.z/.,and cp. below, 
86i a 3i, 88o a 2i, &c. 

4 yXvKvs here means sweet or fresh in the sense in which water 
is fresh . 

5 Reading w^n^eis for avvri^fis, the point being that the effect of 
a dry summer and autumn is to reduce the liquid matter in the body. 
T. G. evidently read o-u/xTi^eiy, since he renders dum humor cons umitur. 

6 Reading ^oXcoSeir for ^oAwSes-. T. G. renders residuo quod bilosum 

7 Reading Std^opa with Ap, T. G., and Bekker. 

8 Reading aurw for the misprint aura). 


probably a right opinion that change of drinking-water is 

Why is it that a change of drinking-water is more 14 
35 unhealthy than a change of food ? Is it because we con 
sume more water than anything else ? For water is found 
in farinaceous and other foods and whatever we drink 
consists mainly of water. 

86i a But why is a change of water unhealthy P. 1 Is it because 15 
every change also of season and of age is liable to distur 
bance ? For extremities, such as beginnings and ends, are 
particularly liable to disturbance. So too foods, when they 
5 are different, corrupt one another ; 2 for some have only just 
entered the system, while others have not yet done so. 
Further, just as a varied diet is unhealthy (for the concoc 
tion 3 is then disturbed and not uniform), so those who 
change their drinking-water are using a varied diet in what 
they drink ; and liquid nourishment has more effect than 
dry food because it is greater in bulk and because the 
moisture from the foods themselves forms nourishment. 

10 Why does a change of drinking-water cause an increase 16 
of lice in those who suffer from louse-disease ? 4 Is it because, 
owing to the disturbance set up by the different water 
in those who frequently change their drinking-water, the 
unconcocted state of the liquid causes a moist condition, 
especially in that part where the conditions are suitable ? 

15 Now the brain is moist, and therefore the head is always 
the moistest part of the body (as is shown by the fact that 
hair grows there more than elsewhere),* and it is the 
moisture of this part which generates lice. 6 This is clear 

1 T. G. here renders, Sed cur cibi et aquae mulatto gravis estf 
We should perhaps read Atu rt 17 {rcoi> crmW KOL TOV uSaroy) /j.fra^o\rj 
vocrcofir/s | 

2 The argument, which is somewhat condensed, appears to be as 
follows : It is a mechanical truth that the extremities of anything 
material (e.g. a plank of wood, cp. Meek. 857 a 27, &c.) are most 
liable to movement ; similarly changes of seasons and of a man s age, 
and alterations in diet imply a beginning and an end and are there 
fore more liable to disturbance. 3 Reading <w ^10(17) Treaty (Platt). 

4 For the morbus pedicularis see H. A. 556 b 27ff., and D A. W. 
Thompson s note, and Pliny, N. H. xi. 39. 

5 Cp. H.A. 6s8 b 2. 6 Cp. H.A. 557 b 2. 

BOOK I. 16 86i a 

in the case of children ; for their heads are moist and they 
frequently have either running* at the nose or discharge 
of blood, and persons of this age suffer particularly from 
lice. 1 

17 Why is it that from the rising of the Pleiads until the 20 
west wind blows those who suffer from chronic diseases are 
most likely to die, and the old rather than the young ? Is 

it because two things are fatal to life, excess 2 and cold ? 
For life is heat, whereas this season has both the above 
characteristics, for it is cold, and winter is then at its height, 
the subsequent season being spring. Or is it because those 25 
who suffer from chronic diseases are in a similar con 
dition to the old ? 3 For the occurrence of a long illness 
is like premature old age, since in both the body is dry 
and cold, in the one case owing to the time of life, in 
the other from disease. 4 Now winter and frosts constitute 
an excess of coldness and dryness ; therefore to those who 30 
are in a condition where a very little will turn the scale, 
winter is like fire added to fire and so causes death. 

18 Why is it that in marshy districts sores on the head are 
quickly cured, but those on the legs only with difficulty ? 5 
Is it because the moisture, owing to the fact that it contains 35 
an earthy element, is heavy, and heavy things are carried G 
downwards ? Thus the upper parts of the body are cleared 
out " because the impurities are carried to the lower parts, 
and these become full of excretions which easily putrefy. 

19 Why is it that, when a very dry summer follows after 86i b 
northerly winds have prevailed in the winter and the 
spring has been damp and rainy, the autumn is universally 
fatal, especially to children, while in other people dysentery 
and prolonged quartan fevers occur then ? 8 Is it because, 5 

1 Cp. PL A. 557 b ;. 2 Cp. above, 859*2,3. 

3 Cp. G. A. ;84 b 32. 4 id. 25-7. 

6 This problem occurs again in xiv. 6. 

6 Reading vrro^wpfl . . . vnoKf^coprjKsvai (cp. 909* 38, 39 and Bonitz, 
Arist. Stud, iv, p. 401). 

7 It is doubtful whether e.<Kpira can mean this. The parallel passage 
909* 38 reads cuVs Trra, easily concocted , which should probably be 
restored here. 

8 Cp. Hippocr. tie aere. &c., 10 (Gundermann, p. 22, 18 ff.). 


when there is a moderate amount of rain in the summer, 
the moisture boiling within us, which collected in the damp 
spring", is cooled and becomes quiescent ? If on the other 
hand this does not happen, 1 children, because they are 
moist and hot, are in a state of excessive boiling, because 
they are not cooled ; and anything which does not as it 

10 were 2 boil out in the summer, does so in the autumn. If 
the excretions do not cause death immediately, but settle 
round the lungs and windpipe for they collect first in the 
upper part of the body, because we are warmed by the air, 
for it is owing to this that ophthalmia occurs before fever 
in an unhealthy summer if then, as I have said, the 

15 excretions in the upper parts of the body do not imme 
diately kill the patient, they descend ?> in an unconcocted 
condition into the stomach ; and thus dysentery is caused, 
because the moisture owing to its abundance is not dis 
charged. If the dysentery ceases, quartan fevers arise 
in those patients who survive ; for the sediment of the 
unconcocted moisture remains very persistently in the body 

20 and becomes active, just like black bile. 

Why is it that, if the summer and the autumn have 20 
been rainy and damp, the ensuing winter is unhealthy ? 4 
Is it because the winter finds the body in a very moist 
state, and also the change from great heat is violent and not 

35 gradual, 5 because the autumn as well as the summer has 
been hot, and so acute diseases are caused in some persons, 
if they have no rarity in their bodies (for in such persons 
the moist excretions tend to collect in the upper part of the 
body, because these parts provide room for them, whereas 
the lower parts differ in this respect) ? Those then whose 

3 flesh is solid do not allow of much excretion. When there 
fore the excretion in the upper parts of the body cools (as 
happens in drunken persons when they grow cold), the 
above-mentioned diseases are engendered. On the other 

1 i. e. if there is no rain in the summer. 2 Reading olov for oaov. 

3 The change from the singular dpc A>? to the plural Karapaivovo-i can 
hardly stand and we should read KaTa&aivei. 

4 This problem is derived from Hippocr. dfe aere, &c., lo (Gunder- 
mann, p. 24, 25 ff.). 

5 OVK K Trpoo-dywyfJ? is a very common Hippocratic term. 

BOOK I. 20 86i b 

hand when fevers are set up in persons in whose bodies there 
is more rarity, the fevers caused by a large quantity of 
unconcocted moisture become burning fevers, 1 because in 
such people the humours are distributed more through the 35 
whole body than in solid-fleshed people, and, when the 
flesh is contracted by the winter-cold, the humours being 
heated cause fever. For excessive heat in the whole body 
is fever, and, when it is intensified by the abundance of 862* 
moisture already present there, it turns into a burning 

21 Why is it that when a large amount of vapour is drawn 
out of the earth by the sun, the year is pestilential ? Is it 5 
because it is necessarily a sign that the year is damp and 
rainy and the ground is necessarily damp ? The conditions 
of life will then resemble those under which people live in 
a marshy district, and these are unhealthy. The body must 
then have in it an abundance of excretion and so contain 
unhealthy matter in the summer. 

22 Why is it that those years are unhealthy in which small 10 
toad-like frogs are produced in abundance ? Is it because 
everything flourishes in its natural environment, and these 
frogs are naturally moist and so signify that the year is 
moist and damp ? Now such years are unhealthy ; for then T5 
the body being moist contains abundant excretion, which is 

a cause of diseases. 

23 Why is it that south winds which are dry and do not 
bring rain cause fever ? - Is it because they cause alien 
moisture and heat 3 (for they are naturally moist and hot), 
and this is what causes fever, for it is due to the combined 20 
excess of moisture and heat ? When therefore south winds 
blow without bringing rain, they engender this condition 4 
in us, whereas, when they bring rain with them, the rain 

1 Kavaos is the remittent bilious fever which is epidemic in the 
Levant ; cp. Hippocr. de aere, &c. /. c., Vet. med. 15, Aphor. 1248. 

2 This problem is partly identical with that of Bk. xxvi. 50. The 
source is Theoph. de Ventis, 5. 

3 i. e. in the body. The parallel passage 946** 5 reads 

* i. e. heat and moisture. 


cools us. Now south winds from the sea are also beneficial 
to plants, for they are cooled by the sea before they reach 
25 them ; whereas blight is due to alien moisture and heat. 

Why is it that men feel heavier and weaker when the 24 
wind is in the south ? l Is it because moisture becomes 
abundant instead of scanty, being melted by the heat, and 
moisture, which is heavy, takes the place of breath, which 
30 is light ? Further, our strength is in our joints, and they are 
relaxed by south winds (as is shown by the fact that things 
which have been glued together creak) ; for the viscous 
matter in the joints, if it hardens, prevents us from moving, 
whereas, if it is too moist, it prevents us from exerting 

Why are people more liable to fall ill in the summer, 25 

35 while those who are ill are more liable to die in the winter ? 2 

Is it because in the winter, owing to the fact that the hot 

matter from its density becomes collected within the body 

and we suffer more through the excretions which solidify 

in us, if we cannot concoct them, 3 the commencement of 

the disease must necessarily be violent, and being of this 

862 b character it is likely to prove fatal ? In the summer on the 

other hand, because the whole body is in a state of rarity 

and cool and too much relaxed for great exertion, there 

must necessarily be many commencements of disease owing 

to fatigue and to the fact that we do not concoct all that we 

5 swallow (for summer is the season of fresh fruit) ; but such 

diseases are not so violent, and therefore yield easily to 


Why is it that deaths are particularly likely to occur 26 
during the hundred days following each solstice? Is it 
because in each case the excess of heat or cold extends 
10 over this period, and excess causes disease 4 and death in 
the weakly ? 

1 This problem occurs again in Bk. xxiv. 42 (945* ioff.) 5 where it is 
more briefly treated. The source is Theoph., op. tit.) 56. 
Cp. below, chapter 2 


3 Taking Trovovires as a nominativus penden s and reading (&a) 

Cp. 859*1. 

BOOK I. 27 862 1 

27 Why is it that the spring and the autumn are unhealthy ? 
Is it because changes are unhealthy ? l The autumn is more 
unhealthy than the spring, because we are more apt to 
contract disease when heat turns to cold than when cold 
turns to heat, and it is in spring that cold turns to heat and 15 
in autumn that heat turns to cold. 

28 Why is it that illnesses are rarer in the winter than in 
the summer, but more often fatal ? 2 Is it because illnesses 
arise from slight causes in the summer but not in the winter ? 
For in winter we are in a better condition for concoction 
and at the very height of our health, 3 so that naturally 
illnesses which arise from more serious causes are them- 20 
selves more serious and more likely to prove fatal. We 
see the same thing in athletes and generally amongst 
those who are in a healthy condition ; for they either 
are not afflicted with disease, or, if they are, they rapidly 
succumb, for they only become ill from some serious 

2 g Why is it that in the autumn and winter burning fevers 2 5 
are more likely to occur when the weather is cold, while in 
the summer chills are most troublesome when it is hot ? Is 
it due to the fact that of the humours in man the bile is hot 
and the phlegm cold? As a result, in summer the cold 
matter is set free, and being diffused in the body gives rise 
to chill and shivering ; in the winter, on the other hand, the 3 
hot matter is overpowered by the weather and cooled. 
Burning fevers are more troublesome in the winter and 
autumn, because, owing to the cold, the hot matter collects 
within, and the fever is within and not on the surface ; it is 
natural therefore that burning fevers should occur during 
this part of the year. This can be well illustrated by con- 35 
trasting those who bathe in cold water and those who use 
warm water in the winter ; those who w r ash in cold water, 
though they feel chilled for a short time whilst they are 

1 Cp. 859*9. 

2 The problem of chapter 25 is here rather differently stated and 

3 There is no reason with the Teubner editors to doubt the correct 
ness of the reading here. 


actually washing-, suffer no ill effects from the cold during 

863 a the rest of the day, while those who use hot water continue 

to be less able to resist the cold. For the flesh of those who 

wash in cold water becomes solid, and the hot matter collects 

within ; but the flesh of those who use warm water becomes 

5 rare, and the hot matter is diverted to the outside of the 

body. 1 

In what does the virtue of a poultice consist? Would it, 30 
owing to its dissolvent action, set up perspiration and 
evaporation ? 

How can the presence of an abscess be diagnosed ? Is it 3 1 
true that, if, when hot water is poured over it, a change 
takes place, there is an abscess, but none if there is no 
change ? 

i In what cases ought cauterization to be employed, and in 3 2 
what cases the surgeon s knife ? 2 Is it true that wounds 
which have large openings and do not close up quickly 
ought to be cauterized, so that a scab may form ? If this is 
done, there will be no festering. 

In what does the virtue of a remedy for stanching blood 33 
consist ? Is it because it has a drying effect and stops the 
discharge of excretions without 3 making a scab or causing 
J 5 decay of the flesh? If so, the wound must be free from 
inflammation and likely to heal up. For if there is no dis 
charge, it will be free from inflammation, and being dry it 
will close up ; whereas it will not close up as long as it 
is discharging moisture. Most remedies, therefore, for 
stanching blood are pungent, so as to cause contraction. 

When ought drugs to be employed and not the knife or 34 

20 cauterization ? 4 Ought drugs to be used for the armpits 

and groin ? For sores in these parts are sometimes painful 

and sometimes dangerous after they are cut open. Flat 

growths and those which project considerably and are 

1 Some manuscripts here add a sub-title ocra /So^juara (or 

Ku, or /3o7$?7jLiaTiKa Trpo/SXiy/xara) irpos lacriv. 

2 See below, chapter 34. 

3 The Teubner text omits avtv before 
* Cp. chapter 32 above. 

BOOK I. 34 86a a 

situated in parts which are venous and not fleshy, should 
be cauterized; but those which collect at an acute point 
and are not situated in solid parts of the body should be 
treated with the knife. 

35 Why is it that, if one is cut with a copper instrument, 25 
the wound heals more quickly than if the cut is made with 
iron ? Is it because copper is smoother and so tears the 
flesh and bruises the body less ? Or must we reject this 
explanation, since, if iron takes a better edge, the cleavage 

is easier and less painful ? Yet even so copper has a 
medicinal pow r er of its own, 1 and in all things it is the 
beginning that is important , 2 and so the copper, by its 
immediate action 3 as soon as the cut is made, causes the 3 
wound to close up. 

36 Why is it that burns inflicted by copper heal more quickly 
than others ? Is it because copper contains more rarity and 
is less substantial, and the more solid a thing is the more 
heat it contains ? 

37 Is barley-gruel lighter and better for use in sickness than 
that made from wheat ? For the latter commends itself to 35 
some people who argue from the fact that amongst bakers 863 b 
those who handle wheaten flour have a much better colour 
than those who employ barley meal, 4 and furthermore that 
barley is moister and that which is moister requires 5 more 
concoction. But is there any reason why barley should not 
have some qualities which make it more difficult of con 
coction and others which make it more serviceable because 

of its lightness ? For barley is not only moister than wheat, 5 

1 Cp. 89o a 2; and Mir. Ausc. 834** 30, where flower of copper is 
said to be prescribed for the eyes. For the preference of bronze or 
copper over iron in antiquity, see Dr. R. Caton in J. H. S. xxxiv. 
(1914), p. 114, who quotes the scholiast on Theocr. ii. 36. 

2 Here the proverbial peyia-Tov apxn iravros (cp. Soph. EL i83 b 22, 
E.N. I098 b 7, c.) is used to emphasize the importance of the 
immediate application of the remedy, which is here supplied by the 
copper of the surgical instrument. 

3 Reading as suggested by Bekker TW ovv evdvs. 

4 Cp. Bk. xxi. 24, and xxxviii. 10. 

5 Ruelle s irXeovos (ouV^s) does not give the required sense. T. G. 
renders concoctionem desiderat plentorem, and Sylburg s 

or something similar must be read. 


but it is also colder, and porridge and any other food which 
is served to one who is in a fever ought to be such that it 
will provide him with a little nourishment and also cool 
him. Now barley-gruel has these qualities ; for, because it 
is moist rather than substantial, it gives nourishment which 
10 is small in bulk and at the same time has a cooling effect. 

Why do purslane and salt stop inflammation of the 38 
gums ? l Is it because purslane contains some moisture ? 
This is seen if one chews it or if it is crushed together 2 for 
some time ; for the moisture is then drawn out of it. This 
glutinous matter sinks into the gum and drives out the 
acidity. For that there is an affinity between the disease 
15 and the remedy is shown by the acidity ; for the juice of 
purslane has a certain acidity. Salt on the other hand 
dissolves and draws out the acidity. Why then do lye and 
soda not have this effect ? Is it because they have an 
astringent instead of a dissolvent action ? 

Why is it that fatigue must be cured in summer by baths, 39 
20 in winter by anointing ? 3 Is anointing employed in the 
latter case because of the cold and the changes which it 
causes in the body ? For the fatigue must be got rid of by 
heat which will warm the body, and olive-oil contains heat. 
In summer, on the other hand, the body requires moisture, 
because the season is then dry and chills are not to be 
feared, because the natural inclination is towards heat. 
A sparing diet of solid food and a liberal indulgence in 
35 liquid nourishment are appropriate to the summer, the 
latter being peculiar to summer, while the former is com 
moner then than at other seasons ; for indulgence in drinking 
is peculiar to the summer because of the dryness of the 
season, but a sparing diet is found at all seasons but is more 

1 This problem is repeated in Bk. vi. 9 (887 b I ff.). m/i8ia is 
generally applied to a scorbutic affection of the gums, swelling of the 
gums being one of the symptoms of scurvy ; this can hardly be the 
meaning here, since salt would be the last thing to prescribe for 

2 The parallel passage (887 b 3) reads a-wTc6jj for awdXaadfj. The 
latter gives better sense and should be read in both passages. 

3 The same problem is treated in almost identical words in Bk. v. 
38 ; cp. Theophr. de Lassit., 17. 

BOOK I. 39 863* 

general in the summer ; for then, owing" to the weather, heat 
is engendered by food. 

40 Why do some drugs relax the stomach and not the 
bladder, others the bladder and not the stomach ? Is it 30 
true that anything which is naturally moist and full of 
water, if it has medicinal properties, relaxes the bladder? 
For it is there that the unconcocted moisture settles ; for 
the bladder is a receptacle for any moisture which is not 
concocted in the stomach ; and such moisture does not 
remain there, but passes away without undergoing or 
causing any change. But anything which partakes of the 35 
nature of earth, if it has medicinal properties, relaxes the 864* 
stomach ; for it is to the stomach that anything of an earthy 
nature is carried, so that, if it has any motive power, it 
causes a disturbance in the stomach. 

41 Why is it that some things affect the upper part of the 
stomach, hellebore for example, others the lower part, for 
instance scammony, 1 while others like elaterium 2 and the 5 
juice of thapsia 3 affect both parts ? Is it because some of 
the drugs which affect the stomach are hot and others cold, 
so that some of them, owing to their heat, as soon as they 
reach the upper part of the stomach are carried thence to 
the upper region of the body, 4 melting in particular 5 any 
thing there G which is most alien to them and least substan 
tial ; and if the drug be powerful or has been administered 10 
in a dose stronger than nature can withstand, it carries these 
liquefactions 7 and any excretions that there may be down 
into the upper part of the stomach, and by its heat stirring 
up the breath, which it engenders in great quantity, checks 

1 A species of convolvulus found in Asia yielding a resinous gum. 

2 A drug deriving its name from its medicinal qualities (Hippocr. 
Acut. 383) ; according to Pliny (N.H. xx. I. 3) it was prepared from 
the wild cucumber. Cp. also Celsus, 5, 12 ; 6, 5. 

3 The Thapsia Asdepium of Linnaeus ; in large doses it was a 
violent poison and was so used by Nero (Pliny, N.H. xiii. 22. 43) ; 
cp. also Theoph. H. P. ix. 9. i . 

4 Cp. H.A. 494*27. 

5 If the text is sound, /iaXtora p.fv is here used without any corre 
sponding e. 

6 Reading TaKfWtv (W. D. R.) for KaKeWev. 

7 rnvra, i. e. TO. aXXorpicorara KOI fjKKTTa 


their progress and causes vomiting ? Drugs of a cold nature, 
15 on the other hand, owing to their weight are carried down 
wards before undergoing or causing any change and, borne 
thence, have the same action as those which affect the upper 
part of the body ; for passing thence l upwards through the 
ducts and setting in motion any excretions or liquefactions 
over which they prevail, they carry them with them in the 
same direction. 2 Drugs which partake of both these kinds 
20 and are a mixture of hot and cold, possessing both qualities, 
have both these effects, and are the composite drugs which 
doctors now make up. 

Why is it that drugs have a purgative effect, while other 42 
things, though they surpass them in bitterness and astrin- 
gency and other such qualities, do not have this effect ? Is it 

25 because the purgative effect is not due to these qualities but 
to the fact that they are unconcocted ? For anything which, 
though small in bulk, owing to its excessive heat or cold is 
unconcocted and of such a nature as to overcome, and not 
be overcome by, animal heat, if it is easily dissolved in 

30 the two stomachs, is a drug. For when such drugs enter 
the stomach and become dissolved, they are carried into the 
vein by the ducts through which the food passes, and, not 
being concocted but themselves prevailing, they make their 
way out, carrying with them anything which gets in their 
way; and this is called purging. Copper and silver and 

35 the like, although they are not concocted by animal heat, 
are not easily dissolved in the stomach. 3 Oil and honey 
864 b and milk and other such foods have a purgative effect ; but 
this depends, not on any quality which they possess, but on 
quantity ; for, if they act as a purge, they only do so when 
they are unconcocted owing to their quantity. For things 
can be unconcocted for two reasons, either because of their 
quality or because of their quantity. So none of the above- 

5 mentioned foods are drugs, because they do not purge owing 
to their quality. Astringency and bitterness and unpleasant 
odour are characteristic of drugs, because a drug is the 

1 i. e. from the lower part of the stomach. 

2 i. e. cause vomiting, like the drugs which are of a hot nature. 

3 And therefore do not act as drugs. 

BOOK I. 42 864 1 

opposite of a food ; for that which is concocted by a natural 
process amalgamates with the body and is called a food ; 
but that whose nature it is to refuse to be overcome l and 
which enters into the veins and causes disturbance there 10 
owing to its excess of heat or cold, this is of the nature of 
a drug. 

1-3 Why is it that pepper if taken in large quantities relaxes 
the bladder, but if taken in small quantities affects the 
stomach, whereas scammony 2 if taken in large quantities 
relaxes the stomach, but if taken in small quantities and 
when it is old affects the bladder ? Is it because each has 
more effect on one part of the body ? For pepper promotes 15 
urine, while scammony is purgative. Pepper therefore if 
taken in large quantities is carried into the bladder and 
does not dissolve in the stomach, but if taken in small 
quantities it is overcome and relaxes the stomach and acts 
upon it as a drug. Scammony, on the other hand, if it is 
taken in large quantities, is overcome to such an extent that 20 
it is dissolved, and being dissolved it becomes a drug for 
the reason mentioned above ; 3 but, if it is taken in small 
quantities, it is swallowed with what is drunk and passes 
into the ducts and is quickly carried into the bladder before 
it can cause any disturbance, and there by its own force it 
carries off all the excretions and liquefactions which are on 
the surface. When it is taken in large quantities, as has 25 
already been remarked, owing to its strength it remains a 
long time in the stomach and effects an extensive purgation 
of the earthy element. 4 

44 Why do some cure by cooling the same inflammations 
which others bring to a head by heating them ? Surely it 

is because the latter collect the inflammation by applying 30 
external heat, the former by cooling the heat already 
present in the body. 

45 Why is it necessary to change poultices ? Is it in order 
that 5 they may be more felt ? For as, in things which we 

1 i. e. which is not subject to the process of concoction. 

2 See note on 864 a 4. 3 Cp. ib. 29, 30. 

4 Cp. 863 b 35-864* 2. 5 Reading oVco?, with Richards, for on <W. 


eat, that to which we have grown accustomed no longer 
35 acts as a drug but becomes a food, so poultices lose their 

Why does it promote health to reduce one s diet and 46 
865* increase one s exercise ? Is it because an excess of excretion 
causes disease, and this occurs when we take too much 
nourishment or too little exercise ? 

Why is it that drugs, and bitter and evil-smelling sub- 47 
stances generally, have a purgative effect? 1 Is it because 
5 anything which is evil-smelling and bitter does not admit of 
concoction ? Drugs therefore are bitter and evil-smelling ; 
for they are drugs because, in addition to being bitter, they 
do not admit of concoction and can cause motion ; and 
if they are administered in too large doses, they are destruc 
tive of life. But substances which are destructive of life 
even if given in small quantities are not drugs but deadly 
poisons. Nor again do we give the name of drugs to those 

TO substances which are not purgative through their natural 
qualities ; for indeed many foods have the effect of drugs, 
if taken in sufficient quantity milk, for example, and 
olive oil 2 and unfermented wine ; all these things, because 
they are not easily concocted, have a purgative effect on 
those by whom they are not easily concocted. 3 For 
different things are easy or difficult of concoction to 
different people ; and so the same things do not act upon 

15 every one as drugs, but particular things act upon certain 
people. For, generally speaking, a drug ought not only to 
be difficult of concoction, but also ought to have the power 
to produce movement ; just as also exercises, whether 
external or internal, expel alien matter. 

Why is it that sweet-smelling seeds or plants promote 48 
the flow of urine ? 4 Is it because they contain heat and are 

1 This chapter is largely a repetition of chapter 42 in a slightly 
different form. 

2 Cp. above, 864 a 36. 

3 Kadnipfi Ktu Tovrois and Kadaipei KCU TOVTOVS are obviously variants 
both of which have come into the text. The next sentence shows that 
we should read diet TO /JLTJ dvai euVeTrro, ois ^r] eiirreTTTa Kadaipei Kal TOVTOVS. 

* This problem with several additional lines is repeated in xii. 12 
and xx. 16; the shorter version here given does not complete the 

BOOK I. 48 86s a 

easily concocted, and such things have this effect ? For the 20 
heat in them causes quick digestion, 1 and their odour has 
no corporeal existence ; for even strong-smelling 2 plants, 
such as garlic, promote the flow of urine owing to their 
heat, though their wasting effect is a still more marked 
characteristic ; but sweet-smelling seeds contain heat. 

49 Why is it that unclean and foul sores require to be 25 
treated with dry, pungent, and astringent drugs, while 
clean, healthy sores require moist, porous 3 remedies ? Is it 
because something must be drawn out from unclean sores, 
and it is foreign moisture which must be extracted ? Now 
biting, pungent, and astringent substances have this effect, 
and the dry rather than the moist. Clean sores, on the 30 
other hand, only require to skin over. 

50 Why is it that sexual excess is beneficial to diseases 
caused by phlegm ? 4 Is it because the semen is the secre 
tion of an excrement and in its nature resembles phlegm, 
and so sexual intercourse is beneficial because it draws off 
a quantity of phlegm-like matter ? 

Is it better to give the patient nourishment at first or 35 
later? 5 Ought nourishment to be given at the beginning, 
so that the inflammation, when it sets in, may not find the 
patient already weak ? Or ought the patient to be reduced 
at once ? Or ought the following to be the treatment, 
namely, that the patient should first take nourishment in 
the form of draughts, since food of this kind is milder and 865** 
more readily swallowed and dissolved, and it is easier for 
a sick person to receive nourishment from this sort of 
food ? For where G the food has first to be acted upon in 

sense, and the additional matter (9O7 b 9-12, 92^23-6) should 
probably be restored here. 

1 AeTTTiWt is here apparently used in its technical medical sense of 
digest , cp. Hippocr. Vet. Med. 16. 

2 The parallel passages 9o; b 7 and 924** 21 read here ra p) ev^drj for 

TU ocrjucodr;. 

3 Reading navols (Monro) for /uni/ocr. 

4 Cp. iv. 1 6. ra should be read for the misprint TO of the Teubner 

5 Apparently a new problem begins with this question. 

6 Reading ov (Bussemaker) for ov. 

C 2 


the stomach, namely, both dissolved and heated these 
5 processes cause pain to the body. 

Why is it that, in order to examine urine to see if it is 5 1 
concocted, one must stop the flow of urine rather than 
continue to pass it ? Is it because it is a sign of concoction 
if it is reddish in colour, and this is better detected if 
the flow is stopped? Or is it because anything that is 

10 liquid forms as it were a better mirror of its colour in 
a small than in a large quantity ? For form is better 
discerned in a large quantity, but colour in a small quantity, 
in dew, for example, and drops of rain and tears on the 
eyelids. If urine, therefore, is allowed to flow it becomes 

15 greater in quantity, but, if it is checked, it takes on colour 1 
more readily ; and so if it has already taken on this character 2 
by concoction, this can be better observed if the flow of 
urine is stopped and light thus refracted and a mirror 

Why should the flesh be made rare rather than dense in 52 
order to promote health ? 3 For just as a city or locality is 
healthy which is open to the breezes (and this is why the 

20 sea too is healthy), so a body is healthier in which the air can 
circulate. For either there ought to be no excrement present 
in the body or else the body ought to get rid of it as soon 
as possible and ought always to be in such a condition that 
it can reject the excrement as soon as it receives it, and be 
in a state of motion and never at rest. For that which 

25 remains stationary putrefies (standing water, for example), 
and that which putrefies causes disease ; but that which is 
rejected passes away before it becomes corrupt. This then 
does not occur if the flesh is dense, the ducts being as it 
were blocked up, but it does happen if the flesh is rare. 
One ought not therefore to walk naked in the sun ; for the 
flesh thereby solidifies and acquires an absolutely fleshy 

30 consistency, and the body becomes moister ; for the internal 
moisture remains, but the surface moisture is expelled, 

1 sc. TCI xpco/xnra as the object 

2 Reading with Bekker avro 

3 This problem is repeated in v. 34 and is identical with the second 
part of xxxvii. 3. on must be emended to dia ri. Cp. 884*26. 

BOOK I. 52 86s b 

a process which also takes place in meat when it is roasted 
rather than boiled. Nor ought one to walk about with the 
chest bare ; for then the sun draws the moisture out of the 
best constructed parts of the body, which least of all require 
to be deprived of it. It is rather the inner parts of the 
body which should be submitted to this process ; because 35 
they are remote, it is impossible to produce perspiration 
from them except by violent effort, but it is easy to produce 
it from the chest because it is near the surface. 

53 Why is it that both cold and hot water are beneficial to 
chilblains ? Is it because chilblains are caused by an excess 866 
of moisture ? If so, the cold water thickens and hardens 

the moisture, while the hot water causes it to evaporate and 
enables the vapour to escape by rarefying the flesh. 

54 Why is it that cold both causes and stops chilblains, and 5 
heat both causes and stops burns ? Is the cause the same 
in both cases, namely, that they cause them by setting up 
liquefaction and stop them by drying them up ? 

55 In fevers liquid nourishment ought to be administered 
often and in small quantities. 1 For a large quantity flows 
away and is wasted, but a small quantity taken frequently 10 
sinks in and penetrates into the flesh. For as the rain, if it 
comes down upon the earth in torrents, runs to waste, but, 

if it comes down in small quantities, merely moistens the 
ground ; 2 so the same thing occurs in fever patients. In 
irrigation, if the water is allowed to flow gradually, the 
channel sucks it up ; whereas, if the same amount of water 
is allowed to flow all at once, it makes its way wherever it 15 
is directed. 

Next the patient ought to lie as still as possible, because 
fire also obviously dies down if one does not stir it. And 
he ought not to lie in a draught, because the wind stirs up 
the fire, and, being fanned, it becomes great instead of 
small. For this reason the patient ought to be well 

1 This and the following chapter are not, strictly speaking, problems, 
but descriptions of treatment. They were apparently extracted from 
some medical treatise with a view to being put into the form of 
problems, and this purpose was for some reason never carried out. 

2 Placing a comma after povov. 


wrapped up, 1 because fire is extinguished if it is not 
20 allowed to draw in air ; and the garments ought not to be 
removed until damp heat is present, for the fire if exposed 
to the air dries up the moisture just as happens also in 
nature. 2 

In the case of intermittent fevers one must make prepara 
tions beforehand by washing 3 the patient and applying 
2 5 fomentations to his feet, and he must rest well wrapped up, 
in order that there may be as much heat as possible in him 
before the attack begins. For a flame will not be able to 
burn where there is a great fire ; for the great fire will 
absorb the little fire. Consequently a great fire must be 
prepared beforehand in the body ; for fever has but little 
3 fire in it, and so the great fire will absorb the little fire. 

In quartan fevers 4 the patient must not be allowed to get 55 
thin, and heat must be introduced and engendered in his 
body. Exercises must also be employed. On the day on 
which the attack is expected he must bathe himself and 
avoid sleep. A heating diet is beneficial, because a quartan 
35 fever is weak ; for if it were not so, it would not occur only 
every fourth day. For, mark you, where there is a great 
fire, a flame cannot burn ; for the great fire attracts and 
866 b absorbs the little fire. For this reason it is necessary to 
engender great heat in the body, because fever has but 
little fire in it. The daily treatment consists in introducing 5 
at one time heat and at another time moisture into the 
body. Some diseases are caused by heat, others by mois 
ture ; those which are caused by heat are cured by moisture, 
5 and those which are due to moisture are cured by heat, for 
heat dries up moisture. 

1 Reading with Bonitz TrepiorfXXe oA) for TreptoreXXecr&a, cp. Kara- 
KeiaQd) 1. 15) (iTToyvp-vovcrda) 1. 21. 

2 i. e. it is always the nature of fire to dry up moisture. 

3 Reading e/cXouoi/ra with the majority of MSS., cp. below, 1. 33. 
There should be no comma after e/cXouovra. 

4 This chapter is clearly another version of the last part of the 
previous chapter (11. 23-30 above). 

5 It appears necessary to read da-ayttv for 

866 1 



1 WHY is it that perspiration is caused neither when the 
breath is expanded nor when it is held in, but rather when TO 
it is relaxed P 1 Is it because, when it is held in, the breath 
fills out the veins and so does not allow the perspiration to 
escape, just as the water in a water clock cannot escape if 
you turn it off when the clock is full? 2 But when the 
perspiration does come out, it does so in great abundance, 
because it has gradually collected during the actual period 3 
that it has been checked. 

2 Why is it that the parts of the body that are immersed in 15 
hot water do not perspire, even though they are themselves 
hot ? 4 Is it because the water prevents liquefaction, while 
perspiration is formed when matter which is not properly 
attached to the flesh 5 is expelled by heat ? 

3 Why is perspiration salty ? G Is it because it is caused 
by movement and heat which rejects any foreign matter in 20 
the process by which nourishment passes into blood and 
flesh ? For such matter quickly separates, because it has 
no affinity with the body, and evaporates externally. It is 
salty because the sweetest and lightest part of the food is 
taken up by the body, while the unsuitable and unconcocted 
part is discharged. This when it is excreted below is 25 
called urine, in the flesh it is sweat ; both of these are salty 
for the same reason. 

1 This problem is derived from Theoph. de Sud. 25, 26. 

2 This comparison with the water clock was originally made by 
Empedocles; cp. de Respir. 473 b 1-474*5. 

:! Reading aurjy (T??) eViXij^ia (Bussemaker). 

4 Cp. Theoph., op. tit. 30. This problem is cited by Athenaeus 
(i. 44) as from the Physical Problems of Aristotle. 

5 Omitting with C a Y a 6 /cco/Xtiei ri?K6o-d<u ; this omission is supported 
by Theoph., /. <;., 6 Se tSpob? rij^is TLS e ori TO>I> olov KU 

rat? crapti> orav eKKpivrjrai ia TO 

6 From Theoph., op. cit. 2, 3. 


Why is it that the upper parts of the body perspire 4 
more freely than the lower? 1 Is it because heat rises 
upwards and remains there, and this carries the moisture 
30 upwards ? Or is it because breath causes sweat, and the 
breath is in the upper parts of the body ? Or is it because 
sweat is unconcocted moisture, and such moisture resides in 
the upper parts because the process of its composition takes 
place there ? 

Why is it that sweat is produced most copiously if we 5 
exercise the arms while we keep the other parts of the 
body in the same position ? 2 Is it because we have most 
35 strength in this region of the body ? For it is in this 
region, which is nearest to the strongest part of us, that we 
hold our breath ; and we gain strength by violent exertion, 
and, having gained strength, we can hold the breath more 
867 a easily. Furthermore, we feel the effect of friction more 
in the arm 3 than when any other part of the body is 
rubbed ; for it is by holding the breath that we get exer 
cise, both when we are rubbed and when we rub. 

Why is it that sweat given off from the head either has 6 
no odour or less than that from the body? 4 Is it because 
5 air circulates freely in the region of the head ? That the head 
possesses rarity is shown by the fact that it produces hair. 
And it is those regions of the body and the substances of 
which they are composed through which the air does not 
circulate that are malodorous. 5 

Why is it that those who take athletic exercise, if they 7 
wrestle after a period of rest, perspire more freely than if 
10 they wrestle continuously ? 6 Is it because the sweat collects 
while they are resting, and then the wrestling afterwards 
brings out this sweat ? Continuous exercise, on the other 
hand, dries up the sweat, just as does the heat of the sun. 

1 From Theoph., op. cit. 24, somewhat amplified. 

2 This chapter is Theoph., op. cit. 34, cast in problem form. 

3 sc. xpi, which is inserted by Theoph., /. c. 

4 This chapter is an almost verbal transcription of Theoph., op cit. 
9, in problem form. 

5 Cp. 908* 20 ff. 

6 This problem is derived from Theoph., op. cit. 31. 

BOOK II. 8 867 a 

8 Why is it that one sweats more freely if one has not for 
a long- time employed means to induce perspiration P 1 Is it 
because sweat is not caused by moisture alone, but is also 
due to the fact that the pores are opened wider and the 
body becomes porous ? In those, therefore, who take no 15 
measures to induce perspiration the pores become closed 
up, whereas if they do take such measures the pores are 
kept open. 

9 Why is it that, although the sun warms those who are 
naked more than those who are clothed, the latter perspire 
more freely ? 2 Is it because the sun by burning causes the 20 
pores to close up ? Or is it because it dries up the 
moisture ? These processes are less likely to happen in 
those who are clothed. 

10 Why is it that the face gives off the most perspiration ? 3 
Is it because the sweat can find a way out through 4 parts 
which are particularly porous and moist ? Now the head 25 
seems to be the source of moisture, and it is owing to the 
presence of copious moisture that the hair grows ; and the 
region of the head is rare and porous, and so the sweat 
naturally finds a way out. 

11 Why is it that one perspires most freely, not when the 
heat is applied all at once or when it is gradually diminished, 
but when it is gradually increased ? 5 For those who are in 
vapour baths perspire under these conditions more freely 
than if all the heat be applied at once. Is it because it is 30 
the presence of anything in proper proportions which 
produces each required effect, and so, if it produces this 
effect, its presence in greater quantity will not produce 

a greater effect, or will rather produce the contrary effect, 
for it is because a thing is proportionate 6 that it produces 
a certain effect ? For this reason then increased perspiration 

1 The source of this problem is Theoph., op. cit. 22. 

2 Cp. Hippocr. de acre, c. 8 (Gundermann, pp. 15, 30 ff.). 

3 From Theoph., op. cit. 33 ; cp. below, chapter 17. 

4 Omitting Se after dui (W.D.R). 

5 Compare below, chapter 32 ; the source of both these problems is 
Theoph., op. cit. 28, somewhat amplified. 

6 Omitting TO after ro> with most MSS. 


is not induced as the result of greater heat ; but because to 
each increment of heat there answers a different proportion, 
35 and that which has already produced its effect produces no 
greater effect, increased perspiration is rather the result 
of successive additions of heat. For it is not the same 
cause which prepares the way and creates a favourable 
condition for a series of effects and then begins to produce 
the effect, but a different cause. So a small quantity of 
heat prepares the way and predisposes the body to perspire 
867 b better than a large quantity ; but another and a greater 
proportion is required actually to produce the perspiration, 
but this does not continue to produce the effect which it 
originally produced, but must be followed by another 
application of heat different again in its proportions. 1 

Why does the sweat flow more freely if a scraper be 12 

used than if it be allowed to remain on the body ? Is it 

5 because the presence of external sweat induces cooling ? Or 

is it because the external sweat forms as it were a lid over the 

pores and so prevents the movement of the internal sweat ? 

Why is it that rue and certain unguents give the per- 13 
spiration an evil odour ? 2 Is it because things which 
10 have a heavy scent, mixing with the excretory fluids, make 
the odour of these still more unpleasant ? 

Why do we perspire more on the back than on the front 14 
of the body ? 3 Is it because in the front of the body there 
is an interior region into which the moisture is drained, but 
this is not the case with the back, but there the excretion of 

15 moisture must be external ? (It is for the same reason that 
we perspire less on the stomach than on the chest.) A further 
reason is the fact that the back and hinder parts hold the 
perspiration more than the front, because the latter become 
more cooled than the former. (This is the reason too why 

20 the armpits perspire most readily and freely ; for they are 
least subject to cooling.) Further, the regions about the 
back are fleshier than those in front and therefore moister ; 

1 Reading rfj <ru/u/weTpi a for rrjs (rvfj-^frpias. 

2 Cp. Theoph., op. cit., 10. This problem occurs again in xx. 33. 

3 Cp. Theoph., op. tit., 32. 

BOOK II. 14 867 b 

and there is more moisture in the hinder parts, because the 
marrow in the spine causes considerable humidity. 

15 Why is it that we do not perspire in those parts of the 25 
body on which we are lying- ? Is it because the area with 
which we come into contact with anything is hot and there 
fore prevents the perspiration from passing forth, for it 
dries it up ? Furthermore it is compressed, and pressure 
causes the blood to disperse, and, when this happens, the 
part tends to become cool. This can be illustrated from 
numbness, which is a condition due to cooling and is caused 3 
by pressure or by a blow. 

16 Why do those who are asleep perspire more freely ? ] 
Is it due to the heat being driven inwards ? 2 For the heat 
collects ;>J inside and expels the moisture. 

17 Why is it that one perspires most freely on the face, 
though it is far from being fleshy ? 4 Is it because parts 35 
which are rather moist and rare perspire freely, and the 
head has these characteristics ? For it possesses an abun 
dance of natural moisture ; this is shown by the veins which 
extend from it and the discharges which it produces and 
the brain -fluid and the numerous pores. That there are 
numerous pores extending outwards is shown by the 
presence of the hair. The perspiration then comes not from 868 a 
the lower parts of the body but from the head ; and so one 
perspires most readily and freely on the forehead, for it is 

the first thing below the top of the head, and moisture flows 
down and not up. 

18 Why is it that those who are perspiring are apt to vomit 5 
if they are cooled either by water or by air ? 5 Is it because 

1 This problem is more fully dealt with in chapter 28 ; the source 
in both cases is Theoph., op. tit. 40. 

2 The doctrine of afriTrepurrao-is of heat and cold is very common in 
the Problems-, cp. 875*11, 888*35, 906*15, &c. It is a favourite 
doctrine of Theophrastus ; cp. cans. pi. i. 12, 3; ii. 9, 8 ; vi. 7, 8; 
de Igne, 74, &c. For di/riTrepiVracrt? in sleep cp. de Somtio 457 b 2 and 
Professor Beare s note. 

3 i. e. collects internally because it is driven inward by the external 
cooling which takes place in sleep. 

4 This problem is repeated verbally in xxvi. 2 ; cp. also above, 
chapter 10 and note. 

6 The source of this problem is Theoph., op. cit,, 38. 


the moisture when cooled ceases to move and collects 
together, whereas before it was not at rest because it was 
in a state of flux ? Or is it because the breath which turns 
into perspiration by being cooled as it passes out, being 
cooled internally before passing out turns into moisture and 
attacking the body l causes vomiting ? 

10 Why is it that sweat is given off from the head and feet 19 
of those who are heated more freely than from any other 
part of the body ? Is it because the part which is heated 
attracts the moisture to itself, and the moisture has nowhere 
where it can expend itself in these regions of the body, 
because they are bony, and therefore it finds its way out ? 

15 Why do those who exert themselves perspire when they 20 
cease to exert themselves ? 2 For since the exertion is the 
cause, they ought to perspire while they are exerting them 
selves. Is it because during their exertion the veins, being 
inflated with breath, cause the pores to close up, whereas, 
when they stop, the veins contract, and so the pores become 

2 o wider and the moisture finds an easier outlet? Or is it 
because during the exertion the motion expels air from the 
solidified moisture and, owing to the heat caused by the 
motion, the moisture becomes breath on the surface of the 
body ; while on the other hand, when the exertion ceases, 
the heat also stops at the same time, and then the moisture, 
which we call perspiration, is generated from the condensa- 

25 tion of the breath ? 

Is it more necessary to induce perspiration in the summer 21 
or in the winter ? ;i Is it not more necessary to do so at 
a time when, unless care be taken, the body would become 
too moist and in a dangerous condition ? If so, it would be 
more necessary to perspire in the summer, 4 when a violent 

1 We should perhaps read from Theoph., /. c., Trpoo-Treo-o^ ( 


2 Reading with Bekker orav navo-wrcu. The same subject is treated 
in chapter 23 ; the source of both chapters is Theoph., op. cit., 25, 26. 

3 The same subject is treated in chapter 33 ; see next note. 

4 Chapter 33 shows that perspiration is less necessary in the winter, 
because concoction then goes on naturally in the body, and this is also 
stated in 1.31 of the present problem. It therefore appears necessary 
to read titpovs here 

BOOK II. 21 868 a 

change takes place in the body and the excretions are not 
thoroughly concocted. Again in the winter, since the body 30 
is cool, it is also unnatural to perspire. It is clearly, 
therefore, more necessary to induce perspiration in the 
summer; for moisture of all kinds is then more apt to 
putrefy and should therefore be drawn off. This was the 
opinion of all the ancients and for the above reason. 

22 Why is it that, although the body is in a state of continual 35 
flux, and effluvia are given off from the excrements, the body 

is only lightened if it perspires ? l Is it because the excre 
tion in the form of effluvia is too little ? For when liquid is 
transformed into air, much air is formed out of little liquid ; 
for what is excreted in liquid form is more abundant. 868 b 
The process of excretion, therefore, takes longer to begin, 
both for the above reason 2 and because the excretion takes 
place through smaller pores. Further, the viscous and 
adhesive matter is expelled with the moisture, because it 
mingles with it, but it cannot be expelled with the breath ; 5 
and it is this thick matter in particular that causes pain. 
Therefore also vomiting lightens the body more than sweat 
ing, because that which is vomited, being thicker and more 
substantial, carries away this viscous matter with it. Or is 
there a further reason, namely, that 3 the region in which 
the viscous and the adhesive matter is, is situated at a distance 
in relation to the flesh (and so it is difficult to make it change 
its position), but near the stomach ? For it is engendered 
either in or close to it ; and therefore it is difficult to get rid 10 
of it in any other way. 4 

23 Why is it that one perspires less during actual exertion 
than when one ceases ? r> Is it because while one is exerting 
oneself one is engendering perspiration, but the process of 
engendering it is only complete when the exertion is ended ? 
This then is naturally the time when it is expelled from the 
body in greater quantities ; for during exertion it is coming 
into being, but, when the exertion is finished, it actually 

1 This problem is almost verbally repeated in xxxvii. I and 2. 

2 i. e. because the moisture is more abundant. 

3 Reading r) KOI on, cp. 965 b 31. 

4 i. e. except through the bowels. 5 Cp. above, chapter 20, 


15 exists. Or is it because during- exertion the pores of the 
flesh are closed, because the breath is held, but when the 
pressure of the breath is relaxed the pores open again ? 
Consequently one perspires less when one is holding the 

Why is it that perspiration is more copious not when one 24 
is running and the body is in motion, but when one stops ? l 

20 Is it because the same thing happens as when flowing water 
is checked by the hand or by some other means and collects 
from every direction, and, when it is released, flows in 
greater volume than before ; so perspiration can be stopped 
by the breath like water in a water clock and also in the 
bladder, which keeps the moisture within. So too, while 

25 there is considerable movement, the breath is cut off inside 
the body, and so the veins are distended, the moisture being 
unable to find its way out. The moisture then, being cut 
off, collects, and when the breath is relaxed comes all out 
at once. 

Why is it that, when one is drinking, one perspires less 25 
if one eats something as well ? Is it because the food sucks 
3 o up the moisture, as though a sponge were applied, and, just 
as a stream can be stopped by blocking up its channels, so 
by stopping 2 the pores through administering food it is 
possible to a large extent to prevent the flowing of moisture ? 

Why is that the feet of those who are nervous perspire 26 

35 and not the face ? 3 For it would be more natural that the 

feet should perspire only when the whole body perspires ; 

for the feet are the coldest region of the body and therefore 

least liable to perspire. Also in sickness physicians order 

the feet in particular to be wrapped up, because they are 

especially susceptible to cold and so readily give rise to 

86g a cold in the rest of the body also. Is it because nervousness 

does not cause a displacement of heat such as takes place 

from the upper to the lower parts of the body under the 

1 This problem is derived from Theoph., op. cif., 29. 

2 Putting a comma after pevpaan and reading rw eVi/\a/3e7i/. 

3 The source of this problem and chapter 31 is Theoph., op. cit,, 36. 

BOOK II. 26 869* 

influence of fear 1 (hence the relaxation of the bowels in 
those who are alarmed). but an increase of heat 2 such as 
is caused by anger ? For anger causes the heat round the 5 
heart to boil up ; and one who is nervous is affected not by 
fear or cold, but by an increase of heat. 3 

27 How is it that one can become red in the face without 
perspiring ? 4 Is it due to excessive warmth which results 
in the heat on the surface drying up the moisture in the 
face, whilst it liquefies the moisture in the feet because, 10 
though less than the heat on the surface, it is more 
powerful than the natural heat already existent in the feet? 

28 Why is it that we perspire more when asleep than when 
awake ? :> Is it because perspiration originates internally, 
and the interior parts of the body are hotter, and so the 
internal heat melts and expels the internal moisture? Or 15 
is it because in all probability there is always something 
given off from the body, but it is not apparent because 
there is nothing with which it can come into contact and by 
which its escape can be arrested ? That this is so is shown 
by the fact that the hollow parts of the body perspire 

29 Why is it that persons in vapour baths perspire more 
freely when it is cold ? 7 Is it because the heat does not 20 
fmd a way out, because it is surrounded by the cold, which 
prevents its exit, but collects internally, and, remaining 
there, dissolves the moisture in our body and engenders per 
spiration from it ? 

1 The distinction between (/>o/3o? and aymvin is not always kept up in 
the Problems. They are distinguished here, but in b 7, 8 and 903" 12 
a is (o/3o? TLS. In go^ 2 and 9o5 a 8 dywvia is said to be the result 

2 dyaw fi is here described as being due to increase of heat ; in go3 a i 
it is ascribed to heat rising upwards, while in 9c>3 b 1 1 it is said to 
cause coldness. 

3 Reading from Theoph., /. t . } Si TO p.a\\ov eKdepfMiiveardcu for Sta ro 

4 The source of this problem is Theoph., op. cit., 37. 

5 Cp. above, chapter 16 and note. 

6 Reading with Bonitz, op. cit., p. 408, (?/) on. 

7 Cp. above, chapter n. 


Why is it that perspiration, even though it be less 3 
25 profuse, is more beneficial if it be induced by running naked 
rather than clothed ? 1 Is it because exertion in general is 
better than non-exertion, and perspiration which is induced 
by exertion is better than that which is produced without 
exertion, and that which is due in a greater degree to 
exertion is better than that which is due in a less degree ? 
Now perspiration involves more exertion if induced by 
30 running about naked : for a naked man cannot perspire at 
all unless he runs with considerable energy ; whereas, if he 
be clothed, owing to the heat produced by his garments, 
he soon perspires although he runs only moderately fast. 
Those too who run naked in the summer have a healthier 
colour than those who wear garments; for just as those 
35 who live in regions open to the air have a better colour than 
those who live in a stifling atmosphere, 2 so too a man, when 
he is as it were in a well-aired condition, acquires a better 
colour than when he is stifled and surrounded by consider 
able heat, as he is more likely to be when he runs clothed. 
86 g b For this reason too those who sleep much have a less healthy 
colour than those who sleep a moderate amount ; for a man 
who is asleep is in a stifled condition. 

Why is it that our feet perspire, but not our faces, when 31 
5 we are in a state of nervousness, whereas under ordinary 
conditions our faces perspire most and our feet least ? 3 Is 
it because nervousness is a kind of fear connected with the 
beginning of an action, and fear causes a cooling in the 
upper part of the body ; this is also why those who are 
nervous are pale-faced. 4 On the other hand they move and 

10 dance their feet about, thus resembling those who are taking 
exercise ; therefore they naturally perspire in those parts 
which they are exercising. Also they rub their hands together 
and bend and stretch themselves and keep jumping up and 
can never remain still ; for they are eager for action, because 
the heat within them is collected in the region of the chest, 

15 which is one of the more substantial parts of the body, and 

1 Cp. Theoph., op. ctt., 39, 40. 2 Cp. 865* 19-21. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 26. 4 Contrast 903* 3. 

BOOK II. 31 869 1 

this heat and the blood rushing thence through their whole 
body results in frequent and varied movement. But they 
perspire most in the feet, because these are being continually 
exerted, whereas the other parts of the body obtain rest in 
the changes of position and movement. 

32 Why is it that in a vapour bath one perspires most freely 20 
not when the heat is applied all at once nor when it is 
gradually diminished, but when it is gradually increased ? l 
For if the heat is gradually introduced into the vapour bath,- 
one perspires more freely than if the full amount were 
admitted at first. Is it because heat which is great from the 
beginning, finding the flesh on the surface dry, burns the 2 5 
skin and bakes it hard, and the flesh when it is in this con 
dition holds the perspiration within ? 3 Less heat on the other 
hand tends to relax and rarefy the flesh and as it were 
stimulates the internal moisture to separate itself and come 
forth. This condition being established, when more heat is 
gradually introduced and penetrates deep into the flesh 
owing to its rarity, it vaporizes the already softened humours 3<> 
and separating those which are light expels them with the 

33 Is it more necessary to induce perspiration in the summer 
or in the winter ? 4 In winter does not the heat collecting 
within the body concoct and vaporize our internal humours, 
and so, because all or most of them are expended, there is 35 
no need to supply an appropriate method of expelling 
them ? In the summer, on the other hand, because the flesh 

is in a state of rarity, the heat escapes and our internal 
humours become less concocted and therefore need to be 
drawn off. For if they are allowed to remain, they putrefy 
owing to the season and cause disease ; for anything that 870* 
putrefies does so owing to heat that is not its own, whereas 
its own natural heat causes concoction. Consequently in 

1 Cp. above, chapter 1 1 and note. 

2 Reading fTreiff(ppo^.i ov yap ((is ^ TO. TrvpiaTrjpia [so also Richards]. 
The corruption, however, is probably more serious and eTreivtyepoptvuv 
perhans belongs to the previous sentence, cp. 867 a 29. 

3 The sense demands oreyei for re yya. 

4 Cp. above, chapter 21 and note. 


the summer the external heat prevails, and so everything 
within the body tends to putrefy ; but in the winter the 
5 natural heat predominates, and so the winter does not cause 

Why is it that, whereas perspiration is due to internal 34 
heat or else to heat attacking the body from without, yet 
we sometimes shiver while we perspire? Is it because, 
when owing to the internal heat the perspiration is expelled 
from a large area into a small space, 1 it collects 2 on the 
10 surface of the body and entirely blocks up the channels 
through which the heat circulates, and so shivering ensues ? 
Another reason is that the flesh becomes saturated and the 
heat escapes. On the other hand the external heat attacking 
the flesh at first rarefies it, and then the internal natural heat 
as it is given off 3 causes the shivering. 

15 Why are hot sweats considered to be better than cold? 4 35 
Is it because all perspiration is the rejection of some excretion, 
and it is natural that a small excretion should become heated, 
whereas a more abundant excretion is less likely to do so, 
and so a cold sw r eat would be an indication of a copious 
excretion ; consequently the disease, the presence of which 

20 it indicates, is likely to last longer ? 

Why is it that, although perspiration is caused by heat, 36 
we perspire less in front of a large fire ? 5 Is it because, 
when the body is subjected to considerable heat, the 6 
humours are dissolved into vapour ; or else we do not feel 
the moisture, because it makes its way out and quickly 
35 dies on the surface ? 

Why is it that, though the sun heats us more if we wear 37 
no clothing, yet we perspire 7 more freely when we are 

1 i. e. from the whole interior of the body to the surface. 

2 Reading o-uo-reXXd/xevoi (agreeing with Idpwrfs supplied) for o-uo-reX- 

! Reading arroKpivofjifvov (W. D. R.) | the middle cnroKpiva^vov in this 
sense cannot be paralleled. 

4 Cp. 959 b 25 ft, and Hippocr. de Morb. i. 25. 

6 Cp. Theoph., op. cit., 28. 6 Reading irvev^aTa (ra) vypd. 

7 The problem here is the same as that of chapter 9 ; to give point 
to the question it is therefore necessary to read idpwrfs {/zaXXoy) 
yivovrai, the omission being due to the occurrence of the same word in 
the line above. 

BOOK II. 37 87o a 

clothed ? To this we shall give the same answer as to the 
last problem. 1 

38 Why is it that, though brisk movements are generally 
regarded as more heating than slow movements, walking 3 
up a steep hill, which is a slower movement, induces more 
perspiration and obstructs the breathing, as though it were 
more heating than walking down hill ? 2 Is it because it is 
natural for weights to be carried downwards and unnatural 
for them to be carried upwards ? Consequently the nature 
of the heat 3 which carries us along does not undergo any 35 
strain when we are going down hill, but has to bear a con 
tinual burden when we are walking up hill ; and so it grows 
exceedingly hot by movement of this kind and causes more 
profuse perspiration and obstructs the breath. The bending, 
too, of the body involved in walking up hill contributes to 870** 
prevent the free passage of the breath by obstructing it. 

39 Why is it that, although more perspiration is induced by 
additional clothing, it is not those who wear most clothing 
that perspire most ? To this question we shall give the 
same answer as we gave above. 4 5 

40 Why is it that, although our bodies are drier in the 
summer than in the winter, we are more disposed to 
perspire in the summer ? Is it because, our bodies being 
in a condition of rarity in the summer, not much natural 
heat is contained in them ? This, therefore, dissolves the 
humours into vapour. In the winter on the contrary, our 10 
bodies being externally in a dense condition, the con 
siderable amount of natural heat enclosed within does 
not dissolve the humours into vapour. Moreover, in the 
summer we swallow liquid in large quantities, but in small 
quantities in the winter. 

41 Why is it that in healthy persons spontaneous perspira 
tion is not considered to be as good as that produced by 15 

1 i. e. the case of a person exposed naked to the sun is parallel to 
that of a person in front of a large fire. 

2 Walking down hill being a brisker movement and therefore ex 
hypothesi more heating. 

3 f) ToC depfjiov $va-is seems merely a periphrasis for TO 

4 Cp. above, chapters 36 and 37. 

D 2 


exertion ? Is it because exertion continually drains off the 
superfluous moisture and makes the flesh drier, so that the 
hollows of the pores are healthy and there is no obstruction 
to the straining off of the heat ? On the other hand the 
20 so-called spontaneous perspiration (which really occurs of 
necessity when the natural pores are disturbed by excessive 
moisture, and the heat l is not completely retained, but can 
still resist and expel the moisture) is rightly regarded as 
a sign of disease. For then, owing to the presence of 
. 25 a more than proportionate amount of moisture, a natural 
process of cooling takes place, and the flesh becoming 
saturated assumes a most unhealthy condition. 

Why is it that in the winter perspiration is given off less 42 
freely and we do not feel the same desire to induce it, 
although our bodies are moister in the winter ? Do we 

30 perspire less, because in winter our humours are congealed 
and solidified to a considerable extent, and are consequently 
less easily dissolved ? The reason why we do not think it 
necessary to induce perspiration in the winter is because 
the condition in which we are is a healthy one, and any one 
who induces perspiration dissolves and upsets that con 
dition ; moreover, by creating in the body a condition of 

35 greater rarity than it ought to have, he expels and reduces 
the natural heat, so that it cannot so effectively resist the 
surrounding cold ; also external moisture will more easily 
burst its way into the body when the pores are rarefied by 
process of perspiration. 

1 Reading TO dep^ou (Sylburg). 



1 WHY is it that, though wine is hot, the drunken are g 
unable to endure cold and are very readily attacked by 
pleurisy and similar diseases ? l Is it because a large 
quantity of moisture, if it be cooled, forms a mass of cold 
and so overpowers the natural heat ? For this is similar to 5 
what happens when, if a garment is soaked in cold water, 
the flesh beneath it also becomes cold. 

2 Why is it that it is not those who are very drunk that are 
most troublesome in their cups, but those who are only 
slightly intoxicated ? 2 Is it because they have neither 
drunk so little that they still resemble the sober nor so 10 
much that they are in the incapacitated state of those who 
have drunk deep ? Further, those who are sober have 
more power of judgement, while those who are very drunk 
make no attempt to exercise their judgement ; but those 
who are only slightly intoxicated can still exercise their 
judgement because they are not very drunk, but they 
exercise it badly because they are not sober, and they are 
ready to despise some of their neighbours and imagine that 15 
they are being slighted by others. 

3 Why is it that those who drink slightly diluted wine 
suffer more from the after effects than those who drink 
wine absolutely unmixed ? 3 Is it because owing to its 
lightness diluted wine penetrates better into more numerous 
and narrower parts of the body than unmixed wine, and so 
is less easy to get rid of? Or is it because those who drink 
unmixed wine drink a less quantity, because it is impossible 20 
to drink more, and vomit more readily ? Furthermore un- 

1 This problem is more fully treated in chapter 6. 

2 Cp. below, chapter 27. This probJem is referred to by Plutarch 
(Quaest. Conviv. iii. 8. i) as Aristotelian. 

3 Cp. chapters 14 and 22. 


mixed wine, being hotter, causes concoction in other things 
and in itself ; whereas watery wine has the opposite effect. 

Why is the semen of drunkards generally infertile ? Is it 4 
because the composition of their body has become full of 
25 moisture, and the semen is fertile not when it is liquid but 
when it has body and consistency ? l 

Why do drunkards tremble, and more so the more they 5 
drink unmixed wine ? 2 Now wine is heating ; but trembling 
is chiefly due to cold, and so those who are chilled tremble 

30 very much. Yet many people before now, who have taken 
unmixed wine as their only form of nourishment, have been 
seized with such violent trembling as to throw off those who 
were trying to hold them down ; and when they wash in 
hot water, they have no perception of it. Is it because 
trembling is due to cooling, and cooling takes place either 
when the heat is driven within by external cold, as happens 

35 in winter, or when the natural heat is extinguished either 
by its opposite or by lapse of time, as in old age, or by the 
excess of extraneous heat which is caused in that which is 
exposed to the sun or to a blazing fire ? This occurs also 
in those who take unmixed wine. The wine, being hot, 
87i b when on mingling with the proper heat of the body it 
exceeds it in power, 3 quenches the bodily heat ; and the 
heat being thus extinguished and the body cooled, trembling 
ensues. But there is also another process of cooling differing 
5 from all those described above ; 4 namely, 5 when the matter 
whereby the heat in anything is fed, is removed, and, as 
a result, the heat dies down. This can be illustrated in 
the inanimate world from the lamp ; for when the oil is 
expended, the light goes out ; and in living beings old age 

10 and long, wasting diseases have a similar effect. For when 
that which feeds the heat is removed or diminished, the 
result is that the heat fails ; G for heat is fed by moisture, 

1 Cp. G. A. 765 b 5. This problem is referred to as Aristotelian by 
Athenaeus (x. 692 b ). 2 Cp. below, chapter 26. 

3 Reading, with Bonitz and Richards, vnfpTeivr] rf} bwa^i. 

4 i.e. in 871*33-8. 

5 Reading <^ (W. D. R.) for 8e, and placing a colon after Kara^u^ecoy. 

6 Reading exAe/Tret^ for e.<Xueiz/ with Bonitz, op. cit.> p. 408 ; cp. 1. 16 

BOOK III. 5 87i b 

not, however, by any kind of moisture but by that which is 
smooth and fat. 1 In those, therefore, who are suffering from 
the diseases mentioned above and in those who are growing 
old, when moisture of this kind becomes corrupted and 
changed (becoming harsh and dry instead of smooth and 15 
oily), as a result the heat fails. A proof of the above is 
afforded by the treatment applied to those who are wasting 
to death ; for, whenever they have any nourishing liquid 
administered to them, the result is that their vitality 2 is 
revived, which implies that their bodily dissolution is due 20 
to the lack of such a substance. The same cause seems to 
operate in those who drink unmixed wine. For the wine, 
being warm, co-operating with the heat already naturally 
present in the body, tends to use up the supply already 
present in the body for the natural heat ; consequently some 
drunkards become dropsical, others rheumatic, whilst in 25 
others the stomach is affected. For the other humours in 
them are harsh, and what they imbibe, being soft, does not 
acquire consistency owing to the weakness of the natural heat. 
Their heat is weak because the matter in which it is still 
contained is itself weak ; like a fire fed by reeds, which, 30 
because its material is weak, is weaker than a wood-fire. 

6 Why is it that, though wine is hot, the drunken are 
unable to endure cold and are very readily attacked by 
pleurisy and similar diseases ? :! Is it because a large 
quantity of moisture, if it be cooled, forms a mass of cold, 
and so overpowers the natural heat ? Now the moister 35 
anything is the hotter it is by nature, as is shown by the 
fact that external agencies cause heat but do not cause 
liquefaction ; but where there is less heat, it is clear that 
either the heat or the moisture is failing too quickly, and 
so, cold humours only being left, it is natural that the 872* 
drunken should be colder and show the usual symptoms of 

1 Reading TTI OW, suggested by Bekker, for 7rXow. 

2 Reading, with Richards, TO Q>TIKUV for TO 8e OTTTKW, and omitting 
the stop after (Ti<p.fiaivei. 

3 A fuller treatment of the topic of chapter I ; cp. also Hippocr. 
de Morb.) 26. 


Why is it that children, who have a hot temperament, 7 
are not fond of wine, although the Scythians and all who 
are courageous are fond of wine because they have a hot 
5 temperament ? Is it because the latter, though they are 
hot, are also dry (for this is the natural condition of a 
man), whereas children are hot and moist ? Now fondness 
for drink is due to a desire for moisture ; and so their moist 
condition prevents children from being thirsty, for desire 
implies a lack of something. 

Why is it that men are more sensitive to salty and bad 8 
I0 water when they are drunk than when they are sober ? l 
Is it because that which is like and similarly constituted is 
unaffected by its like, but opposites are very sensitive to 
opposites ? A drunken man then has sweet liquids in him 
(for such seems to be the nature of wine), and so is more 
1 5 sensitive to bad liquids; but the sober man has harsh and 
salty liquids in him, and so, when his food becomes con 
cocted, the excretory humours come to the surface and 
these are unaffected by their like 2 and cause the man in 
whose body they are to be similarly unaffected. 

Why is it that to those who are very drunk everything 9 
seems to revolve in a circle, and as soon as the wine takes 
hold of them they cannot see objects at a distance, and so 

20 this is used by some as a test of drunkenness ? Is it because 
the vision is continually disturbed by the heat of the wine ? 
It makes no difference then whether it is the vision that is 
disturbed or the object seen ; for the result is the same in 
producing the above-mentioned effect. And since the vision 
of drunken persons is often mistaken about objects near at 

35 hand, it is only natural that it should be even more so in 
looking at distant objects. So the latter are not visible to 
them at all, while objects near at hand are not seen in their 
proper places, but appear to revolve in a circle and not to 
be near or far, because, firstly, the circular motion makes it 
less possible for the sight to be directed towards distant 
objects ; for it is difficult to do two contrary things at the 

1 Cp. below, chapter 19. 2 i. e. salty and bad water. 

BOOK III. 9 872* 

same time. 1 Now the movement of the sight in a straight 30 
line 2 towards the distance is strong, but the circular move 
ment of the vision is restricted to the area implied by its 
name. For the above-mentioned reasons then the vision 
does not travel to a distance. Secondly, if it could travel 
to both near and distant objects, 3 it would not see them, for 
the next moment the near or distant object at which it was 
looking in the same direction would fail, and, if it did so, 4 35 
the eye could not see it. The circular movement is due to the 
natural constitution of the sight ; for it is a cone, 5 the base 
of which is a circle, and, moving in this circle, the sight 
always sees the same thing, 6 because it never fails, but it is 872** 
deceived as to its position, because it never directs the same 
glance upon it ; for just the same thing would happen 
whether the object moved in relation to the eye or the eye 
in relation to the object. 

IO Why is it that to those who are drunk one thing at which 
they are looking sometimes appears to be many? 7 Is it 
because, as has already been remarked, 8 the vision is dis- 5 
turbed, with the result that the same glance does not rest 
on the same object for any length of time ? Now that 
which is seen differently at the same time appears to exist 
later in time ; for that which is seen is seen by contact with 
the vision, and it is impossible for several objects to be in 
contact with the same thing at the same time. But because 
the intervening time, during which the vision comes into 10 
contact with and passes away from the object seen, is 
imperceptible, the moment during which it has been in 
contact and passed away seems to be one and the same ; 
and so when several glances come into contact with the 
same object at the same time, the objects seen appear to be 

1 i.e. the sight cannot travel simultaneously straightforward and in 
a circle. 

2 Reading, with Bonitz, eV evdfias (popd for frnQvpia a<po$pd. 

3 Omitting TO before e-yyrs. 

4 Reading dnoXd-rrov (Richards). 

5 Cp. below, 9ii b 5. 

6 Reading rnvro for roDro : T. G. renders rem quidem percipit eandem. 
1 Cp. below, chapter 30. 

8 i. e. in a 2i. 


several, because it is impossible for the glances to be in 
contact with the same l thing at the same time. 2 

J 5 Why is it that those who are drunk are incapable ofn 
having sexual intercourse ? 3 Is it because to do so a certain 
part of the body must be in a state of greater heat than 
the rest, and this is impossible in the drunken owing to 
the large quantity of heat present in the whole body, for 
the heat set up by the movement is extinguished by the 
greater surrounding heat, because they have in them a con- 

20 siderable quantity of unconcocted moisture ? Furthermore 
the semen is derived from food and all food is concocted, 
and those who are satiated with food are more inclined for 
sexual intercourse. This is why some people say that with 
a view to the sexual act one ought to take a plenteous 
midday meal but a light supper, so that there may be less 

25 unconcocted than concocted matter in the body. 

Why is it that sweet wine and unmixed wine and mead 4 12 
if drunk from time to time during a drinking bout make 
men more sober ? And why do those who drink from 
large vessels become less drunk ? 5 Is the reason in all 
cases the same, namely the repression of heat on the 
30 surface of the body ? For drunkenness takes place when 
the heat is in the region of the head. 

Why is it that, though that which is sweet tends to rise 13 
to the surface, if any one who is already drunk takes a sweet 
draught the wine which he has drunk before is concocted 
and causes less discomfort ? Is it because that which is 
sweet is both soothing and adhesive (which is the reason 
35 why it blocks up the pores), while that which is bitter has 
a roughening effect ? The latter makes it easy for the heat 

1 Reading ravrov for rauru. 

2 sc. and yet produce different sensations. Reading with K a xpoVoj/ 
for rpnn-oi/. 3 Cp. below, chapter 33. 

4 There is no exact equivalent for KVMUV, which was a mixture of 
wine, barley, cheese, and honey. 

G This second question and the suggested solution are repeated in 
chapter 25, and the two passages can be emended from one another. 

Reading Kcna.Kpov<ns from 874 b 12, which gives much better sense, 
because, as is shown in the next clause, sobriety depends on the heat 
of the wine being kept out of the head. 

BOOK III. 13 872 1 

to rise, but the sweet draught keeps it in by blocking up 
the pores ; and it has already been remarked l that drunken- 873* 
ness is due to the upper parts of the body becoming heated. 
Furthermore sweet wine is odourless, but bitter wine is not, 
and any odour oppresses the head. 

!4 Why is it that wine which is mixed but tends towards the 
unmixed causes a worse headache the next morning than 5 
entirely unmixed wine ? 2 Is it because unmixed wine is 
composed of heavy particles and so does not find its way 
into the pores of the head, which are narrow, but only its 
power, namely its odour and heat, reaches the head ? Diluted 
wine on the other hand, being mixed with water, which is 
light, itself penetrates to the head and having body, as well 
as much of the power of unmixed wine, is much less easily 10 
concocted; for moist things are most difficult of all to 
concoct, and actual substances are more difficult of concoc 
tion than mere effects. 

15 Why is it that those who do not take physical exercise 
are better able to drink themselves into a condition of 
drunkenness, and throw it off more easily, than those who 
take such exercise ? Is it because those who have excre 
tions and moisture in their bodies are more inclined to pass 1 5 
urine ? This enables them to drink and afterwards to be 
relieved of the effects, because much vinous moisture does 
not remain in them. Those who take no exercise are 
moist and full of excretions ; but those who do take exercise 
are dry, and so the vinous moisture penetrates into their 20 
body, and its impetus immediately checks the flow of urine, 
and the moisture remaining afterwards behind forms a 
weight in the body. 

16 Why has wine the effect both of stupefying and of 
driving to frenzy those who drink it ? For these are 
contrary states, the frenzied being in a state of excessive 
movement and the stupid in a condition of too little move 
ment. Is it true, as Chaeremon says, that 25 

Wine mingles with the temper of the drinker ? 3 

1 i. e. in 1. 30. 2 Cp. chapters 3 and 22. 

3 Fr. 16 (Nauck 2 , p. 787). 


It therefore has the opposite effect not on the same but 
upon the unlike, just as fire dries up some things but 
liquefies others, but does not have both these effects on 
the same things for instance it melts ice, but hardens 

30 salt. So wine, being in its nature moist, excites the slow 
and makes them quicker, while it enervates the quick. 
Therefore some of those who are naturally of a melancholic 
temperament become entirely enervated as the result of 
a drunken debauch. For just as a bath makes supple those 
who have a well-knit and hard frame, while it relaxes those 

35 who are supple and moisf, so wine has this effect, acting 
as an internal bath. 

Why is it that cabbage stops the ill effects of drinking ? 17 
Is it because its juice is sweet and has a cleansing effect 
(and so doctors use it to purge the bowels) , while in itself it 
is cold ? This is shown by the fact that doctors use it in 
cases of acute diarrhoea, boiling it thoroughly and draining 
off the juice 1 and letting it cool. In those who are suffer- 
5 ing from the after effects of drinking the effect of the juice 
of cabbage is to draw off the internal humours, which 
are vinous and unconcocted, into the stomach, whilst the 
cabbage itself remains in the upper part of the stomach and 
cools the body. As the body cools, the light humours are 
carried into the bladder. Thus since the humours through- 

10 out the body are expelled by these two methods and it 
becomes cool, the ill effects of drinking naturally vanish ; 
for wine is moist and hot. A further result of the humours 
being drawn downwards and expelled is that breath is 
thereby carried down into the body, and it is only from 
there that breath can be carried from the wine into the 

15 head and cause stupor and headache. But if the breath 
is carried downwards and the body cooled in the manner 
mentioned above, the pain of the headache is relieved. For 
the headache is due to a seething and to inflammation as it 
dies down ; but it is more painful than drunkenness, because 
the latter drives men out of their senses, but the headache 

20 causes them pain when they are in full possession of 

1 Readin 

BOOK III. 17 873* 

their wits. Just as those who are in a fever are delirious 
rather than in pain, but feel pain when they are relieved of 
the fever and recover their senses ; for just the same thing 1 
happens with headache and drunkenness. 

18 Why is it that watery wine is more apt to cause vomiting 
than water and than unmixed wine ? Is it because anything 25 
that tends to rise to the surface and is unpleasant to the 
taste is most likely to cause vomiting ? Now wine has the 
effect of repression ; 1 while water is light and not un 
pleasant, and, therefore, being light 2 it quickly penetrates 
downwards, but, not being unpleasant, it does not cause 
heartburn. Now excessively diluted wine is not light 
enough to percolate through quickly, and because it has 3 
a little wine in it, it is unpleasant ; for it disturbs the sense 
of taste by setting up two kinds of movement, one pro 
duced by the wine and the other by the water, both of 
which make themselves felt. But the proper mixing of 
wine does away with the taste of water and gives the wine 

a soft taste, which makes it pleasant to drink. But watery 35 
wine, being unpleasant to the taste, has a tendency to rise, 
and anything which does this is apt to cause vomiting. 

19 Why is it that men are more sensitive to salty and bad 
water when they are drunk than when they are sober ? 3 874* 
Is it because anything which has an unpleasant taste is 
more perceptible to those who feel no desire, but is not 
noticed by those who feel desire ? A man therefore who is 

in a state of lacking something 4 resembles one who feels a 
desire, and the sober man is in this condition ; whereas 
the drunken man is satiated. 

20 Why is it that to those who are very drunk everything 5 
seems to revolve in a circle, and as soon as the wine takes 
hold of them they cannot count objects at a distance, and so 

1 Cp. 8;2 b 29 and note, and 8;4 b 12. 

2 Omitting KOI OVK n^dey, which has clearly come in from the 
previous line. 

3 The same problem is discussed in chapter 8. 

4 Reading eVScwr for ^Se cos with Bonitz (op. cit., p. 409) ; cp. 95o a 14, 
E. N. in8 b 10, H53 a i. 


this is used by some as a test of drunkenness ? l Is it 
because the vision is continually disturbed by the heat of 
the wine ? The same thing then happens to those who are 
drunk as when an object appears double if one puts it 2 

10 close to the eye. For it makes no difference if you move 
the eye instead of 15 putting the object close to it, and whether 
the movement is within the eye or outside it ; for the effect 
on the vision is the same in both cases. The result will be 
that the object seen appears not to be at rest, and more so 
if it is at a distance (for it has less hold upon the vision 
when the latter is extended to a distance) ; and this near 

15 movement 4 causes a still greater variation at the farthest 
point to which the eye reaches ; and if the vision is moved 
violently and unevenly 5 up and down, it has still less hold 
upon the distant object. Now anything which is extended 
to a distance moves in a circle, masts, 6 for example, and 
objects suspended ; and so the same thing happens to the 
vision owing to its weakness, as though it were actually 
projected to a distance. It makes no difference whether it 

20 is the vision which moves or the object seen ; for the effect 
on the appearance of the object is the same. 

Why is it that, when a quantity of wine is drunk at once, 21 
the stomach becomes drier, whereas it ought to be rendered 
moister by the additional liquid ? Is it because the stomach 
has no action upon a large amount of liquid swallowed at 
25 once, but it goes unaltered to its proper place (and the 
proper place for unconcocted liquid is the bladder), whereas 
the stomach acts upon a small quantity and concocts it, so 
that it remains in the stomach and makes it moist ? 

Why is it that those who drink wine properly diluted 22 
suffer more from the after effects. than those who drink 
unmixed wine ? 7 Is it because diluted wine, being light, 
finds its way into more parts of the body (just as it pene- 

1 The same problem is the subject of chapter 9 and the treatment 
of it is partly identical. 

Reading vnoOfi (rt) ns (Richards). 

3 Reading /x?) (W. D. R.) for //eV. 

4 i.e. the movement set up in the eye as an effect of drunkenness. 

5 Reading dw>;zaA.a>s for opaXoos. 

6 Reading iorol for ourroi with C a Y a . 7 Cp. chapters 3 and 14. 

BOOK III. 22 874 

trates into clothing), and is more difficult to expel (water 30 
by itself being of a thinner consistency but easier to 
expel) P 1 Or is it because the amount of unmixed wine 
which is drunk is less because of the impossibility of 
drinking a large quantity, and there is more liability to 
vomiting? Moreover unmixed wine concocts everything 
else as well as itself. 2 

23 Why is it that death ensues from the drinking of un- 35 
mixed wine in large quantities by one who is already in 

a lean condition ? On the other hand, those who are 
addicted to drinking, if they are not in a lean condition, 
often become dry from drinking a large quantity at a time ; 
for both wine and life 3 seem to be of the nature of hot 
things, whereas death is a process of cooling. Is it because 
death by drinking resembles death by hemlock, the natural 
heat being gradually extinguished? But the process is 
different in the two cases ; for hemlock by its coldness 
congeals the moisture and heat, whereas wine by its own 
heat parches up the natural heat. So just as a small fire is 5 
extinguished by a large blaze and by the heat of the sun, so 
too the heat in the body is extinguished by that in the 
wine, if the latter surpasses it in strength. 

24 Why are the drunken more easily moved to tears ? Is 
it because they become hot and moist, and so they have no 
command over themselves and are affected by trifling 10 
causes ? 

25 a (Why is it that sweet wine and unmixed wine and mead 
if drunk from time to time during a drinking bout make 
men more sober ? And) 4 why do those who drink from 

1 This doctrine is quoted as Aristotelian by Plutarch, Quaest. 
Conuiv. vi. 9. 3. 

2 Omitting rauro eo-ri npoQXi-jfjLa, which is not translated by T. G. 
and probably introduced a further explanation ; cp. 885 b 3 and Prantl, 
op. tit., p. 354. 

3 TOV tfv in the Teubner text is a misprint for TO gfjv. 

* It is obvious from Trdvrav (1. 12) that several alternatives are 
offered in the statement of the problem. The problem is clearly 
a repetition of chapter 12 and we must restore dta ri (6 y\vK.iis KOL 6 
aKparos Kal 6 KVKCMV /^era^u di(i7riv6p.evoi ev rols TroVot? vrj<f)t,v noiovaiv ; 
Kai $ia rty TJTTCV ptdvcrKovTai /crA. 


large vessels become less drunk ? Is the reason in all cases 1 
the same, namely the repression of heat ; 2 that is to say, 
on the surface of the body ? For drunkenness takes place 
in the region of the head. 

(Why is it that those who drink much unmixed wine fall 25 b 
asleep easily?) 3 Is it because to induce sleep warm moisture 

15 must be present, for it is easily concocted ? But if no moisture 
is present, or 4 only a little, or moisture which is difficult of 
concoction, sleep does not come on. Therefore men 
become sleepiest when they are fatigued and after meat and 
drink, owing to the heat. But sleeplessness afflicts the 
melancholic and those who are in a high fever, 5 the former 
because the moisture in them is cooled, the latter because 

20 there is little or no moisture in them ; these facts must 
clearly be looked to as the causes of sleeplessness in these 
two 6 cases. 

Why do drunkards tremble, and the more so the more 26 
they drink unmixed wine ? 7 Now wine is heating, and 
trembling is chiefly due to cold ; and so it is prin 
cipally those who are chilled that tremble. Yet many 
25 people before now who have taken unmixed wine as their 
only form of nourishment, have been seized with such 
violent trembling as to throw off those who were trying to 
hold them down, and when they wash with hot water they 
have no perception of it. Others who live in this way, 8 

1 Reading 77 iravr&v for nai roav yap ; cp. 872 b 28. 

2 Reading 17 KarnKpovais (TO{) 0ep/ioC>), TOVT<TTLV ; cp. 872 b 29. 

3 It is clear that q on del -rrpos rovs VTTVOVS KT\. begins the solution 
of a new problem the title of which has fallen out. T. G. begins this 
new problem with the words, Cur innolentis somnus oriri nequeat ? 
But the fact that drunkenness often induces sleep rather than prevents 
it and the arguments contained in the solution point to some other 
question. That inserted above seems to be the most applicable, 
since, as has been already shown, unmixed wine is hot and easily 

4 Reading (q) oXi yr? (Bonitz). 

5 TO IS fjiyi\as Trvpias is untranslatable and a participle appears to 
have fallen out; the sense must be either that given above or else 
those who indulge in strong vapour baths , which seems to be the 
meaning of rrvplai in de Part. Anim. 65 i a i. T. G. renders vehementer 
aestuantes. 6 Reading ea iTepov (Richards) for erfpov. 

7 The same problem is treated, and partly in identical words, in 
chapter 5. 8 i. e. who drink much unmixed wine. 

BOOK III. 26 874 b 

but also undergo massage and take meat as part of their 
diet, have been stricken with apoplectic seizures ; these are 
less subject to trembling, because they are unable to move, 30 
but they suffer from violent pain and an inability to rest. 
Trembling is clue to cooling ; for, as has been remarked, it 
is those who are chilled who suffer from it and the very 
old, the cause being in the former their cold condition, 
in the latter their age. Wine, on the other hand, is very 35 
heating ; so that it ought to have the opposite effect. Is 
there any reason why the same effect should not be 
produced by contraries working in a different manner? 
For example, burning l is caused both by frost and by heat, 
when the frost collects the heat in one place. Thus there 
is a sense in which the same condition is produced 2 both by 875** 
contrary causes and by the same cause. Now trembling is 
due to lack of heat, not, however, of any kind of heat, 
but of natural heat. Heat perishes either by dying down 
or by being extinguished ; it is extinguished by its con 
traries, cold and moisture, and it dies down either through 5 
lack of material, as lamps do when they have no more fuel 
or oil, or under the influence of external heat, as the fire 
goes out in the sunlight and lamps when they are exposed 
to the fire. Those then who are chilled tremble because 
the heat in them is extinguished by the cold. This is why 
the pouring of hot water over a person makes his hair 10 
bristle ; for the cold being enclosed within and being 
compressed 3 causes the hair to stand on end. The cold 
ness of one who is beginning to suffer from fever is due to 
a like cause. In old age the heat dies down because the 
material which feeds it fails ; for moisture is the food of 
heat, and old age is dry. 4 Now it is because their own J5 
heat dies down that drunkards tremble and any others in 
whom this effect is produced by wine ; but they do not do 
so in the same way as those who tremble from old age, but 
there is, as we saw, a third way in which the heat is 

iv is regularly used both of burning off and of frost-bite . 

2 Reading av^ftaivei (Y a ). 

3 For the doctrine of airnrfpia-Taa-is cp. 867 b 32 and note. 

4 Reading with Bonitz (op. cit., p. 409) r/poV for \l/vxp6v ; cp. dfe 
long, et brev. mt. 466* 22, b 14. T. G. renders senectus autem sicca est. 

645-26 E 


destroyed. For when too much wine is taken, the heat 
20 being considerable in the body * extinguishes or weakens 
our own heat, in which our strength consists ; for trembling 
arises w r hen the motive power loses control over that which 
it moves, just as the extremity of a long and large piece of 
wood trembles if one has not a good hold 2 upon it, and 
this happens because either that which is being held is too 
large or that which is moving it is too weak. So, when the 
25 heat is extinguished (for heat appears to be the cause of 
motion in animals), the natural control of the body is lost. 
That this condition is induced in drunkards and the aged 
by a process of cooling is proved by the fact that the 
trembling is unaccompanied by chill. 

Why is it that one who is slightly intoxicated is more 27 
troublesome in his cups than one who is more drunk and 

3 than the sober man ? ;} Is it because the sober man 
exercises his judgement properly, whereas one who is quite 
drunk, because his senses are blocked up, being unable to 
resist the heaviness which oppresses him, cannot exercise 
his judgement at all, and, this being so, he is not trouble 
some in his cups ? But he who is slightly intoxicated uses 
his judgement, but, owing to the wine which he has drunk, 
he uses it amiss, and so is troublesome in his cups. He is 

?.=> like Satyrus of Clazomenae, who was given to abuse, and 
so when he was defendant in a lawsuit, in order that he 
might speak to the point and not abuse his adversary, they 
stopped up his ears, so that he might not hear anything 
and become abusive ; but as his adversary was finishing his 
speech, they uncovered his ears, and he, hearing a few 
words at the end of the speech, could not restrain himself 
and began to revile him, because he could use his senses 

4 but could not use his judgement aright. 

875 b Why is it that men do not become drunkards by being 2 8 
addicted to sweet wine, which is pleasanter to the taste ? 
Is it because sweet wine possesses a flavour other than 

1 Putting the comma before, instead of after, eV r crco/Mart. 

~ Reading eyKparcoj (Richards). 

3 This problem has already been discussed in chapter 2. 

BOOK III. 28 875 1 

that of wine ? l He then who is addicted to sweet wine 
will be a lover of what is sweet rather than of wine. 

29 Why is it that drunkards take a particular delight in 5 
the warmth of the sun ? 2 Is it because they need concoc 
tion ? Another reason is the fact that they are cooled by 
the wine ; which is also a reason why apoplectic seizures 
and torpidity very readily occur after drinking. 

30 Why is it that drunkards when looking at a single object 
sometimes see several objects ? :] Is it because the sources 10 
of vision (like the whole head) are disturbed internally 
by the wine, and, this being so, the vision of the two eyes 
cannot meet at the same point, but as it were moves to 
different parts of the object seen ; consequently the object 
appears to be two ? The same thing happens if one presses 
one eye from below; 4 for this disturbs the source of its 15 
vision, so that it no longer falls upon the same point as 
the other eye. This then is an external disturbance, while 
that caused by wine is internal ; but there is no real 
difference, the effect being the same whatever the cause 
of the disturbance. 

31 Why is it that the tongue of those who are drunk 
stumbles ? 5 Is it because, just as the whole body staggers 20 
in drunkenness, so also the tongue staggers and stumbles 
and cannot articulate clearly ? Or is it because the flesh 
of the tongue is spongy ? It therefore becomes saturated 
and swells up, and when this happens it is more difficult 
to move, owing to the thickness caused by its increased 
bulk, and it cannot articulate distinctly. Or is it because, 
just as we cannot speak under water through lack of air, 25 
so we cannot speak when we take liquid into the mouth ? 
So in a state of drunkenness we cannot articulate because 
the tongue is surrounded by a large quantity of moisture ; 
for a stumbling speech is due to inability to articulate. 
Or is it because in drunkenness the mind is affected and 
stumbles? If the mind is in this condition, it is only 

1 i. e. its sweetness predominates over its vinous quality. 

2 Cp. chapter 32. 3 Cp. chapter 10. 
4 C P- 959 a u. 5 Cp. 888 b 7- 

E 2 


30 natural that the tongue should suffer likewise ; for the 
mind is the source of speech. This is why, apart from 
drunkenness, if the mind is affected, the tongue is affected 
also, as for example in those who are frightened. 

Why is it that drunkards and those who have to do 32 
35 with the sea delight in the sun ? l Is it because drunkards 
require concoction and at the same time certain parts of 
their bodies have become cooled ? This is why apoplectic 
seizures and torpor follow after drinking. Those who 
have to do with the sea like the sun because they live 
always amid moisture. 

Why is it that those who are drunk are incapable of 33 
40 having sexual intercourse ? 2 Is it because to do so a certain 
part of the body ought to be in a state of greater heat 
8y6 a than the rest, and this is impossible in the drunken owing 
to the large quantity of heat in them ; the heat therefore 
caused by the movement is extinguished, being heated by 
the surrounding heat? 3 Or is it because for sexual inter 
course the lower parts of the body must be heated, whereas 
wine naturally rises upwards and so creates heat in the 
5 upper parts and withdraws it from the lower parts ? Also 
people are least inclined for sexual intercourse after food 
and are recommended to take a heavy midday meal and 
a light supper with a view to it, for the heat and moisture 
move upwards when the food is unconcocted and down 
wards when it is concocted ; and the semen is formed from 
concocted food. Those who are fatigued emit semen during 
jo sleep, 4 because fatigue is a moist and hot condition ; if 
therefore the excretion takes place in this part of the body, 
the result is that semen is emitted during sleep. This also 
occurs for the same reason in certain forms of illness, 5 and 
likewise in those who are frightened and in the dying. 6 

15 Why is it that the young wet their beds more, when 34 
they are drunk, than the old ? Is it because they are hot 
and moist, and so the excretion which collects is abundant, 

1 Cp. above, chapter 29. 2 Cp. above, chapter n. 

3 An instance of the doctrine of nvp eVi TrOp. 4 Cp. v. 3. 

B Namely in phthisis ; cp. 884*6. 6 Cp. 8;; a 26 ff. 

BOOK III. 34 876 

because the body does not expend the moisture, and so it 
overflows ; but as they become older, the body owing to 
its dry ness absorbs the excess of moisture? Or is it because 
the young- are more inclined to sleep than the old ? Con- 20 
sequently, without their being aware of it, the flow of 
urine finds its way out while they are asleep, before they 
can wake up, whereas the old are aware of it, just as 
they are more alive to any external movement than the 
young. This is confirmed by the fact that the young 
themselves wet their beds most when they are most sound 25 

35 Why is it that oil is beneficial against drunkenness and 
sipping it enables one to continue drinking ? Is it because 
it promotes the flow of urine and so prepares a way for 
the liquor ? 




WHY is it that one who is having sexual intercourse, I 
and also a dying person, casts his eyes upwards, while 
a sleeper casts them downwards ? Is it because the heat 
going out in an upward direction makes the eyes turn 
in the direction in which it is itself travelling, whereas 
during sleep the heat collects in the lower part of the body 
35 and so inclines the eyes downwards ? The eyes close 
because there is no moisture left in them. 

Why do the eyes and flanks of those who indulge too fre- 2 
quently in sexual intercourse sink very noticeably, 1 though 
the latter are near and the former far from the sexual organs ? 
Is it because these parts co-operate very noticeably in the 
effort made in the act of coition, contracting at the time 
876 b of the emission of the semen ? It is from these parts then 
in particular that any easily liquefied nourishment which 
is present there is squeezed out by the pressure. Or is 
it because these parts become overheated and waste away 
most, and sexual intercourse operates through heat, and 
those parts are most heated which are moved in the act 
5 of coition ? Now the eyes and the parts about the buttocks 
noticeably co-operate in the sexual act ; for it is impossible to 
emit the semen without drawing the buttocks together and 
closing 2 the eyes, for the buttocks by their contraction press 
out the semen (just as the liquid can be expelled from the 
bladder by the pressure of the hand), while the bringing to- 
10 gether of the eyelids presses out the moisture in the brain. 

1 Cp. de Gen. Anim. 747* 16. 

2 Unless TO>V o(p6a\pS)j> KaraQX^devraiv here means merely closing 
the eyes as is implied by crvvaya>yr) (1. 10), there will be a direct con- 
tiadiction with 8;6 a 32, 33. The alternative is to emend KaTapXrjGevTuv 
to ui>afi\ridevT(0i>. Platt omits p.r) as having come from the previous line. 

BOOK IV. 2 876 1 

That the eyes and the region near them have considerable 
influence in procreation is shown by the fact that childless 
and fruitful l women alike try the experiment of anointing 
them, thinking that strength must pass by this way into 
the semen. These two parts, the fundament and the eyes, 
are always in all persons full of fatness; and, because they 15 
co-operate in the act of coition, they share in the heat 
which it engenders and are made lean thereby, and much 
of their substance is excreted into the semen. For unless 
a part of the body is fat, the heat will not melt it properly, 
nor will it do so if the part is fat but does not co-operate 
in the sexual act, as is the case with the stomach. (The 
kidneys, however, have more sensation in sexual intercourse 20 
than other parts of the body because of their nearness to 
the organs employed.) Moreover, the mere passage of 
the semen through these parts, which is quite perceptible 
by these parts, is sufficient to make them lean ; for its 
proximity takes away something without adding anything 
to them. 

3 Why is it that both those who indulge in sexual excess 
and eunuchs, who never do so, alike 2 lose their sharpness 25 
of vision ? Is it because in the former owing to their 
desire, and in the latter owing to their mutilation, the 
upper parts of the body become drier than they ought 
to be, and this is most noticeable in those organs which 
have delicate work to do, such as the eye ? So when 
the moisture is drawn away downwards, the upper parts 
become dry. It is quite obvious that sexual intercourse 30 
has this effect. In eunuchs the legs swell and the bowels 
are easily relaxed, which shows that the moisture has 
moved downwards. 

4 Why is it that man alone grows hair on the face and 
body when he begins to be capable of sexual intercourse, 
whereas this does not happen in the other animals which 
have hair ? Is it because on coming to maturity the 
characteristics of animals change to their opposites ? For 35 

1 ayuvwv should perhaps be read for 
- Reading 6/MotW with some MSS. 


the voice becomes deep instead of shrill, and they become 
hairy instead of bare; it is clear therefore that animals 
which are hirsute from birth ought to become bare and 
not continue to be hirsute when they begin to secrete 
semen. But this is not so, because animals which emit 
877* semen become drier and rarer, conditions which are favour 
able to the growth of hair. This is shown by the fact 
that hair does not grow on scars, for scars are of a close 
texture and not rare; nor does hair grow upon women 
and children, both of whom are moist and not dry. 

5 Why is it that having the feet bare is prejudicial to 5 
sexual intercourse ? Is it because the body, when it is 
about to have sexual intercourse, ought to be warm and 
moist internally ? This condition is attained during sleep 
rather than when one is awake ; and so emission of semen 
takes place readily and without effort during sleep, but 
requires exertion in those who are awake. When the 

TO body is moist and warm, the feet are even more so; as 
is shown by the fact that the feet of those who are asleep 
are warm, being in this condition simultaneously with the 
interior of the body. But bareness of the feet has the 
opposite effect of causing dryness and cold. So since it 
is either difficult or impossible to have sexual intercourse 
when the feet are not warm, bareness of the feet must 

15 necessarily be prejudicial to the performance of the 
sexual act. 

Why is it that man is more languid after sexual inter- 6 
course than any other animal ? Is it because in proportion 
to his bulk he emits more semen than any other animal ? 
But why does he do so ? Is it because man digests his 
food with less effort and is naturally moister and hotter 
20 than all the other animals ? His moistness then creates 
an abundance of semen, while his heat creates a natural 
condition favourable to it ; for the semen must be moist 
and hot as long as it is kept in the body. 

Why is it that, whereas sexual intercourse takes place 7 
by means of heat, and fear and death have a cooling effect, 
25 yet semen is sometimes emitted by those who are frightened 

BOOK IV. 7 877* 

and by the dying ? l Is it because, though some parts are 
cooled, others become somewhat warmed, since they already 
have their own heat and receive additional heat from the 
parts which are cooling ? So that, though such persons are 
growing cold, the emission of semen is due not to cooling 
but to the simultaneous heating. Observation proves this 
to be so in those who are frightened ; for the blood leaves 3 
the upper parts of the body, and the lower parts become 
moist, and the bowels and bladder are relaxed. Thus under 
the influence of fright the heat makes its way downwards, 
and at death it travels upwards from below, and, because 
it creates a state of moisture by its warmth, it causes the 
emission of semen. 

8 Why is it that one ought not to have sexual intercourse 35 
or vomit or sneeze or emit a deep breath, unless one is 
in a turgid state ? Is it because if we are not in a turgid 
state, we are in the condition of plants torn up from the 
earth with which something which does not belong to 
them is torn up also, or of which some part is torn off and 
left in the ground ? Now anything which ought to be 
removed, but of which a part is detached and remains 877 b 
behind, will cause trouble for a long while. And if one 
disturbs something external to oneself, this will cause 
trouble, because it is not in its proper place ; and this is 
what will happen if we do any of the above-mentioned 
things when we are not in a turgid state. 

9 Why is it that one can have sexual intercourse more 5 
readily when fasting ? Is it because the ducts of the body 
are emptier in those who are fasting and full in those who 
are full ? In the latter case they prevent the moisture 
from passing through into the semen. This is seen to be 
the case with the bladder ; for when it is full it is impossible 
to have sexual intercourse readily. 2 

10 Why is it that the young, when they first begin to have ro 
sexual intercourse, feel loathing after the act for those with 
whom they have had intercourse ? Is it due to the fact 

1 Cp. 876*13. 2 Cp. 878*33-5. 


that the change caused in them is great? For they are 
only conscious of the ensuing feeling of discomfort, and so 
avoid those with whom they have had intercourse as being 
the cause of this feeling. 

1 5 Why is it that those who are continually on horseback n 
are more inclined for sexual intercourse? Is it because 
owing to the heat and movement they are in the same 
condition as during sexual intercourse ? So as growth 
takes place with increasing age in the region of the genital 
organs, these parts become enlarged. Since then they 
are always in this state of movement, their bodies become 
open-pored and in a condition which disposes them for 

20 sexual intercourse. 

Why is it that when sexual powers begin to be present 12 
the flesh has an unpleasant odour which is not present in 
men or women before puberty ? 1 Is it because uncon- 
cocted matter always has a worse taste being more acid 
or salty or bitter and a more unpleasant odour, while 
concocted matter has a pleasant, or less unpleasant, taste 

25 and a more agreeable, or less disagreeable, odour? This 
is clear from an observation of the whole vegetable and 
animal world. If the properly concocted matter is re 
moved, that which is left is unconcocted, for instance in 
ashes, the sweet portion having been consumed, the dust 
which remains is bitter, and similarly perspiration is salty. 

30 Now the natural heat concocts the semen, which though 
small in amount is very strong, being a large quantity in 
a concentrated form. 2 When, therefore, it leaves the body, 
the latter usually becomes languid and cold ; and so the 
juices in it are subject to less concoction, since the pores 
are opened owing to the excretion of the semen. Conse- 

35 quently the perspiration of adults is saltier and has a more 
unpleasant odour than that of children, because it is uncon 
cocted ; and if their natural condition is such that the 
residue 3 of their perspiration has an unpleasant odour, 

1 Cp. below, chapter 24, and Theoph. de Odoribus, 7. 

2 i. e. the semen, though small in quantity, is concocted from a 
large amount of nourishment, cp. 879 a 9, 10. 

3 i. e. what is left when the moisture in the perspiration has 

BOOK IV. 12 877 1 

it is still more evident in such persons, and particularly l in 
those parts, such as the armpit, 2 in which it is especially 
evident in other people also. 

13 Why is it that we regard the creature which is born 3 878* 
from our own semen as our offspring, while that which is 
produced from any other part of us or from any other 
excretion is not looked upon as our own? For many 
things are produced by putrefaction, even from semen. 
Why then is that which resembles us claimed as our own, 
while that which is alien to us is not so considered ? For 5 
either all or none ought to belong to us. Is the reason 
that, in the first place, what is produced from the semen is 
born from what is our own, but that which is produced 
otherwise originates from something which is not ours, 
namely, from what is purged or excreted from us ? In 
a word, nothing in a creature procreates another creature 
except the semen ; and that which is harmful and evil, and 
also that which is alien, is not claimed by anything as its I0 
own ; for it is not the same thing to be part of a thing and 
to be alien to it and other than it and evil. Now our 
excretions and putrefactions are not our own but are other 
than us and alien to our nature. For all things that grow 
in the body must not be considered as belonging to the 
body, for even boils grow on it and these are removed and 
cast forth. In a word, all things that are contrary to nature 15 
are alien to the body, and many of the things that grow 
there are contrary to nature. If therefore the semen is the 
only thing in us from which a creature can be born, we 
should be right in regarding as our own offspring that 
only which is produced from the semen. Moreover any 
thing else which is produced from the semen, as for instance, 
when it putrefies, a worm, or the so-called monstrosities, 2 o 
when there is corruption in the womb, are not to be 
reckoned as offspring. In a word, anything which is pro 
duced from corruption is no longer produced from that 
which is our own but from that which is alien to us, like 

1 The Teubner text wrongly prints /uaXtcrrai for /uaXiora. 

2 Cp. 867^19. 

3 The Teubner text wrongly prints yevrjra for 


that which is generated from excretions such as ordure. 
That all such things are produced from corruption is 

25 proved by the fact that what is generated from uncorrupted 
semen is of such a nature as to resemble that from which 
the semen came, a horse being born from a horse and a man 
from a man. And l we do not value the semen in itself or 
everything that is being completed in the process of coming 
into being (for it is sometimes moisture and a mere mass 

30 and flesh which is coming into being), 2 because it has not 
yet its true nature but only so much of its nature as is 
implied in the fact that it is so disposed as to produce some 
thing resembling ourselves ; and nothing even of this kind 
can be produced from corrupted semen. For these reasons 
we do not regard as our offspring that which is produced 
either from anything else in us except the semen, or 
from the semen when it is corrupted or fails to achieve 

35 Why are people less able to have sexual intercourse in 14 
the water ? Is it because in water none of those things 
liquefy which liquefy with heat lead, for example, or wax ? 
Now the semen obviously liquefies with heat, for it does not 
liquefy until it is warmed by the friction. Fishes, however, 
have sexual intercourse without friction. 

Why is it that sexual intercourse is the most pleasant of 15 
all things to animals, and is it so of necessity or with some 
purpose in view ? Is it pleasant because the semen comes 
either from the whole body, as some declare; 1 or not from 
5 the whole body but only from the area over which all the 
ducts of the veins extend? The pleasure then of the 
friction 4 being similar in both cases, the sensation extends 
as it were over the whole body. Now the friction is 
pleasant, since it involves the emission of vaporous moisture 
enclosed unnaturally in the body ; but the act of generation 

1 Reading KOI avro 5e (Richards). 

2 Reading in 11. 28-30 Trepaivop-fvov (KHI yap vypbv KCU oyKos ris KOI 
ffapt- yiyvfrai Trore), dia KT\. 

3 This is the Hippocratean doctrine denied by Aristotle in G. A. 
72iM 3 ff. 

4 For this meaning of KVYJO-^OS, see G. A. 723 b 34 and A. Platt s 

BOOK IV. 15 878 1 

is an emission of similar matter for its natural purpose. 
It is pleasant both of necessity and because it has a purpose 10 
in view, of necessity, because the way to a natural result is 
pleasant, if it is realized by the senses ; and because of its 
purpose, namely, the procreation of animal life. For it is 
the pleasure more than anything else which incites animals 
to sexual intercourse. 

16 Why is it that sexual excess is beneficial in some diseases 
caused by phlegm P 1 Is it because it involves the emission 15 
of an excretion, and so a considerable amount of excreted 
matter is rejected with it, and phlegm is an excretion ? 

17 Why does sexual intercourse cool and dry the stomach ? 
Does it cool it because the heat is expelled in coition ? 
Coition causes dry ness, because, as the heat goes out, the 
moisture 2 is vaporized and finds its way out as the body 
cools, while at the same time the heat caused by the act of 20 
copulation has a drying effect. 

18 Why are those whose eyelashes fall off accounted lustful ? 
Is it for the same reason as that for which the bald also are 
so accounted ? 3 For the eyelashes and the hair of the head 
really belong together. The reason is that all the con 
genital hair which does not increase as a man gets older, 25 
falls off owing to lustfulness. For the hair of the head and 
the eyebrows and eyelashes are congenital hair ; and of 
these the eyebrows alone sometimes grow thicker with 
advancing years (the reason for this has been stated else 
where), 4 while the hair of the head and the eyelashes both 
fail from the same cause, viz., that lustfulness cools the upper 30 
parts of the body which are deficient in blood, and so this 
portion of the body does not concoct any of the nourish 
ment, and the hair not receiving any nourishment drops off. 

19 Why is it that those who wish to pass urine cannot have 
sexual intercourse ? 5 Is it because the ducts become full ? 

1 This problem has been already treated in i. 50. 

2 It seems necessary to supply TO vypuv here as the subject of 
cor/u fcra(. 

3 Cp. G.A. 783 b 2;ff. 

4 This appears to be a direct reference to P. A. 6?8 b 19, 20. 

5 Cp. 877*6-8. 


35 Now that which is full of moisture cannot admit any more 

Why is it that varicocele prevents both man and any 20 
other animals which suffer from it from procreating their 
species ? Is it because varicocele is due to a displacement 
of breath, and this is why it is beneficial to melancholic 
diseases ? Now sexual intercourse also is accompanied by 
879* an emission of breath. 1 If therefore a rush of breath makes 
its way along- when sexual intercourse is taking- place, it 
fails to impart movement to the semen 2 and the latter 
becomes cold ; consequently it enfeebles the erection of the 

Why do those who have sexual intercourse usually 21 

5 become languid and weaker ? 3 Is it because the semen 

is an excretion from the whole body, 4 and so the com 

position of the body, like the harmony of a building, is 

disturbed by the loss of any portion of it if, for example, 

all the blood 5 or any other component part of it is removed ? 

So important is that which the body loses in sexual inter 

course, being indeed formed from a large amount of nourish- 

10 ment though itself small in quantity , f) just as a cake is made 

from wheaten flour. 

Why is it that the penis is greatly distended in those who 22 
have sexual intercourse at a time when they desire to pass 
urine ? Is it because, owing to the ducts being full of 
moisture, the semen, passing out through a narrower space, 
swells the bulk of the penis and lifts it up, for it is situated 
close to the ducts. 

15 What is the cause of the erection and swelling of the 23 
penis ? Are there two reasons, first, that it is raised by 
a weight applied behind the testicles, the latter acting as 
the fulcrum, and, secondly, that the pores become full of 

1 For the semen is vypuv nvtv parades (cp. 878 b S). 

2 i. e. the breath passes into the vein instead of helping in the 
emission of the semen. 

3 This problem is almost identical with that of chapter 6, but there 
man is compared with other animals. 

4 Cp. 8;8 b 3 ard note. 5 Omitting 77 before nav with T. G. 
6 Cp. 877 b 3L 

BOOK IV. 23 879 a 

breath ? Or does its bulk become greater from the increase 
of the moisture and its change of position, or from the 
formation of moisture ? Now very large objects are less 20 
easily moved, because the weight is farther away from the 
fulcrum. 1 

24 Why is it that those who have sexual intercourse or are 
capable of it have an evil odour and what is called a hircine 
smell, whereas children do not ? 2 Is it because, as has 
already been said, 3 in children the breath concocts the 
moisture and perspiration, whereas the perspiration of 2 5 
grown men remains unconcocted ? 

25 Why is it that in summer men are less capable of sexual 
intercourse and women more so ? 4 As the poet says, 

Men, when the artichoke blooms, are weaker and women more 

wanton. 5 

Is it because the testicles hang down lower then than in 
the winter, and they must be drawn up if sexual intercourse 30 
is to take place ? Or is it because hot natures collapse in 
summer when the heat is excessive, but cold natures are 
invigorated by it ? Now a man is dry and hot, but a 
woman is cold and moist ; consequently a man s strength is 
impaired, but a woman s force is invigorated, its deficiency 35 
being compensated by its opposite. 7 

26 Why is it that some persons find pleasure in submitting 
to sexual intercourse, and some take pleasure in performing 
the active part, and others do not ? Is it because each form 
of excretion has a region in which it is naturally secreted 
and, when an effort is made, the breath in finding its way 879 b 
out causes the excretion to swell and expels it ; for example, 
urine collects in the bladder, food from which the moisture 

has been extracted in the bowels, tears in the eyes, mucous 
matter in the nostrils, and blood in the veins ? Similarly 5 
the semen collects in the testicles and penis. In those 
whose ducts are not in a natural condition, owing either 

1 And in this case the object is not large and is therefore easily moved. 

2 Cp. above, chapter 12. 3 Cp. 877 b 22fT. 
4 Cp. below, chapter 28. 

* Hesiod, Op. 582, 586. 6 Reading QdXXovcrw (Richards). 

7 i. e. heat. 


to the blocking up of the ducts leading- to the sexual organs 
(as in the case of eunuchs or other victims of sexual disable 
ment) or to some other cause, all such moisture collects in 
the region of the fundament ; for it is by this way that it 

10 passes out of the body. That this is so is proved by the 
contraction of that part in sexual intercourse and the 
wasting of that region of the body. 1 If therefore through 
wantonness a man has a superfluity of semen, it all collects 
there ; and so, when desire comes upon him, the part in 
which it is collected desires friction. This desire may be 

15 due to diet or to the imagination. When desire is stirred 
from any cause, the breath collects and secretion of this 
kind flows to its natural place. If the secretion be thin 
and full of air, when the breath finds its way out the desire 
ceases (just as the erection in boys and older persons some 
times ceases without the discharge of any moisture) ; 2 and 
the same thing happens, if the moisture dries up. But if 

20 neither of these things occurs, the desire continues till the 
one or the other of them takes place. But those who are 
effeminate by nature are so constituted that little or no 
semen is secreted where it is secreted by those who are in 
a natural state, 8 but it collects in this part of the body. 4 
The reason of this is that they are unnaturally constituted ; 
for, though male, they are in a condition in which this part 

25 of them is necessarily incapacitated. Now incapacity may 
involve either complete destruction or else perversion ; the 
former, however, is impossible, for it would involve a man 
becoming a woman. They must therefore become perverted 
and aim at something other than the discharge of semen. 
The result is that they suffer from unsatisfied desires, like 
women ; for the moisture is scanty and has not enough 

30 force to find its way out and quickly cools. When it finds 
its way to the fundament only, there is a desire to submit to 
sexual intercourse ; but if it settles both there and in the 
sexual organs, there is a desire both for performing and 

1 Cp. chapter 2. 

2 Enclosing coo-Trep . . . e /cKpttfeWoy in a parenthesis and reading 
navovTai oral/ TC KaTaafteo-dt KT\. 

3 i. e. els opxei? KCU atdota, cp. above, 11. 5, 6. 

4 i. e. ev TO IS nfpl rr)v eftpav. 

BOOK IV. 26 879* 

submitting to the sexual act, and the desire for one or other 
is greater as more semen is present in either part. This 
condition is sometimes the result of habit ; for men take 
a pleasure in whatever they are accustomed to do and emit 
the semen accordingly. They therefore desire to do the 35 
acts by which pleasure and the emission of semen are pro 
duced, and habit becomes more and more a second nature. 
For this reason those who have been accustomed to submit 
to sexual intercourse about the age of puberty and not 
before, because recollection of the past presents itself to 88o 
them during the act of copulation and with the recollection 
the idea of pleasure, desire to take a passive part owing l to 
habit, as though it were natural to them to do so ; frequent 
repetition, however, and habit become a second nature. 
All this is more likely to occur in the case of one who is 5 
both lustful and effeminate. 

27 Why is it that those who desire to submit to sexual 
intercourse feel a great shame about confessing it, which 
they do not feel in confessing a desire for meat or drink or 
anything of that kind ? Is it because the desire for most 
things is necessary and its non-satisfaction is sometimes 
fatal to life, but sexual desires proceed from something 10 
beyond mere necessity ? 

28 Why is it that men are more inclined for sexual inter 
course in the winter and women in the summer ? 2 Is it 
because men are hotter and drier in their nature, and 
women moister and cooler ? In men therefore during the 
winter the moisture and heat 3 are sufficient to cause the 15 
impulse (and it is moisture and heat which give rise to 
the production of the semen), whereas in women the heat 

is less and the moisture is congealed owing to the lack of 
fire. But in summer in women 4 the heat is well propor 
tioned, whereas in men it is more than sufficient ; for the 
excess dissolves much of their strength. For this reason 

1 Omitting Se after Bia ; the sentence otherwise has no principal verb. 

2 Cp. above, chapter 25. 

3 i. e. the natural heat and the moisture of the season. 

4 Reading TOV Se Otpovs rals p.ti> eVn : X a reads m for ovv. 

645-25 F 


20 also children are thinner during the summer ; for it is a case 
of fire added to fire \ l 

Why is it that those who are hot by nature, when they 29 
are strong and well nourished, if they do not have sexual 
intercourse are often oppressed 2 by bile, which makes its 
way down in a very bitter condition, and a salty phlegm is 
25 engendered, and their complexion changes? Is it because 
some excretion always comes away with the semen ? 
(Wherefore also the semen of some men who emit a large 
quantity of excretion 3 is said to smell of the water in which 
fish have been washed. 4 ) So when they have sexual inter 
course, this excretion comes away with the semen and so 
causes no inconvenience ; but if they abstain from copula 
tion, the excretion becomes bitter or salty. 

3 o Why are the melancholic particularly inclined for sexual 30 
intercourse ? 5 Is it because they are full of breath, and the 
semen is a discharge of breath ? If so, those whose semen 
is full of breath must necessarily often desire to purge 
themselves of it ; for thus they are relieved of it. 

35 Why are birds, and men with thick hair, lustful ? 6 Is it 31 
because they have a large amount of moisture ? Or is this 
not true (for the female sex is moist and not hairy), but is the 
real reason that the natures both of birds and of thick- 
haired men are able owing to their heat to concoct a large 
quantity of moisture ? This is indicated by the presence of 
hair and feathers. Or is it because the moisture is plentiful 
and is overpowered by the heat ? For if the moisture were 
88o b not plentiful or were not overpowered, hair would not grow 
on human beings nor feathers on birds. Now the semen is 
formed most plentifully under conditions of locality and 
at seasons that have these characteristics, 7 in spring for 
example, which is naturally moist and hot. Birds and 

1 Cp. 86i a 3i and note. 2 Reading Trpoo-to-rarat (Bussemaker). 

3 Reading TrepirrwjuariKcoi/ for nvevfjLaTiKav , the Latin version renders 

excrementis abundantium. 

4 Ix6v<ov TrXvvrpou must be taken together (cp. Tr 

534 a 27), and l\6v<*v does not agree with Trepm-w/icmKoij/ as implied by 
Bonitz (Index, p. 352, s. v. Ixtivs). 

5 Cp. 953 b 32 ff. 6 Cp. below, x. 24. 
7 i. e. when moisture is plentiful and is overpowered by heat. 

BOOK IV. 31 88o b 

lame men are lustful for the same reason, namely, that in 5 
both, owing to the deficiencies of their legs, the nourishment 
is carried downwards in small quantities only, while the rest 
travels into the upper region of the body and is converted 
into semen. 

32 Why is it that when a man has sexual intercourse his 
eyes grow very weak ? Is it not clear that this happens 
because the moisture leaves them ? This is proved by the 10 
fact that the semen is cold ; for it does not become moist 
unless the heat warms it thoroughly. Nor does it require 
melting, for it is dispersed about the body like blood. 

F 2 




15 WHY is it that long walks are more fatiguing and short I 
walks less fatiguing over level ground than over uneven 
country P 1 Is it because much movement and violent move 
ment causes fatigue, and spasmodic movement is violent, and 
continuous and monotonous movement is much movement ? 
In walking therefore on hilly ground, if the distance be long, 

20 the change provides a rest, and the same movement is not 
continued for long, even in the case of horses, owing to the 
change. On even ground, on the other hand, the similarity of 
position continues uninterruptedly and gives the limbs no 
rest, but helps to make the movement continuous. Now if 
the distance is short, no fatigue is caused on flat ground by 

25 long-continued motion ; whereas over hilly ground the 
violent change to an opposite kind of movement, sometimes 
uphill and sometimes down, gives rise to fatigue. Such, in 
our opinion, is movement over hill country, and that over 
level ground is the contrary. 

Why is it that those who faint and those who collapse 2 
30 after physical exertion are generally held to become smaller 
in bulk and their voices shriller ? Is it because their voices, 
appearing to be less, seem shriller (this can be illustrated 
by the fact that those who imitate distant voices make shrill 
sounds), 2 while their bulk appears less (because the blood 
removes from the upper to the lower parts of the body) ? 3 

Why is it that only the stomach becomes thinner in those 3 
35 who take violent physical exercise ? Is it because the greatest 
quantity of fat is found round the stomach ? 

1 This problem is derived practically word for word from Theophr. 
de las sit., 15. 

2 Cp. 899 a 22 ff. 

3 The MSS. read KGU 01 oynoi eXdrrovs without adding any reason, 
which is necessary to the sense and to the balance of the sentence. 
The words enclosed in brackets are taken from T. G., who evidently 
translates a longer text and reads quod sanguis a summis corporis 
partibus sevocat ad imas. 

BOOK V. 4 88o b 

4 Why is it that the fat is consumed in those who exert 
themselves ? Is it because fat melts when heated, and the 
movement causes heat, whereas flesh does not melt ? 

5 Why is it that the parts round the belly are fattest ? Is 

it because they are near to the nourishment ? While then 88i a 
the other parts of the body receive something from the 
belly, the belly itself often receives something. Or is it 
because the belly is exerted less than the other parts, because 
it has no joints ? 

6 Why is it that fatigue ceases more readily if one mixes 
water with the oil with which one rubs oneself? 1 Is its 
because the oil sinks in farther when mixed with water, 
whereas by itself it does not penetrate so well, because it 
has a tendency to remain on the surface ? If, therefore, it 
sinks in, the body is more softened ; for oil is naturally hot, 
and hot things have a drying and hardening effect, and 
dryness and hardness are inexpedient in fatigue ; but when 10 
applied with water the oil has a less drying effect. 

7 Why is it that vomiting is prescribed for those who are 
suffering from fatigue, although vomiting is itself fatiguing ? 
Is it because fatigue is caused by the crushing and pressure 
and weariness of the bones, and this can be caused either by 
some external or by some internal agency, and in the latter 15 
case from one of two causes, either because the flesh over 
reaches its own strength, or because one bodily constituent 
mingles in a large quantity with the rest of the body and 
does not keep to its proper place, as happens with the 
excretions ? For any burdens which are put upon us 
externally cause more fatigue than our own members, even 20 
though they are lighter than these in weight. This can be 
illustrated by the fact that those who have eaten or drunk 
somewhat freely, though they have exerted themselves less 
than when they were fasting, yet feel more fatigue, because 
the food, being unconcocted, is not in its proper place. 
And since fatigue causes liquefaction, and liquefaction is an 
excretion, it is the latter which produces fatigue in us, 25 

1 Cp. Hippocrates, de Diaet. ii. 65. 


wandering about at random and attacking the bones and 
sinews and the interior parts of the flesh, which are rare 
and open, Consequently vomiting, by dislodging the 
excretion which is the cause of fatigue, naturally makes us 
less fatigued ; for it leaves the body in the state in which it 
was when the exertion began. Vomiting is fatiguing, not 

30 because of the excess of movement caused while it is taking 
place, but when it does not happen to be thoroughly carried 
out ; for fatigue caused by vomiting occurs when a con 
siderable amount of food is left behind and this contains 
excretions, which, as we have already said, 1 happens in 
those who have eaten largely. If, therefore, in the latter it 

35 is not exertion which causes fatigue, but they feel fatigue 
because of the condition in which they are, so vomiting 
could not be the cause of fatigue in those who do not get 
rid of all the food which is in them ; 2 for in that case every 
one who vomited would feel fatigue, whereas many through 
vomiting become less fatigued. 

Why is it more fatiguing to the arm if one casts with the 8 
88l b hand empty than with a stone in it? 3 Is it because the 
movement is more spasmodic if the hand be empty, for the 
hand has nothing to rest upon, 4 such as the thrower finds 
in the missile which he holds in his hand ? Similarly the 
competitor in the fivefold contest 5 finds resistance in the 
weights 6 which he holds, and the runner in his arms which 

1 Cp. 11. 21-3 above. 

2 i. e. the cause of fatigue is not the act of vomiting but the fact that 
food is sometimes left behind which engenders excrements, and these 
cause fatigue. 

3 This problem is clearly derived from Theophr., op. cit., 13 ; cp. 
also de Incess. Anim. 70 5 a 17 ff. 

4 aTrepeideiv is practically the same as avrepeideiv of Mech. 85I b 35, 
where ro avrepdSeiv expresses vis inertiae, the tendency of a body at 
rest to remain at rest. In this case the tendency of the missile to 
remain at rest causes resistance and therefore makes the action of the 
arm less spasmodic. Cp. also Mech. 858*9 avrirfivd yap TO ^pe/uoui/. 

6 The pentathlon was a combined contest in running, jumping, disk- 
throwing, javelin-throwing, and wrestling. 

6 aXrijpfs were weights held in the hand and thrown backwards by 
the jumper whilst in the air to give him impetus. Several such weights 
still exist in the British Museum and elsewhere, cp. Norman Gardiner, 
Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals, p. 298 ff., and A. S. L. Farquharson 
on de Incess. Anim. 7o5 a 17. 

BOOK V. 8 88i l 

he swings ; l so the former jumps farther if he holds weights 5 
than if he does not, and the latter runs more quickly if he 
swings his arms than if he does not do so. 

9 Why is it that quick running causes a tendency to disease 
in the head both in man and in the other animals ? Yet 
generally speaking running appears to draw the excretions 10 
downwards, as does walking ; for which reason also those 
who walk much grow fat in the legs, because both the 
nourishment and the excretions settle down from the upper 
into the lower parts. Is it true that while motion has this 2 
effect, yet quick motion, owing to the strain and the holding 
of the breath which it involves, causes heat in the head and 
inflates the veins in it and renders them liable to be affected 1 5 
by external influences, such as cold and heat, and by the 
contents of the trunk ; 3 and that if these can enter the head, 
disease is necessarily engendered in that region ? 

10 Why is it more fatiguing to walk on level than on uneven 
ground, whereas one can walk more quickly on an even 
than on an uneven road ? 4 Is it because it is less fatiguing 20 
if one does not move continually in the same position, and 
this is the case rather in traversing uneven ground ? On 
the other hand one progresses more quickly the less one s 
movement is contrary to nature. On even ground, therefore, 
the raising and planting of the foot is a slight but frequent 
movement, while the opposite occurs on uneven ground. 
Now to raise the foot is unnatural (for raising anything 25 
requires an effort) ; and the slight movement of raising the 
foot at each step becomes considerable when repeated many 

11 Why is it more fatiguing to lie down on a flat than on 
a concave surface ? 5 Is it for the same reason that it is 
more fatiguing to lie on a convex than on a flat surface ? 

1 On the importance attached by the Greeks to arm action, especially 
in short races, see N. Gardiner, op. cit., p. 282. 

2 Reading roCro for THVTO. 

3 The #d>/;a is defined by Aristotle (H.A. 491*27) as TO an 

4 This problem is again treated in chapter 23 ; the source in both 
cases is Theophr., op. cit., 14. 

5 The source of this problem is Theophr., op. cit., 9. 


30 For the weight being concentrated in one place in the sitting 
or reclining position causes pain owing to the pressure. This 
is more the case on a convex than on a straight surface, and 
more on a straight than on a concave ; for our body assumes 
curved rather than straight lines, and in such circumstances 
concave surfaces give more points of contact than flat 

35 surfaces. For this reason also couches and seats which 
yield to pressure are less fatiguing than those which do not 
do so. 

Why are short walks fatiguing ? : Is it because they 12 
involve abrupt change, for they necessitate coming often to 
a standstill ? Now frequent change from one extreme to 
882 a another is fatiguing, for it does not allow one to become 
accustomed to either extreme, and this is tiring; and one 
cannot become accustomed to both things at once. 

Why is it that those who ride on horseback water more 13 
freely at the eyes the quicker the horse goes ? 2 Is it 

5 because the stream of air which meets them is colder 
according as it is for a shorter time in contact with the body 
(as happens in the case of naked runners), and it is the cold 
which makes the eyes water ? 3 Or is the reason the 
contrary of this, namely, that heat makes the eyes water 
(the sun, for instance), and movement engenders heat? 

10 Or is it due to the impact of the air ? For as blasts of wind 
coming from an opposite direction trouble the eyes, so 
the air all the more deals a gentle blow the quicker the 
horse is driven. 

Why is it that the other parts of the body become more 14 
fleshy when subjected to friction, but the stomach becomes 
leaner ? Or is it true that the stomach does not become 
1 5 gradually leaner 4 but solider ? The flesh, however, is not 
similarly affected, and this is the point of the problem ; for, 
speaking generally, the stomach does become leaner as the 
result of exercise and exertion. The reason is that the fat 

1 Cp. below, chapter 35 : the source of both problems is Theophr., 
op. cit., 14. 

2 Cp. below, chapter 37. 3 Reading 8aKpveiv (Richards). 

4 sc. AeTrrorepa yiverai ; but T. G. appears to translate a different 

BOOK V. 14 882 a 

parts, and those which naturally admit of more expansion, 
liquefy when heated. Now the skin naturally admits of 
expansion ; but, because it very quickly fattens, it always 20 
contains some fat, unless any disease is present. The reason 
of this is that it is near the nourishment. 1 Since, therefore, 
generally speaking-, fat is not natural but adventitious, and 
is not one of the necessary constituents of the body, as is 
the flesh, the movements set up by exercise and friction 
warm and melt it and distribute the superfluous nourishment 25 
in the other portions of the body. It is for this reason that 
sitting still makes the stomach fat and the rest of the body 
thin ; whereas movement and friction make the stomach 
thin and fill out the rest of the body. 

15 Why is it that after long and violent walking or running, 

if one stands on tiptoe, the heels quiver and are hastily 3 
drawn 2 down again ? Is it because, owing to the continuity 
and violence of the movement, the quivering of the muscles 
in the man does not cease ? For the mind often controls 
the body as a whole, but does not control certain parts of 
it, when they have been set in motion in a certain way, 
the heart, for example, and the sexual organ. The reason is 35 
that a considerable quantity of breath is consumed by heat 
round the muscles, which does not cool off immediately 
a man comes to a standstill. This breath, therefore, is 
drawn down, making him quiver, as it were dragging at him 
beneath by its movement, and leaves him little control over 
the most distant part of his body in this case over his 
heels. A similar phenomenon occurs in the trembling of 
the lower lip in those who are angry. 

16 Why is it that those who are not running very hard 882 b 
respire rhythmically ? Is it because every rhythm is 
measured by a definite movement, and the movement at 
regular intervals which occurs in running is of this nature ? 

As soon, therefore, as they begin to run they respire ; and 
so the respiration taking place at equal intervals, because it 5 
is measured out by a uniform movement, creates a rhythm. 
Or is it because all respiration without exception takes 

1 Cp. 88o b 39 ff. - Reading o-xrcoz/rai for O-TTUTCU. 


place at equal intervals in those who respire naturally and 
do not hold their breath ? The rhythm then is not obvious 
in those who are sitting or walking, because the movement 
10 of the body is slight; and in those who are running vigorously 
we cannot comprehend the rhythm of the respiration, because 
our senses cannot follow the movement. But in those who 
are running moderately fast the movement allows the measure 
observed by the breathing to be perceptible, and so shows 
the rhythm. 

Why is it that, when we are running, the air seems to 17 
15 turn into breath? Is it because, while we are moving in 
the act of running, we set in motion a stream of air 
continuous with our bodies, and this is breath ? Wherefore 
the air not only seems to turn into breath, but actually does 
so. Or is it because in running we come into collision with 
the air, and, when this happens, we have a more acute 
20 perception of the air owing to the movement ? It is only 
natural, therefore, that it should seem to us to turn into 
breath ; for the phenomenon occurs through the rush ot our 

Why is it that one is more liable to fall when running 18 
than when walking ? * Is it because in the former case one 
raises oneself higher before moving? For this is the 
difference between running and walking. 

25 Why is it that in ascending a slope our knees feel the 19 
strain, and in descending our thighs ? 2 Is it because when 
we ascend we throw the body upwards and the jerk of the 
body 3 from the knees is considerable, and so we feel the 
strain in the knees ? But in going downhill, because the 

3 weight is carried by the legs, we are supported by our 
thighs, and so they feel the strain. Furthermore, whatever 
is unnatural causes strain and pain. Now it is natural for 
the knees to bend forward and the thighs to bend backwards. 
In going ^uphill then the knees are bent backwards owing 

1 Cp. below,*chapter 29. 

2 Cp. below, chapter .24 ; the source in both cases is Theophr., 
op. cit., u, 12. 

3 Omitting *a\ before ifji-no TCOI> yovdruv with Bonitz. 

BOOK V. 19 882* 

to one s desire to support oneself, but in going- downhill 35 
the thighs are bent forwards because the body has a tendency 
to fall forwards. 

20 Why is it that on journeys the middle of the thigh is the 
part which feels the strain most ? Is it because in anything 
that is prolonged and continuous and fixed : the strain falls 
most upon the centre, and so it is most likely to break at 
that point ? Now the thigh is of^this nature, and so it is in 883* 
the middle of it that we feel the strain most. 

21 Why is it that persons of a moist temperament easily 
choke as a result of exertion and through heat ? Is it 
because their moisture when heated becomes air and the 
excess of it burns more fiercely ? When, therefore, it cannot 5 
find its way out owing to its abundance, the process of 
cooling does not take place ; and so it quickly catches fire 
owing to the natural and adventitious heat. It is for this 
reason that perspiration induced by taking physical exercise, 
and by exerting oneself generally, and the emission of breath 
are beneficial ; for breath is formed by the separation and 10 
rarefaction of moisture. 

22 Why is it that bodies of an equable temperament often 
feel weariness but throw it off more easily ? Is the cause 
the same in both cases ? For that which is equable is 
uniform, and that which is uniform is the more subject to 
similar influences ; so if any part suffers, the whole straight 
way suffers in sympathy. But that which is not equable, 
being more disunited, is not sympathetically affected by its 15 
parts. A body of equable temperament therefore often 
feels weariness, but throws it off more easily, because the 
whole body shares it ; for the suffering, being distributed 
over a larger area, is weaker and therefore more easily got 
rid of. But a body which is not of an equable temperament, 
inasmuch as it has no communion with its members, is less 
often afflicted with weariness, but has greater difficulty in 
shaking it off; for its suffering is acute. 20 

1 Inserting a comma after e 


Why is it more fatiguing to walk on level than on uneven 23 
ground, whereas one can walk more quickly on an even 
than on an uneven road ? l Is it because it is least fatiguing 
if one does not move continually in "the same position, and 
25 this is the case rather in traversing uneven ground ? 2 But 
one travels more quickly when the foot has to be lifted less 
in any equal period of time. On level ground the raising 
of the foot is a slight but frequent movement, on uneven 
ground the reverse ; but the slight 3 movement of raising 
the foot at each step becomes considerable when repeated 
many times. 

Why is it that in descending a slope we feel the strain 24 

30 most in the thighs, and in ascending in the legs ? 4 Is it 

because in ascending the strain is due to the raising of the 

body ? For the whole body becomes a burden ; and so 

the part upon which it all rests and with which we raise it 

(that is, the legs) feels the strain most. For the leg is an 

extremity, having length but not having width, as the foot 

has ; consequently it is shaken. So we may cite in 

35 illustration the fact that we move weights with the shoulder 

and rest them upon it, and therefore feel the strain most in 

the shoulder. But when we are descending, the strain is 

caused by the body falling downwards and thrusting us 

forward unnaturally, so that we feel the strain most in the 

part on which it falls most and which it shakes. Now the 

40 leg remains unaffected, and the trunk forms the weight ; but 

it is the thigh which receives the weight and is shaken, 

883 b because it has extension and is forced from above into a bent 

position where the trunk presses on it. 

Why is it that a journey seems longer when we traverse 25 
it without knowing its length than when we do know it, 
all other conditions being equal ? 5 Is it because to know 

1 A repetition, partly verbal, of the problem of chapter 10. 

2 The text as it stands gives no sense and we must clearly restore 
from 881^20, 21 ^ on aKontdTarov TO p.r] del ei> (TOO avTq) (T^/iaTl 
TTOiticr6ai rrjv KLvrjcnv^ 6 o~VjU/3aiVfi eV) TTJ oi/co/zaAco KT\., the omission being 

due to homoeoteleuton. 

3 Reading yivo^vov (fiixpov} TTO\V, cp. 88i b 26. 

4 Cp. above, chapter 19. 

5 This problem occurs again in xxx. 4. 

BOOK V. 25 883 

its length is to be able to connect a number with it, and 5 
the indeterminate is always more than the determinate ? 
Just as, therefore, if one knows that a journey is a certain 
length, it must necessarily be finite, so, if one does not know, 
as though the proposition was convertible, 1 the mind 
draws a false conclusion, and the distance appears infinite. 
Furthermore, a quantity is determinate, and that which is 
determinate is a quantity ; therefore when a thing appears i 
not to be determinate, it appears to be as it were infinite, 
because that which is of a nature to be determined, if it is 
not so. is infinite ; so that what appears not to be determined 
necessarily appears in a sense unlimited. 

26 Why is it that the thighs feel fatigue more than the legs ? 2 
Is it because they are nearer to the part of the body which 
contains the excrement, so that, when that part overflows 15 
with heat owing to the movement, the thighs contract more 
readily and to a greater extent ? Or is it because the thighs 
are more closely connected by growth with one another, 3 
for they suffer considerably owing to the separation of what 
is really continuous? 4 For indeed, If one feels fatigue 
when there is no excrement in the body, yet it is the thighs 20 
and loins which suffer more than the other parts. Or is it 
because, just as swellings in the groin are caused, if one 
receives a blow, 5 owing to the close connexion of the veins 
and sinews, so the thigh is similarly affected ? For the 
thigh is nearer than the leg to the source of the veins. 6 Or 
is it because the thigh remains more in the same position 
than the legs, and this is more fatiguing ? 7 Or is it because 

1 dvTi(TTpe(povTo$ is here used in its logical sense of transposing the 
terms of a proposition (cp. Pr. Anal. 25 a 6ff.) ; the proposition any 
journey of which I know the length must be finite is converted into 
any journey that is finite must be one of which I know the length . 

2 The source of this problem is Theophr., op. ctt. t lo. 

3 Reading 

4 Cp. Top. I45 b 2 fj d\yrjdwv du ia-Tacris TU>V (rvfj.<$vTwv pepwv p-era /Stay. 

5 Reading Tj-X^yeVros- (cp. Bonitz, Index, p. 140). The sense is clearer 

in the original source (Theophr., /. <;.), on 8e rj dvdpTrjo-is noiel avp.7rd6etav 
T&V vevpatv Km (pXefitov KOI CK T>V /Sov/Sco^coy df)\ov TrX^yeVro)!/ yap ra>v 
KaTw6(.v evravda Povftvisfs. 

6 i. e. the heart, cp. P. A. 66 5 b 15, de iuv. et sen. 468 b 31. 

7 Cp. 88i b 20-22. 


25 the thigh is fleshy, and therefore the natural heat 1 there is 
considerable ? 

Why is it that in some people 2 sores are formed as the 27 
result of exertion ? 3 Is it because, when the body contains 
impurities, movement heats it and causes other excretions 
to exude with the perspiration ? These excretions, being 
30 thick and containing harmful humours of an acid, bitter, 
and salty nature, cannot be expelled owing to their thick 
ness, but swell up through the flesh and cause sores owing 
to the bitterness of the humour which they contain. 

Why is it that food is not given immediately after exercise 28 
and after medicine has been administered ? Is it because 
35 the body is still being purged and has not yet rested from 
its toil, and the excretions have not yet been expelled ? 

Why is it more difficult to run than to walk ? 4 Is it 29 
because the runner has a heavier burden, since, when he is 
raised in the air, he has his whole weight to support ? But 
a man who is walking continues to put his weight on the 
40 part of him which is at rest, like a man leaning against 
a wall. 

88d a Why is it that one does not feel hungry immediately after 30 
exercise ? Is it because liquefaction still remains until the 
concoction of anything is complete ? 5 Or is it owing to 
the breath which the exertion engenders from the moisture ? 
Or is it owing to the thirst which is due to the heat caused 
5 by the exertion ? All these possible causes are present. 

Why is it that those who are fatigued and those who are 31 
suffering from phthisis are apt to emit semen during sleep ? 6 
Is it because generally speaking those who are warm and 
moist are inclined to do so, since the semen naturally has 
these characteristics ? 7 Now such a thing is most likely to 

1 Reading, with Richards, TO Kara (frvcriv {$epju6i>) <?x tv 

2 Reading, with Richards, Zvtoi. 

3 The source of this problem is Theophr. de Sudore, 13 ; cp. 
Hippocr. Epid. vi. 5. 15. 

4 Cp. chapter 18. 6 Reading W ai> n ire<j>6fj (Bussemaker). 

6 Galen, Epid. vi. 3 quotes this problem as Aristotelian ; cp. also 
Theophr. de Lassit.^ 16. 

7 Cp. 876*9-12. 

BOOK V. 31 884* 

happen in persons in these conditions, when the heat 
engendered by sleep is added ; for the body requires a slight 10 
impulse only, which must be internal and not external. 
This condition is fulfilled in those who are suffering from 
phthisis and in those who are fatigued ; the latter being full 
of hot liquid owing to their fatigue and movement, and the 
former owing to their state of flux and the heat engendered 
by their inflamed condition. 15 

2 Why is it more difficult to apply prolonged friction 
oneself to the left leg than to the right ? Is it because, 
though our right is the side which is capable of exertion, 
yet the rubbing of the left leg, since it involves l a distorted 
attitude, is unnatural, and anything which is unnatural is 
difficult ? 3 The difficulty of rubbing the right side with 2 o 
the left hand is not obvious, because the left hand has no 
strength whichever side it is applied to. 3 

3 Why is it healthy to reduce the amount of nourishment 
and to increase the amount of exercise ? Is it because 
abundance of excretion is the cause of disease ? Now this 

is due either to excess of nourishment or to lack of 25 

4. Why should the flesh be made rare rather than dense in 
order to promote health ? 4 For just as a city or locality is 
healthy which is open to the breezes (and that is why the 
sea too is healthy), so a body is healthier in which the air 
can circulate. For either there ought to be no excrement 
present in the body, or else the body ought to get rid of it 30 
as soon as possible and ought to be in such a condition that 
it can reject the excrement as soon as it receives it and be 
always in a state of motion and never at rest. For that 
which remains stationary putrefies (standing water, for 
example), and that which putrefies and does not move 
causes disease ; but that which is rejected passes away 
before it becomes corrupt. This then does not occur if the 35 

1 Reading e eorpa/i/ieVa)s (yap) yivtrai with Bussemaker. 

2 Cp. 882*31. 

3 The text here seems corrupt, but the sense is clear. 

4 This problem occurs also in i. 52, and is identical with the second 
part of xxxvii. 3. 


flesh is dense, the ducts being as it were blocked up, but it 
does happen if the flesh is rare. One ought not, therefore, 
to walk naked in the sun ; for the flesh thereby solidifies 
and acquires an absolutely fleshy consistency, and the body 
becomes moister, for the internal moisture remains, 1 but the 
surface moisture is expelled, a process which also takes 
884 b place in meat when it is roasted rather than boiled. 2 Nor 
ought one to walk about with the chest bare ; for then the 
sun draws the moisture out of the best constructed parts of 
the body, which A least of all require to be deprived of it. 
It is rather the inner parts of the body which should be 
5 submitted to this process ; for, because they are remote, it 
is impossible to produce perspiration from them except by 
violent effort, but it is easy to produce it from the chest 
because it is near the surface. 

Why is it that short walks are fatiguing ? 4 Is it because 35 
one often comes to a standstill and there is no uniform 
10 movement in the joints, and this is fatiguing ? 

Why do those who stand still in the sun become warmer 36 
than those who move, and this although movement is pro 
ductive of heat ? Is it true that every kind of movement 
does not produce heat, but some kinds have a cooling 
effect, as happens, for example, when one blows upon or 

15 keeps in motion kitchen-pots which have boiled up ? If 
then the heat remains when one stands still and, doing so, 
heats us more than if it w r ere in motion (for our own body 
always gives off a warm steam, which heats the neighbouring 
air, as though there were a burning brand there), then, if we 
remain motionless, the air surrounding us becomes warm 

20 for the reasons already stated ; whereas, if we move, a wind 
is set up which cools us, for wind always has a cooling 

Why is it that those who ride on horseback water more 37 
freely at the eyes the quicker the horse goes, and those on 
foot the quicker they run ? 5 Is it due to the fact that the 

1 Reading ^la^evei for fir) p.evet, cp. 865 b 31. 

2 Reading TO. onra TUV l<j>0S>v, cp. 865 b 32, 966*28. 

3 Reading a for 6, as in 865 b 34. 

4 Cp. above, chapter 12. 6 Cp. above, chapter 13. 

BOOK V. 37 884* 

air which meets them is cold ? For cold causes the eyes to 25 
water ; for by contracting and solidifying- the flesh it purges 
out the moisture. Or is the reason the contrary of this, 
namely, that the heat causes perspiration, and watering at 
the eyes is a form of perspiration ? Therefore both perspira 
tion and watering at the eyes are due to heat and are alike 
salty ; and it is movement which causes heat. Or is it due 3 
to the impact of the air ? For as blasts of wind coming 
from an opposite direction trouble the eyes, so too the 
quicker a man drives or runs the more does the air deal 
a gentle blow, and this causes the eyes to water, because 
the ducts of the eye are rarefied by the blow ; for every 
blow has the effect either of cleaving or crushing. 35 

38 Why is it that fatigue must be cured in the summer by 
baths, in the winter by anointing ? l Is it because the latter, 
owing to the cold and the changes which it causes in the 
body, must be got rid of by heat, which will cause warmth, 
and olive-oil contains heat ? In summer, on the other hand, 

the body requires moisture ; for the season is dry and chills 885* 
are not engendered, because it is warm. A sparing diet of 
solid food and a liberal indulgence in liquid nourishment 
are characteristic of the summer, the latter being peculiar 
to the summer, while the former is commoner than at other 
seasons ; for indulgence in drinking is peculiar to the 
summer because of the dryness of the season, but a sparing 
diet is found at all seasons, but is more general in the 
summer ; for then owing to the season more heat is 5 
engendered by food. 

39 Why is it that those who are running vigorously experi 
ence the greatest shock, if any one impedes them in their 
course ? Is it because a thing is being drawn apart most 
vigorously when it is being dragged or moved violently in 
a contrary direction ? If therefore any one impedes one 
who is running and whose limbs are being vigorously 10 
thrust forward, the result is that he wrenches him back at 
the same time as his limbs are still moving forward, and so 

1 A repetition almost word for word of Bk. i. 39. 


the more vigorously he is running the more violent is the 
shock which he receives. 

Why is it that walking along roads l over uneven ground 4 

15 is less fatiguing than along a flat, straight surface? Is it 
because an upright carriage is natural to everybody, but 
walking over even surfaces is more fatiguing than over 
uneven ground, since walking over even ground causes a 
continuous strain on the same members, whereas walking 
over uneven ground distributes the strain over the whole 
body ? Now walking in warm weather tends more to make 

20 the body thin than in cold weather ; for it causes more strain 
upon the outer parts, and so causes thinness by engendering 
perspiration. Walking in cold weather makes the flesh 
more solid and causes a great desire for food ; for it 
engenders an increase of heat in the inner parts and, since 

25 they become less liable to be affected by the cold, it cleanses 
the inner region by increasing the heat there, while it makes 
the flesh firm, since it cannot prevail over the whole of it. 
In like manner walking uphill is a greater exertion and 
tends more to cause thinness than walking downhill. For 
walking uphill causes most strain to the loins (whereas 

30 walking downhill is most trying to the thighs, for the 
whole weight falls upon them and so usually causes fatigue 
in them); for as they are forcibly carried 2 upwards in an un 
natural manner, heat is engendered. Walking uphill there 
fore induces perspiration and causes thinness by heightening 
the respiration and engenders pain in the loins ; for the legs, 

35 being lifted with difficulty, cause the loins to bend and draw 
them up, which naturally causes a very great strain. Walking 
on hard, resisting ground causes fatigue to the muscles and 
tendons of the legs ; for it causes tension in the sinews and 
muscles, because the pressure upon them is violent. Walking 
on soft ground is fatiguing to the joints ; for it causes 
frequent bending of the joints, because the surface trodden 
gives way. 3 

1 Reading TWV Kara ras 68ovs (Richards). 

2 Omitting Wo roO Qeppov, which spoils the sense, and reading 

3 Omitting TO aird eVrt 7rpd/3Xr?/xa, cp, 874 a 34 and note. 

BOOK V. 41 885 1 

41 Why do we walk with difficulty up a steep slope ? Is it 5 
because all progression is made up of raising the feet and 
putting them down again ? Now raising the foot is un 
natural and putting it down is natural, while putting the 
foot forward 1 is a mean between the two. Now in walking 
up a steep slope the unnatural motion preponderates. 

42 [Why are riders on horseback less likely to fall ? Is it 10 
because owing to their fear they are more careful ?] 2 

1 Reading npofelvai for npoaOelvai ; the Latin version renders pro- 
ponere ; so too Bussemaker. 

2 This problem is omitted by C a and neither makes any sense nor 
is relevant to a discussion of fatigue. 

G 2 

885 b 



15 WHY is it that sitting down makes some persons fat and I 
others lean ? Is it because bodily conditions differ, some 
men being hot, others cold ? Those therefore who are hot 
grow fat (for the body owing to its heat prevails over l the 
nourishment) ; but those who are cold, owing to the fact 
that their body requires heat introduced from without and 

20 derives it chiefly from movement, cannot concoct their food 
while they are at rest. Or is it because the hot are full of 
superfluities and require movement to expend them, while 
the cold are not so ? 

Why is it necessary that the parts of the body should be 2 
distended, as happens when a man takes athletic exercise ? 

25 Is it because the ducts must be purged by their own 
breath ? 

Why is it better to lie in a curved position and why do 3 
many physicians prescribe this ? Is it because the stomach 
concocts food more quickly when it is kept warm, and it 
keeps warmer in this position ? Furthermore it is necessary 
to give the vapours a place where they can settle ; for then 

30 there is less likely to be pain from flatulence. (It is on this 
account that swollen veins and abscesses of all kinds help 
to restore a healthy condition, because they form hollows 
in which they receive the vapours.) When the body then 
is extended no hollow is formed (for the internal organs 
occupy all the space) ; but a hollow is formed when the 
body is curved. 

35 Why is dizziness more likely to occur in those who are 4 
standing than in those who are sitting? 2 Is it because, 
when one is still, the moisture all inclines to one part of the 
body ? This is why raw eggs cannot be spun round and 
round but fall over. 3 The same thing occurs when the 

1 i.e. concocts (/Term) or digests. 

2 Cp. Theophr. de Vert. 12. 3 Ib. 2. 

BOOK VI. 4 885* 

moisture in the body is put in motion. So one stands up 
after having been at rest, when one is in this condition ; l 886 { 
but one sits down after having been in motion, when the 
moisture is evenly and uniformly distributed 

5 Why is it that sleep comes more readily if one lies on 
the right side ? Is it because the conditions when we are 
awake and when we are asleep are the contrary of one 
another ? Since, therefore, when we are awake we recline 5 
on the left side, the contrary will occur when another 
principle, namely, the contrary, is at work. Or is it 
because sleep is the absence of movement ? The parts 
then of the body which are most active must be at rest ; 
and the parts of the body on the right are most active. 
So, if one is lying on this side, a waking principle is as it 
were enchained. 

6 Why does one feel numbness ? And why more in the ro 
hands and feet than elsewhere? 2 Is it because numbness 

is a process of cooling, being due to deprivation of blood 
and its transference elsewhere ? Now these parts, especially 
the feet, are least fleshy and most muscular, and so they are 
naturally disposed to cool quickly. 

7 Why do we find it comfortable to recline on the left side, 15 
but sleep better on the right side ? 3 Is it because by turning 
away we avoid looking towards the light, since in the dark 
sleep comes on more readily ? Or is it because we keep 
awake when reclining on the left side, and in this position 
we can easily employ ourselves in any particular function ; 
and so for the contrary purpose 4 the contrary position 5 

is advantageous ; for each position invites to a particular 20 
function. 6 

1 i. e. when the moisture is collected in one place. 

2 Cp. Theophr., fr. II (Wimmer), de Membrorum Solutione. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 5. 4 i. e. for rest, 

6 Reading from T. G. npos TO fvavriov (TO Ivavriuv} o-^/xa (so too 

6 Many MSS. here repeat a shorter and slightly different form of 
chapter i : Why is it that sitting down makes some persons fat and 
others lean ? Is it because of their bodily condition ? For those who 
are hotter grow fat, for the body prevails over the nourishment owing 
to its heat, which is not lost (reading a$mpov/u>^) ; but those who 
are cool, because they require heat introduced from without, cannot 
concoct their nourishment while they are at rest. 

886 a 




WHY do men generally themselves yawn when they see I 
25 others yawn? 1 Is it because, if they are reminded of it 
when they feel a desire to perform any function, they then 
put it into execution, particularly where the desire is easily 
stirred, for example, that of passing urine ? Now a yawn 
is a breath and a movement of moisture ; it is therefore 
easy of performance, if only one sees some one else yawn 
ing ; for the yawn is always ready to come. 

Why is it that, although we do not imitate the action 2 

30 if we see a man stretching out his hand or foot or doing 

anything else of the kind, yet we ourselves yawn if we 

see some one else doing so ? 2 Or does this not always 

occur, but only when the body happens to feel a desire 

and is in such a condition that its moisture becomes heated ? 

For then it is recollection which gives the impulse, as also 

in sexual desire and hunger ; for it is that which causes 

35 recollection to exist 3 that provides the stimulus towards 

the condition observed in another person. 

Why is it that if we stand by a fire we desire to pass 3 
urine, and if men stand near water (for example, near 
886 b a river) they actually pass urine ? Is it because water in 
general reminds us of the water in our own bodies, and 
the neighbourhood of water incites our internal moisture 
to come out? Fire of itself dissolves anything which is 
solidified in the body, just as the sun melts the snow. 4 

1 Cp. problems 2 and 6. 2 Cp. problems I and 6. 

3 eWt Kai should perhaps be read for flvai, for that which causes the 
recollection also provides the stimulus , &c. 

4 This problem is definitely referred to as Aristotelian by Aulus 
Gellius (xix. 4) : Aristotelis libri sunt, qui problemata physica inscri- 
buntur, lepidissimi et elegantiarum omne genus referti. In his quaerit 
. . . cur accidat, ut eum qui propter ignem diutius stetit, libido urinae 
lacessat . . . De urina crebra ex igne proximo facta, verba haec posuit : 
TO 8e fri p Sia^oXa TO TTeTrrjyos, vcrirfp 6 rj\ios rrjv ^lova. 1 

BOOK VII. 4 886 1 

4 Why is it that those who come into contact with certain 
diseases become affected by them, but no one ever becomes 
healthy through contact with health ? l Is it because 5 
disease is a state of movement, while health is a state of 
rest ? If so, disease can set up movement, but health 
cannot. Or is it because disease comes to us against our 
will, while health comes by our own wish ? Things then 
which occur against our will are different from those which 
occur by our wish and deliberate choice. 

5 Why is it that not only do some unpleasant sounds 
make us shudder 2 for example, when a saw is being i 
sharpened, or pumice-stone cut, or a stone ground 3 but 
the signs of effects produced in others conveyed by the 
sight cause those very effects in ourselves ? For our teeth 
are set on edge when we see others eating anything bitter, 
and some people faint when they see any one being 
strangled. Is it because every sound or noise is a breath, 4 
and this penetrating into us naturally causes disturbance ? 15 
Now it will cause greater disturbance if it comes either in 
great quantity or with an unusually violent impact, setting 
up a new condition or causing some alteration within us. 
Wherefore breaths 5 which, though large in bulk, are yet 
soft, stir the actual seat of sensation, and such have a plea 
sant effect ; but those which are rough, causing a violent 
impact, shake the seat of sensation and affect a wide area 20 
owing to the force of their impact. Now things which are 
cold also affect a wide area, for coldness is a kind of force ; 
therefore, as has been already said, it causes shuddering. 
But things which are rough, because they cause a series of 
frequent impacts, striking on the base of the hair thrust 

it in the opposite direction ; G for when the hair is thrust 
out, its ends must necessarily assume a contrary position, 25 
with the result that it stands upright ; for hair always 
naturally lies flat. The direction taken by the breath 

1 Cp. 95i a 4ff- 

2 (ppirrfiv covers the meanings both of trembling or shuddering and 
of the hair standing on end. 

3 Cp. Q64 b 35 fF. 4 i. e. sound-vibration. 

fi Cp. 87 i a 33, 889* 28. i. e. outwards from the head. 


which is conveyed to the body by the hearing is downwards 
from above. The sounds, therefore, which we have men 
tioned l being harsh, the hair bristles for the reasons stated. 
The bristling occurs more on the rest of the body than on 
30 the head, because the hair there is weaker and the effect 
produced is weaker. The sensation produced by hearing 
being blunter than that produced by sight, the effects 
produced by it are confined to the surface of the body ; 
the bristling of the hair is an effect of this kind, so it occurs 
35 from many dissimilar causes. The sensation produced by 
sight being very distinct, its results too are correspondingly 
more distinct ; therefore the effects actually 2 occurring in 
others are reproduced in those who observe them, but 
887 a more mildly than in the original. 3 But as a result of 
hearing our hair stands on end for fear, not of the actual 
sounds, but of the anticipation which they arouse ; for it 
is an anticipation of grievous ill. 

Why is yawning caused by the sight of others yawning, 4 6 
5 and so also the passing of urine, particularly in beasts of 
burden ? Is it due to recollection ? For when recollection 
occurs the part of the body concerned is stimulated. In 
men then, because their sensations are finer, when they 
see something stimulation and recollection occur simul 
taneously. But in the beasts the sight is not sufficient 
by itself, but they require another sense to be called into 
10 activity ; so the sense of smell must also be employed, this 
being a more easily stimulated sense in unreasoning animals. 
So the other animals always pass urine in the same spot 
as the first one ; for the stimulus is most acute when the 
sense of smell is employed ; and the sense of smell is called 
in play when they are near the spot. 

15 Why is it that when we see any one cut or burned or 7 
tortured or undergoing any other painful suffering, we 
share mentally in his pain ? Is it because nature is common 

1 Cp. 11. 10, ii above. 

2 Reading with Bonitz aura for mvra, cp. above, 1. 12. 

3 As in the example given in 886 b 12-14, viz. fainting as the result 
of seeing a person strangled. 

4 Cp. chapters I and 2. 

BOOK VII. 7 887* 

to us all, and it is this which shares in the sufferer s pain, 
when we see any of these things happening to him, through 
kinship with him ? Or is it because, just as the nose and 
hearing according to their particular faculties receive certain 20 
emanations, so also the sight does the same as the result of 
things pleasant and painful ? 

8 Why is it that those who come into contact with phthisis 
or ophthalmia or scurvy become affected by them, but there 
is no contagion from dropsy or fevers or apoplexy and the 
rest ? In ophthalmia is contagion due to the fact that 25 
the eye is very easily affected and more than the other 
senses assimilates itself to that which it sees for example, 
it moves when it sees something else moved and so it 
very readily becomes disordered when it sees another eye 
in that condition ? In phthisis is the contagion due to the 
fact that phthisis makes the breath weak and laboured, 
and those diseases are most quickly contracted which are 
due to the corruption of the breath, as is seen in plagues ? 
He therefore who comes into contact with the sufferer 30 
inhales this corrupted breath, and so himself becomes ill, 
because the breath is unhealthy ; and he catches the disease 
from one person only, because that person exhales this 
particular breath, which is different from that which others 
exhale ; and he catches the same disease, because, in inhaling 
the breath l by which he becomes infected, he is inhaling 
just such breath as he would if he were already suffering 
from the disease. Scurvy alone is catching among similar 
diseases, 2 such as leprosy and the like, because it affects 
the surface of the body and causes a glutinous discharge 35 
(for this is the nature of itching diseases), and so this 
disease, 3 being on the surface of the body and glutinous } 
can be conveyed by contact. Other similar diseases are 
not so conveyed, because either they are not on the 

1 Reading rouro for rourw, but the corruption of the text has 
probably gone farther than this and some such reading as rfjv uvrfjv de 
i-6arov rouro) 09 av (icrdevrjiTr), on avtnrvfl KT\. is perhaps nearer to the 
original : he catches the same disease as the sick man, because he is 
inhaling , c. 

2 Reading /uo i/oi/ with the best MSS. 

3 Reading avTrj (Richards). 


surface, or else, being on the surface, they do not remain 
there, because they are dry. 

88y b Why do purslane and salt stop inflammation of the 9 
gums ? J Is it because purslane contains some moisture ? 
This is seen to be so if one chews it or if it be crushed 
together 2 for some time ; for the moisture is then drawn 
out of it. The glutinous matter sinks into the gum and 
draws out the acidity. For that there is an affinity between 
5 the disease and the remedy is shown by the acidity ; for 
the juice of the purslane has a certain acidity. Salt, on 
the other hand, dissolves and draws out the acidity. Why 
then do lye and soda not have this effect ? Is it because 
they have an astringent instead of a dissolvent effect ? 

1 This problem occurs also in i. 38, where see notes. 
^ Reading crwdXaadf] for awredfj, see note on 863** 13. 



1 WHY is it that those who are chilled become livid ? 10 
Is it because the blood is congealed by the cold and, as 

it congeals, becomes black through the absence of heat ? 
(A white colour, on the other hand, is to be attributed to 
fire.) For this reason also the flesh of the aged is par 
ticularly livid, because it contains very little heat. 

2 Why is it that those who are chilled cannot sleep ? l Is 1 5 
it because any one who is chilled tends to hold his breath, 
but a sleeper exhales rather than inhales, so that it is 
difficult for one who is cold to sleep, since it is impossible 
to do contrary things simultaneously ? 

3 Why is it that those who are ill or in pain or angry 
become more active under the influence of cold ? Is it 20 
because a cold condition makes a man stronger ? 

4 Why is it that athletes in good training do not bear the 
cold well ? 2 Is it because their condition is clean and airy 
and free from fat ? Such a condition is easily accessible 
to the air, since it is permeable and does not contain any 
heat ; fat, on the other hand, is hot, unless it is saturated 25 
with moisture. 

5 Why are the extremities most affected by cold ? Is it 
due to their narrow shape ? Also the ducts in them, being 
narrow, hold little blood, and therefore little heat ; for the 
blood is hot. 

6 Why are the feet more liable to become chilled when 
they are suspended in mid air ? Is it because the wind 
blows more underneath then ? Or is it because the blood 30 
is contracted into a narrower space below, and so the rest 

1 Cp. chapter 22. 2 Cp. chapter 10. 


of the foot is more easily chilled, because the heat 
leaves it ? 

Why is it that stout persons are especially liable to chill, 7 
although fat is warm ? Is it because, owing to the great 
ness of their bulk, their extreme parts are far from the 
internal heat, while their near parts are far from the 
external cold ? 

35 Why do people shiver after sneezing and after passing 8 
urine ? l Is it because in both processes the veins are 
emptied, and when they are empty the cold air enters, and 
this causes shivering ? 

Why is it that ravenous hunger is felt in cold weather 9 
and in winter rather than in summer ? Is it because 
888 a ravenous hunger is brought on through lack of dry nourish 
ment, and in the cold and winter the internal heat contracts 
into a narrower space and its internal nourishment soon 
fails, and when this happens ravenous hunger is more 
likely to occur? The faintness and weakness due to 

5 ravenous hunger occur when liquefaction takes place in 
the body owing to the collection of heat in one place. This 
liquefied matter flows into the region usually occupied by 
the nourishment and itself becomes nourishment for the 
body; if it attacks the seat of respiration, loss of voice and 
weakness ensue, the loss of voice being due to the obstruc 
tion of the passage of the breath, while the weakness is 

10 caused by the lack of nourishment in the body and internal 
liquefaction. Treatment in such cases can be quickly and 
simply applied, because the cause of the trouble is external ; 
for it is the external 2 cold making our heat contract which 
causes the ravenous hunger. So just as one trembles and 
turns pale from fear, but, when freed 3 from the danger, 

i 5 one recovers immediately ; so too those who are suffering 
from ravenous hunger, after taking a little bread, quickly 
recover, 4 having undergone a violent and unnatural dis- 

1 This problem is almost identical with xxxiii. 16. 

2 Reading curbs (W. D. R.) for ei/ror. 

3 Reading afa&tvres for a<j)tvTfs (so also Richards). 

4 Kai of ftou\inia)VTfS . . . ra^ela f) aitOK.aTa(TTaais ylvtrai is an anacolll- 
thon for oi /3. 

BOOK VIII. 9 888 

turbance, but not having been permanently injured thereby ; 
for the same thing- which resists the tendency l of nature also 
restores us to our natural course. Once relax the force 
which is straining against nature, and the body slips back 
into its natural state as suddenly as children who are 20 
playing at * tug-of-war with a rope, if the rope is let go, 
fall on their backs. 

10 Why is it that those who have undergone athletic train 
ing do not bear the cold so well as those who have not 
done so ? 2 Is it because the fat is got rid of by their 
exercises, and it is the fat which gives warmth, since that 
which is oily is hot ? Or is it because the body is in a 25 
more airy and rare condition, because the fat and the 
excretions have been got rid of, so that there is nothing 
to keep out the cold ? Or is it because through the opening 3 
of the pores by perspiration a number of doors are as it 
were removed ? 4 It is clear that the same condition does 
not conduce both to health and to strength ; for obviously 
a condition of health is one of fatness, while a condition 30 
of strength is a state of rarity. 

11 Why do we shiver both when hot and when cold water 
is poured over us ? For it is strange that contraries should 
produce the same result. Is it because, when cold water 
is poured over us, 5 the extinguishing of the internal heat 
causes shivering, whereas, as the effect of warm water, the 
superficial cold is enclosed 6 in one place and massed to- 35 
gether by its inward rush ? 7 So both effects are due to 
the same cause, but in one case it operates from within and 
in the other from without. 

12 Why do the hairs bristle upon the skin ? 8 Is it because 
they naturally stand erect when the skin is contracted, and 

1 Reading r// . . . dyatyrj. 2 Cp. chapter 4. 

3 It is doubtful whether nTrocrro/zaxrtv, a word apparently only occur 
ring here, can mean opening , since the verb QTroo-ro^oCj/ means to 
stop up ; avaa-Tofioxriv should therefore probably be read. 

4 And so let in the cold. 

5 Reading Tr/jofrxeo^ievoip for TT/JOO xeo/xfZ ot. 

6 See note on 86; b 32. 7 Cp. de Somno, 457** 14-17. 

8 This problem is repeated in xxxv. 5 ; the same subject is treated 
in chapters 15 and 21 below. 


40 this contraction occurs owing to cold and certain other 
conditions ? 

888 b Why is it that one shivers at the last emission of urine ? 13 
Is it because, whilst the warm liquid is still within, the 
bladder and the passages round it are full, but when it has 
passed out they fill up l again with cold air, for nothing 
can be empty, but must be full either of something corporeal 
5 or of air ? Inasmuch then as cold air enters, shivering is 
a natural result. 

Why is it that the tongue of those who are chilled, like 14 
that of the drunken, stumbles? Is it because, as it stiffens 
and hardens with the cold, it becomes difficult to move, 
and, when this happens, it cannot speak plainly ? Or is it 

10 because, the outer parts of the body being solidified by 
the cold, the moisture flows together within and saturates 
the tongue, and so it cannot perform its function, as has 
been already described in the case of the drunken ? 2 Or 
is it because owing to the trembling produced by chill, 
the movement of the tongue is irregular and it cannot 

15 articulate the words which it utters, and consequently it 
stumbles ? 

Why do the hairs stand erect on the bodies of those 15 
who are chilled ? 3 Is it because as a result of cooling 
the heat collects in the inner region of the body, and the 
flesh, as the heat leaves it, contracts more and more, and, 
as it is drawn together, the hairs become more upright ? 
20 [Or is it because . . .] 4 

Why in the winter are we more likely to become chilled 16 
through running than through standing still ? Is it because 
the air surrounding the body, when we stand still, no 
longer causes discomfort when once the body is thoroughly 
warm, but on the other hand, when we are running, we are 
continually encountering more and more cold air, and so 
25 are more liable to become chilled ? Moreover also air is 

1 Reading fvenXrjo-Qev. 

2 Cp. 875 b 27 ff. 3 Cp. chapters 12 and 21. 
4 A further reason has been accidentally omitted. 

BOOK VIII. 16 888 b 

cold when it is in motion, and it is for the most part such 
air that meets us in running 1 . 

17 Why is it that it is colder at dawn, although l the sun 
is nearer to us ? Is it because the period of the sun s 
absence is then at its longest, so that the earth has become 
more cooled ? Or is it because towards daybreak the dew 
falls, as does the hoar-frost, and both of these are cold ? 3 
Or do they too fall because the heat which rises from the 
earth is overpowered, the reason that it is overpowered 
being the absence of the sun ? So that they do not fall 
when the sun is farther away, but when it is nearer they 
fall and become congealed, 2 because the longer the sun 

is absent the cooler the ground becomes. 3 Or is it because 
the nocturnal breezes tend to cause cold 4 towards day- 35 
break ? Or do we only imagine that it is colder because 
then the food within us is concocted and, the stomach 
being emptier, we are more liable to feel the cold ? This 
can be illustrated by the fact that we feel very cold after 

18 Why is it that those who are chilled feel pain if they 
are taken straight to the fire, whereas they do not do so 

if they are warmed gradually ? Is it because one contrary 40 
immediately succeeding another contrary always sets up 88g a 
a violent change ? We may compare the fact that if one 
bends a tree by degrees, it does not suffer, but if one bends 
it with greater violence and not gradually, it breaks off. 
If therefore like is unaffected by like, and the heat of 
a man who is chilled collects and concentrates within him, 5 
and the moisture and cold are left behind, and a contrary 
is destructive of its contrary, it follows that, if one is 
warmed by degrees, the heat comes out gradually and less 

1 Omitting r),or else reading q (^UKTO?) from 938 a 32, where the same 
problem is treated more briefly ; cp. below, 1. 33, which clearly states 
that the dew and the hoar-frost, which fall at dawn, fall when the sun 
is near the earth. T. G. renders cur tempore matutino frigus acrius 
est, cum tamen sol propius adsit ? 

2 Putting a comma after miyvvTai instead of a semicolon. 

3 i.e. it so happens that the time when the clew and hoar-frost fall 
is the time when the sun is nearest to the earth, but the cause is not 
the position of the sun but the fact that the ground is coldest at dawn. 

4 Reading, with Richards, nv^v^ara {nirui) rijs x//u|ecuy. 


pain is caused, but, if the warming is not gradual, the 
heat is rather drawn out. 1 

10 Why is it that when we are chilled the same heat causes 19 
more burning and pain ? 2 Is it because owing to its 
density the flesh holds the heat which comes into contact 
with it ? This is the reason why lead becomes hotter than 
wool. Or is the passage of the heat violent because the 
pores are congealed by the cold ? 

15 Why is it that those who are angry do not become 20 
cold ? Is it because anger and wrath are the opposite 
of cowardice ? Now anger is the result of fiery heat, for 
by retaining a large quantity of fiery heat within us we 
become warm. This is particularly noticeable in children. 
For grown-up men when angry become distracted, 3 but 
children first of all take in breath in large quantities and 

20 then blush ; for the amount of heat in them being very 
great and causing liquefaction makes them blush, since, 
if one were to pour a quantity of cold water on them, they 
would cease 4 from their wrath, for their heat would be 
quenched. The opposite occurs in cowards and those 
who are afraid ; 5 for they are chilled and become cold 

25 and pale ; for the heat leaves the superficial region of 
their bodies. 

Why is it that when we shiver, the hairs stand erect ? 6 21 

Do they lie down 7 because they grow in moisture ? For 

the weight 8 of the hair prevails over the moisture. Now 

shivering is caused by the cold, for the cold naturally 

30 congeals the moisture. When therefore the moisture, out 

1 The text of the whole of this passage is unsatisfactory though the 
general meaning is plain. 

2 i. e. more than it would if we were not chilled. This problem is 
repeated in xxxvii. 4. 

3 It is improbable that /SAaTrroimu can mean this by itself without 
the addition of mis $peVi or something similar ; it is almost certainly 
corrupt. Some verb meaning suppress their feelings or escape 
notice would be expected. T. G. does not render oi /zeV yap 

4 Reading Trauo-au/r av (Richards). 

5 The Teubner text prints (po^ov^vo for 

6 Cp. chapters 12 and 15. 

7 Reading KaraKexXivrat (W. D. R.) for KaraKeifXelaOai, Cp. below, 1. 35. 

8 Reading, with Bonitz, /3dpos for /3a#o?, cp. below, 1. 34. 

BOOK VIII. 21 88g 5 

of which the hair grows, undergoes a change and congeals, 
it is natural that the hair should undergo a change also. 
If therefore it changes into a contrary condition, it either 
remains permanently in that condition, or else the hair 
will again prevail over the moisture. It is not, however, 
likely that the hair can by its weight overpower the 
moisture when it is congealed and condensed ; and if it is 
impossible for the hair to lie down anywhere because the 35 
moisture is congealed, the only thing left for it to do is 
to stand erect. Or is it because, as a result of cooling, 
the heat collects in the interior region of the body, and 
the flesh, as the heat leaves it, contracts more and more, 
and, as it draws together, the hair grows more upright, 1 
just as when one fixes a twig or some other object into 
the ground and fills the space round it and collects the 
soil on every side, it is more likely to remain erect than if 
one leaves the soil loose round it ? 

22 Why is it that those who are chilled find it particularly 
difficult to go to sleep ? 2 Is it because one who is chilled 
holds his breath rather than exhales, and a sleeper exhales 5 
rather than inhales ? Chill therefore induces a condition 
which is directly opposed to sleep. 

1 Down to this point the sentence is a repetition of 888 b 17-21. 

2 Cp. chapter 2 




10 WHY is it that weals can be prevented by the application I 
of newly flayed hides, particularly those of rams, and by 
breaking- eggs over the part affected ? Is it because both 
these things prevent the collection of moisture and the 
consequent swelling ? For the wounded place attracts the 
moisture and swells owing to the inflammation. 2 Now 
eggs owing to their glutinous consistency cause adhesion 

15 and prevent swelling (their effect resembling that of 
cautery 3 ), acting as a kind of glue. The hide owing to its 
glutinous condition adheres and at the same time by its 
heat sets up concoction and stops the inflammation, for they 
do not remove it for several days. Rubbing with salt and 
vinegar is also employed with the object of drawing out the 

20 Why is it that scars are black on the rest of the body but 2 
white on the eye ? 4 Is it because a scar, like everything 
else which is diseased, takes on the contrary of its original 
colour, and it is in the black part of the eye that wounds 
are inflicted ? However, scars on the body do not become 

25 black immediately, but are white at first ; nor are scars in the 
eye always white," but it is only after a while that they 
become absolutely or comparatively so. 

Why does a fennel-stalk 6 make the parts round the place 3 
which is struck red and the centre of it white ? Is it 

1 Some MSS. read rpau/iara, wounds, for /LicbAeoTros-. 

2 Bekker s reading eA*ei eVmperai makes no sense. T. G. renders 
pars enim collisa humorem trahit intumescitque. We clearly should 
read e\/a (TO vypbv /cat) eVrnperat, the omission being due to homoeote- 
leuton. The sentence then explains rrjv adpoia-iv rov vypov *at T/)J/ 
(Trapa-iv of the previous sentence. 3 Cp. 862 a 10, n. 

4 This subject is also treated in chapter 7. 

5 Reading MvKai for /Lte Xatvai (Bonitz). 

" Fennel-stalks were used as canes by ancient schoolmasters, cp. 
Xen. Cyrop. ii. 3. 20. 

BOOK IX. 3 88g b 

because it presses the blood away from the middle, at the 
point where, being round, it strikes deepest ? Or would 
one not expect the blood for this reason to return there 
again, the redness being due to the rush of blood and such 3 
a rush taking place towards the part which is struck ? 

4 Why is it that, when a violent blow is struck with 
a fennel-stalk, the middle of the flesh which is struck turns 
white and the surrounding parts red, whereas, if an ordinary 
stick is used, the middle is the reddest part ? l Is it because 
the fennel-stalk owing to its lightness, if it strikes a hard 
blow, disperses the blood on the surface, and so the part 35 
from which the blood has retired has a white appearance, 
but the parts to which it flows in greater quantities become 
redder? When the part struck swells up, the dispersed 
blood does not readily return to its place, because it is 
scanty and the course which it must follow is upwards ; 2 

for it needs the force imparted by mass to make it follow an 890* 
unnatural course. But blows dealt with hard objects owing 
to their weight and strength cause compression and crushing. 
The compression, therefore, produces a hollow, while the 
crushing causes rarity ; for crushing is a mild form of cutting 
and cleaving. The middle of the part struck becoming 5 
hollow and rare, the blood flows into it from the surrounding 
surface ; for it naturally flows downwards and into the rare 
parts, because they give way before it. The blood collecting 
there naturally makes this part red, whilst the surrounding 
regions, from which the blood retires, turn white. 

5 Why do those who are splenetic have black scars ? Is it 10 
because their blood is corrupted by the admixture of vitiated 
and watery blood from the spleen ? Now the scar occupies 
only a small depth of the skin on the surface, but the 
blood, which is black because it is watery and hot, shows 
through the skin and gives the scar also a black appearance. 
Moreover, very often the scar meanwhile becomes blacker 15 
and blacker ; this is due to the same cause, for owing to 

1 A fuller and more satisfactory treatment of the problem of the 
previous chapter. 

2 i. e. the blood must flow uphill in order to reach the centre of the 

H 2 


the weakness of the skin the blood cools, and as the heat 
evaporates, turns blacker. Similarly in the aged the flesh 
becomes blacker, 1 and their congenital scars are blacker 
20 than those of the young ; for their whole body assumes as 
it were the condition of a bruise owing not to the thinness 
of their skin but to the fact that their heat fails. 

Do things which cause the same effect possess the same 6 
power for the production of that effect, or not? For 

25 example, seeing that copper and radishes and mashed beans 
and sea-lungs 2 and clay and various other things take 
away bruises, do they do so in virtue of the same power ? 
Or does copper produce this effect because of its rust, which 
has a medicinal value, 3 and beans and sea-lungs and clay 
because they have an attractive force owing to their rarity, 

.5 and other things for various other reasons ? Or is the 
ultimate effect the same in all these cases (for many of them 
possess contrary qualities, for example heat and cold 4 ), 
while the earlier effects may nevertheless be different ? 

Why do all other scars turn black, while those in the eye 7 
are white ? 5 Is it because they cause a change in respect 
35 of colour in the parts in which they occur, and so scars 
which occur in the eye, which is black, must necessarily be 
white ? 

Why is the blow of a fennel-stalk more painful than that 8 
of some much harder instruments, if in dealing the blow 
one considers their comparative effects ? For it would be 
much more natural to suppose that the stroke of a harder 
instrument would be more painful, for it deals a heavier 
890 b blow. Is it because the flesh is pained not only by receiving 
a blow but also by dealing one ? When it is struck by 

1 Cp. 967 b i3ff. 

2 Apparently the marine animal of de Part. Anim. 68 i a 18 and Hist. 
Anim. 548* II. 

3 For the supposed medicinal value of copper cp. 863 a 28 and note. 

4 This is explained by 89o b 7-10, where particular examples are 
given in illustration of the same problem. There the instances of 
contraries are ^aX/tor, which is cold, and Ba^ria, which is hot. Of the 
examples given in this chapter pcxfravls corresponds most nearly to 


6 Cp. above, chapter 2. 

BOOK IX. 8 Sgo 1 

hard substances, it only receives a blow (for it yields to 
them because they are hard) ; but when it is struck by 
a fennel-stalk, two effects are produced it receives a blow 
and it also deals one, because it does not yield owing to the 5 
lightness of the weight imposed upon it ; and so the blow 
is of a double nature. 

9 Why are thapsia l and metal ladles used to stop bruises, 
(the former being applied immediately, the latter at a later 
stage), containing as they do opposite qualities ? 2 For 
a ladle is cold, as the poet says, 

Between his teeth the chilly bronze he bit ; 3 

whilst thapsia is hot and burning. Does the ladle have the 10 
same effect that water has upon the fainting? For its 
coldness encounters the heat and prevents it from escaping 
out of the blood, which collects on the surface owing to the 
blow and congeals when the heat passes out. For just as 
would happen if it congealed outside, so the blood congeals 
near the outer surface while it is still under the skin ; but 4 1 5 
if the heat is prevented from escaping by the coldness of 
the bronze, the blood does not congeal, but disperses again 
and returns to the area from which it was collected. 
Thapsia being hot has the same effect ; for by its heat it 
prevents congelation. 

10 Why are bruises dispersed by the application of copper 20 
objects such as ladles and the like ? 5 Is it because copper is 
cold ? It therefore prevents the escape of the heat from 
the blood which collects as the result of the blow, and it is 
the loss of heat from the surface which causes the bruise. 
The ladle must therefore be applied quickly 6 before con 
gelation takes place. Thapsia, too, mixed with honey is 25 
a good remedy for the same reason ; for being hot it 
prevents the blood from becoming cold. 

1 Cp. 864* 5 and note. 

2 Cp. above, chapter 6. ;! Homer, Iliad, v. 75. 

4 Reading 6e fgicvm (W. D. R.) for dicgievat and putting a colon 
before KooXu&Vor, and deleting the comma 

5 Cp. above, chapter 9. 

6 This hardly agrees with 89o b 8. 


Why is it that if a wound occurs several times in the II 
same place, the scar turns black ? Is it because, whenever 
a wound is dealt, the part affected is always weak and 
30 becomes weaker the more often it is wounded ? Now that 
which is weak is chilled and full of moisture ; therefore it 
has a black appearance. Again 1 large and inveterate 
wounds form black scars, and to receive frequent wounds is 
equivalent to having one wound for a long time. 

Why do we apply metal ladles to bruises ? 2 Is it because, 12 
35 when we are struck, the part affected is cooled and the heat 
leaves it ? So the application of the ladle, the material of 
which, being copper, is cold, prevents the heat from escaping. 

Why is it that hairs do not grow on scars ? Is it because 13 
the pores, from which the hairs grow, become blocked up 
and displaced ? 

8gi a Why do blows cause swelling and discoloration ? Is it 14 
because the moisture in the part affected is dispersed and, 
after breaking its way into the adjoining regions, recoils 
again and collects owing to the conglutination of the 
moisture ? Also if any small veins are burst, a collection ot 
5 bloodshot matter is formed. 

1 Putting a full stop after Qaivcrai and reading ora () for ru 
(C a according to Bekker reads etro). 

2 Cp. above, chapters 9 and 10. 



1 WHY is it that some animals cough, while others do not, 
for example a man coughs, but an ox does not ? Is it 
because in most animals the excretion is directed to some 10 
other part, but in man to this part ? Or is it because in 
man the matter in the brain is very copious and liquid, and 
coughing occurs when phlegm flows down ? 

2 Why is it that in man alone of the animals blood flows 
from the nostrils ? Is it because the matter in his brain is 
very copious and liquid, whence the veins, becoming full of 
excretion, send forth a stream through the ducts? For 15 
unhealthy blood (that is, blood which is mixed with excre 
tions from the brain) is thinner than pure blood and 
resembles lymph. 1 

3 Why is it that some animals are fat under the flesh, 
others in the flesh, and others in both these places ? Is it 20 
because in those whose flesh is dense the moisture collects 
between the skin and the flesh, because the skin there is 
naturally loose, 2 and this moisture being concocted turns 
into fat ? Those, on the other hand, who have rare flesh 
and a tightly fitting 3 skin, become fat in the flesh; while 
those who have both these characteristics are fat both in and 25 
under the flesh. 

4 Why are boys and women less liable to white leprosy 
than men, and middled-aged women more than young ? Is 
it because white leprosy is due to the escape of breath, and 
the bodies of boys are dense and do not allow the passage 
of breath, and those of women do so less than those of men, 30 
for the breath is diverted into the catamenia ? The density 

1 Cp. P. A. 65^17. 

2 Reading diaToravrr} elvat. TO deppa a^eoros- 0u<rei (Bekker). 

3 Reading with Bussemaker npoa-earos for 


of their flesh is shown by its smoothness. But the bodies 
of middle-aged and old women allow the passage of breath ; 
for they alone, like old buildings, have a loose structure of 
their component parts. 

35 Why is it that man alone has white leprosy ? 1 Is it 5 
because he is the thinnest-skinned and at the same time the 
fullest of breath 2 amongst the animals? An indication of 
this is the fact that leprosy appears most abundantly and 
soonest on the parts of the body where the skin is thinnest. 
Or, while this is true, is there a further reason, namely, that 
8gi b in man alone of the animals the hair turns grey ? For in 
leprosy the hair becomes grey, 3 and so it is impossible for 
leprosy to occur in those in whom the hair does not turn 

Why is it that goats and sheep yield the most milk, 6 
5 although their bodies are not the largest, whereas women 
and cows produce proportionately less ? Is it because in 
the latter two cases the available material is used up to form 
bulk, whilst in the other animals it goes into excretions, 
and in sheep and goats the residue of the excretion all 
becomes milk ? Or is it because sheep and goats are more 
prolific than the large animals, and so draw off more 
10 excretion, because they have more offspring to nourish? 
Or is it because owing to the weakness of their bodies more 
excretion is formed during the period of gestation, and the 
milk comes from the excretion ? 

Why is it that in some animals (goats, for example) 7 
a change of water causes a change in their colour, which 
assimilates to that of other animals in the new locality, 
15 whereas with other animals (man, for example) this is not 
so ? Or, to put the question generally, why do some animals 
change and others not (the crow, for example) ? Do those 
animals not change in whom the element of moisture does 
not predominate, birds, for example, which consequently 
have no bladder ? 4 Why is it that while such creatures do 

1 Cp. below, chapter 33. 

2 Reading Tr^eu/zurcoSecrraTOZ (Richards). 

3 Cp. G. A. 784* 26. 4 Cp. P. A. 671* 15 and W. Ogle s note. 

BOOK X. 7 8gi b 

not themselves change, yet their offspring do so ? Is it 20 
because the offspring is weaker than its parents ? 

8 Why are males usually larger than females ? Is it because 
they are hotter, 1 and heat is productive of growth ? Or is 
it because the male is complete in all its parts, whereas the 
female is defective ? Or is it because the male takes a long 
time to attain perfection, the female a short time ? 

9 Why is it that some animals bear their young quickly, 25 
but in others the period of gestation is a long one ? Is it 
because the longer-lived animals come to perfection more 
slowly ? It is the longer-lived animals that take a long time 
to bear their young. This is not, however, true of the 
longest lived of all animals ; for example, the horse is 
slower in bearing its young but shorter-lived than man. 
The reason of this is the hardness of the uterus ; for the 3 
uterus of a mare may be compared to a dry soil which does 
not readily bring the crops to maturity. 

IO Why is it that the young of all other animals resemble 
their parents in nature more closely than do those of man ? 
Is it because man s mental condition is more varied at the 
moment of sexual intercourse, and so the offspring varies 
according to the condition of the male 2 and female parents ? 35 
The other animals, or most of them, are wholly absorbed in 
the sexual act ; 3 further, owing to this avidity, impregnation 
does not usually take place. 

11 Why is it that fair men and white horses usually have 892 
grey eyes ? Is it because there are three colours in eyes, 
black, greenish, 4 and grey, and the colour of the eyes 
follows that of the body, resulting in this case in greyness ? 5 

12 For what reason are there dwarfs ? Or to put the question 
more generally, why are some creatures quite large, others 
small ? Let us examine the latter question. -The causes of 
smallness are two, either space or nourishment space, if it 

1 A much-disputed point, cp. P. A. 648* 30 ff. 

2 The Teubner text prints ore for 6 re. 

3 Reading irpos aurcp TOVTM (Richards). 

4 Lit. as in goats eyes ; for the meaning of alywTros see D A. W. 
Thompson s note on H. A. 492^ 3. 


be narrow, and nourishment, if it be scanty ; as happens 
fo when attempts are made to make animals small after their 
birth, for example by keeping puppies in quail-cages. 
Those who suffer from lack of space become pygmies ; for 
they have width and depth corresponding to the dimensions 
of their parents, but they are quite small in stature. The 
reason of this is that owing to the narrowness of the space 
15 in which they are confined the straight lines become crushed 
and bent. So pygmies are like figures painted on shops 
which are short in stature but are seen to be of ordinary 
width and depth. Those who fail to come to perfection 
from lack of nourishment clearly have the limbs of children, 
20 and one sometimes sees persons who are very small and yet 
perfectly proportioned, like Melitaean terriers. 1 The reason 
is that the process of growth has a different effect from that 
of space. 

Why is it that some animals come into being from the 13 
sexual intercourse of animals with one another, others 
from the compounding of certain elements a process 
resembling the original production of their species ? 2 Just 

25 as the writers on natural phenomena explain the first 
origin of animals as being due to powerful changes 
and movements in the world and universe ; a so now, if 
it is to happen again, some similar movements must 
take place. 4 For the beginning of anything is the most 

30 important part, being indeed half of the whole ; 5 and in 
this case the seed is the beginning. The reason then why 6 

1 Also mentioned in H. A. 6i2 b io, where D A. W. Thompson 
renders * Maltese dogs ; but according to Pliny (N. H. iii. 26. 30) 
they came originally from an island off Dalmatia (now called Meleda). 
They were a common form of lap-dog ; cp. Theophr. Char. 21, 
Anth. Pal. vii. 21 1. They frequently appear on vases, e.g. one 
figured in Ann. del? Inst. 1852, which has the inscription MeXtratf, 
and shows a long-haired dog with a bushy tail and a sharp nose, 
rather of the type of a Spitz or Pomeranian : such dogs also figure 
on coins and gems, see Imhoof-Blumer and Keller, Tier- und Pflan- 
zenbilder des klass. Altertums, Plates I. 45 ; II. 29 ; XV. 33, 34. 

* Cp. below, chapter 65. 

3 Omitting the comma after yeveatiai and reading navrbs (ra?) 
\as, OUTGO KCU v\v. 4 Putting a full stop after 

5 Hesiod, Works and Days, 40. 

5 Reading ainov (roC) Towvra (Richards). 

BOOK X. 13 8g2 a 

small animals which are not produced by sexual inter 
course resemble the species as it originally came into 
being, is the smallness of the seed ; for the smaller a thing 
is, the smaller is its first beginning. So the changes even 
of this are sufficient to produce a seed for it. 1 And this 
is what actually happens ; for it is under conditions of 35 
change 2 that such creatures usually come into being. In 
the larger animals a greater change is necessary for their 

14 Why is it that some animals are prolific, such as the 
pig, the dog, and the hare, whilst others are not so, for 8g2 b 
instance man and the lion ? 3 Is it because the former 
class has a number of wombs which they desire to fill and 
moulds into which 4 the semen is distributed, while with 

the latter the opposite is the case ? 

15 Why has man a smaller distance between his eyes in 
proportion to his size than any other animal ? Is it because 5 
man follows the law of nature most closely 5 and perception 
is naturally of that which is in front, 6 since it is necessary 
to see beforehand that to which the movement is directed ? 
Now the greater the distance between the eyes, the more 
will the sight incline sideways. So if the sight is to accord 
with the law of nature, the distance between the eyes 10 
ought to be as small as possible, for then it will travel 
most directly forward. Further, the other animals must 
necessarily turn their gaze sideways, since they do not 
possess hands ; their eyes therefore are farther apart, espe 
cially those of sheep, because they generally advance 
bending their heads downwards. 

16 Why is it that the other animals seldom or never emit 15 
semen during sleep ? Is it because no animal except man 
sleeps on its back and no emission of semen takes place 
except in that position ? 7 Or is it because the other 

1 The text here appears to be corrupt and gives no very satisfactory 

2 i. e. by decay, cp. G. A. 71 5 a 25. 3 Cp. G. A. 771*14 ff. 
4 Reading eis d? (W. D.R.) 5 Cp. de Incess. Anim. 7o6 b 10. 
n Reading TOV e^-rrpoa-dfv (so also Richards). 

7 Cp. Theophr. de Lassit,, 16. 


animals dream less than man, and the emission of semen 
only takes place when the imagination is stirred ? 

Why is it that some animals move their heads and others 17 

20 not ? Is it because some have no necks l and so cannot 
move their heads ? 

Why does man sneeze more than the other animals ? 2 18 
Is it because in him the ducts are wide through which 
the breath and scent pass in ? For it is with these, when 
they fill with breath, that he sneezes. That these ducts 

25 are wide is shown by the fact that man has a weaker sense 
of smell than any other animal ; and the narrower the 
ducts, the keener is the sense of smell. Since, therefore, 
the moisture, the evaporation of which causes sneezing, 
enters in larger quantities and more often into wide ducts, 
and man more than any other animal has such ducts, he 
might naturally be expected to sneeze 3 most often. Or 

30 is it because his nostrils are particularly short and so the 
heated moisture can quickly turn into breath, whereas in 
the other animals, owing to the length of their nostrils, it 
cools before it can evaporate ? 

Why is it that in no animal is the tongue of a fatty 19 
consistency ? Is it because that which is fat is dense, 
whereas the tongue is naturally rare in order that it may 
35 recognize different flavours ? 

Why is it that females pass urine with an effort, but 20 
males without an effort ? Is it because in the female the 
bladder is farther away both in depth of position and in 
distance, since the womb is situated between the fundament 
8g3 a and the bladder ? It therefore requires a greater effort 
to drive the urine owing to the distance of the womb ; and 
the requisite force is exercised by an effort of the breath. 

Why is it that all such animals as do not fly shed their 21 
winter coats, except the pig? The dog, for example, 
5 does so, and the ox. Is it because the pig is very hot and 

1 e.g. fishes and serpents, cp. P. A. 664*20, 686 a I, 69i b so. 

2 This problem is more fully treated in chapter 54 ; it is repeated in 
xxxiii. 10. 

3 Reading nrapvvoivro for irrapvoivTo. 

BOOK X. 21 893 

its hairs grow out of a hot substance (for that which is 
fat is hot) ? In the other animals the hair is shed because 
either the moisture cools or else the natural heat cannot 
concoct the 1 nourishment. But the pig 2 does not shed 
its hair, either because the moisture in it undergoes no 10 
change or because its nourishment is properly concocted ; 
for whenever any cause is present to make it shed its hair, 
the fat is sufficient to prevent it. Sheep and men are 
unaffected owing to the quantity and density of their hair ; 
for the cold cannot penetrate deep enough to congeal the 15 
moisture or to prevent the heat from concocting it. 

22 Why is it that in sheep the hair grows again softer 
when it is plucked out, but in man it is harder? Is it 
because the hair of sheep grows out of the surface, and 
so can be plucked out without causing pain, the source 2 o 
of its nourishment, which is in the flesh, remaining un 
impaired ? So the pores ?> being opened, the excretions 
evaporate more readily, and the wool receives the natural 
nourishment of the flesh, the latter being fed by soft, sweet 
nourishment. The hair of man, on the other hand, since 
it grows from a great depth, can only be plucked out by 25 
force and painfully. This is shown by the fact that it 
draws blood with it. The place therefore from which it 
is plucked is wounded and scarred. So at last the hair 
ceases to grow on those who pluck it out, and as long 
as it does grow again, it grows hard, because all the 
nourishing food in the flesh fails, and it is from the excre- 30 
tions of this food that the hair grows. This can be 
illustrated by the fact that in all those who inhabit a 
southerly clime the hair is hard, because the exterior heat 
penetrates deeply and vaporizes the \vell-concocted nourish 
ment ; but the hair of those who dwell in northern climes 
is soft, because in them the blood and sweet humours are 
nearer the surface, for which reason also they have a 35 
healthy complexion. 

1 Reading nerTciv (rr)i/) rpoc/)?^ (Bussemaker). 

2 Reading (17 8e $) r) faa ...(*;) <5ui *rA. These changes are 
demanded by the sense and supported by the Latin version of T. G. 

3 avoLxdevTM seems to require a substantive such as T&V iropwv in 
agreement with it. The Latin version renders meatibus patefactis. 


Why is it that in sheep the longer the hair grows the 23 
harder it is, whereas in man it is softer? Is it because 
the hair of sheep, obtaining the nourishment described 
above, 1 receives less food because it is far removed from 
40 the source of it, and the nourishment already present in 
893 b it easily evaporates out of it owing to the heat as a result 
of incomplete concoction ? 2 And as the hair dries it 
becomes harder ; 3 for it is the moisture which makes it 
soft. Human hair, on the other hand, receives less nourish 
ment but is situated nearer to the source of it ; * and the 
nourishment is more thoroughly concocted because it is 
less abundant, and, being concocted, it makes the hair 
5 softer, because anything that is concocted is softer than 
that which is unconcocted; for human hair is derived 
more 5 from excretion than that of sheep. That concocted 
matter is softer than unconcocted 6 is shown by the fact 
that the wool of young sheep is softer than that of old. 

10 Why is it that thick-haired men and birds with thick 24 
feathers are lustful ? 7 Is it because they are naturally hot 
and moist ? Now both these characteristics are necessary 
for sexual intercourse ; for the heat causes excretion, and 
the moisture is the form which the excretion takes. Lame 
men are lustful for the same reason as birds ; s for, owing 
to the deficiencies of their legs, the nourishment is carried 

15 downwards in small quantities only, but travels into the 

1 i. e. in 11. 22-4 above. 

2 Reading dn-e^iW with Bussemaker. 

3 Reading ovcXrjpdrfpai (T. G. has duriores). 

4 The sentence nl 8e TWV avdpimr&v eXarro) p>ev, p.a\\ov 8e rr/s apx*j s is 
obviously incomplete as it stands and the required sense must be 
supplied from the Latin version of T. G. and the implied contrast with 
the hair of sheep given in a 38 ff., and something like at 8s TWV 

avOpo)7Tu>v eXaTTd) fj.ev (e^-ouo-i rrjv rpo(^i>}, fj.a\\ov 8c rfjs apx*l s (eyylov- 
rat) must be restored. 

5 Reading nXdov for TrXeto-rou. 

6 This o-rjjjLflov cannot refer to the sentence immediately preceding 
it, with which it has no connexion ; it must therefore refer to navra 
yap ra TreTrf/^eva KT\ ; the Latin version of T. G. inverts the order of 
the last two sentences. 

7 This problem is partly identical with iv. 31 ; cp. also Physiogn. 
So6 b 1 8. 

8 Reading 8ta TO avro 8e KCU ot (opvides \dyvoi KCII 01) ^coX 
cp. 88o b 4. 

BOOK X. 24 893 

upper region of the body in large quantities, and is there 
converted into semen. 

25 Why has man no mane ? Is it because he has a beard, 
and so the nourishment consisting of the necessary excre 
tion, which in animals goes into the mane, in man goes 
into the beard ? 

26 Why is it that all animals have an even number of 20 
feet ? * Is it because it is impossible to move (except by 
jumping), unless some part is at rest ? Since, then, pro 
gression involves two things, 2 namely, movement and rest, 
we immediately get here a pair 3 and an even number. 
Quadrupeds have two more legs ; 4 for they move two, 
while the other two are at rest. 5 Six- footed animals have 25 
an additional pair, 6 of which one moves while the other 

is at rest. 

27 Why is it that in horses and asses hair grows out of 
scars, but not in man ? ; Is it because in the other animals 
the skin is part of the flesh, but in man it is only as it 
were a condition of the flesh ? For in man the surface 30 
of the flesh seems to become harder through cooling and 
resembles what we call the crust of boiled meal; 8 just, 
then, as this crust is really only boiled meal, so what is 
called man s skin would really be only flesh. Now when 

a man receives a wound or is chafed, the result is that 
his flesh becomes denser ; and so, the surface of the flesh 35 
having undergone a change, the wounded parts do not 
assume the same nature as the original skin ; and, as the 
flesh has undergone a change, it is not to be wondered 
at that what grew from it no longer does so a pheno 
menon also occurring in what is called baldness, which 

1 Cp. below, chapter 30 ; also H. A. 489^22, and de Incessu Anim. 
7o8 a 2i ff., which is clearly the source of this problem. 

Reading C K 8volv nvolv avdyKr/ rfjv nopelav tlvai. 
8 de must be omitted as a dittograph of dvo. 

4 Reading Kal rerpuTroSa 8vo en (for Siori) irXeiovs, Cp. 1. 25. 

5 Placing a full- stop after eW^/mo-i. 

6 ol e is clearly corrupt, since 01 can only agree with nodes under 
stood, which gives no sense. 01 is perhaps a corruption due to the 
influence of ol 8e 8vo. What the sense requires is KOI e^diroda KOI tiXXovs 
dvo TI, and this has been translated above. 

7 Cp. below, chapter 29. 8 Cp. G. A. 743 b 7. 


is also due to a corruption and change in the surface of 
40 the flesh. When, however, beasts of burden have been 
chafed and recover again, the parts of the body affected 
fill out again with the same substance, but it is weaker 
than it was before ; and since their skin too is a part 
of them, the hair (which grows out of the skin) must 
come forth and grow, but it is white, because the skin 
5 which was formed is weaker than the original skin, and 
white hair is the weakest kind of hair. 

Why is it that among the other animals twins though 28 
differing in sex are just as likely to survive, but this is 
not so with the young of man? 1 Is it because human 
twins are particularly weak, for man naturally produces 
10 only one offspring at a time ? Now in twins it is unnatural 
to find a diversity of sex ; and so what is most contrary 
to nature is also weakest. 

Why is it that in horses and asses hair grows out of 29 
scars, but not in man ? 2 Is it because the scar impedes 
the growth of the hair, either owing to the condensation 
of the flesh or because its nutrition is impaired ? In man, 
15 therefore, it absolutely prevents the growth owing to the 
weakness of the hair ; but in horses it does not prevent, 
but merely impairs, the growth. 

Why have animals an even number of feet? 3 Is it 30 
because in anything that moves something must necessarily 
be at rest, and this could not happen if there were an odd 
20 number of feet (for 4 it was the arrangement of the feet in 
pairs which originally made movement possible) ? 

Why is it that animals are asleep for a shorter time than 31 
they are awake, and their sleep is not continuous ? Is it 
because all the excretion is not concocted at the same 
time, but, when some is concocted, the animal is relieved 
and wakes up ? Again, they more often wake up when 
the region in which the excretion is concocted becomes 
25 cold ; for it quickly and frequently ceases to do its work, 

1 Cp. //. A. 584 b s6 ff. 2 Cp. above, chapter 27. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 26. 4 Reading einep for onep (Richards). 

BOOK X. 31 

and this cessation causes awakening. Sleep not unnatu 
rally l seems to be pleasant, because it gives us rest ; but 
the rest which we take in sleep does not last longer than 
the time taken by our natural activities, nor do we eat for 
a longer period than that during which we abstain from 
food, in spite of the fact that eating is pleasanter than fasting. 

32 Why is it that some animals imitate their parents imme- 30 
diately after birth, whilst others, like man, do so late, 
or hardly at all, or never? Is it because some quickly 
attain a state of physical perfection, 2 whilst others are late 
in doing so, and some are without a perception of what 

is for their good, whilst others possess such a perception ? 
Those therefore which possess both these qualities, namely, 
perception of what is for their good and physical perfec- 35 
tion, imitate their parents, but those who have not both 
these qualities do not do so ; for physical and perceptive 
powers are both requisite. 

33 Why is it that white leprosy does not occur in animals 
other than man ? :i Is it because, while it is a disease which 
afflicts other animals, only in man does the hair and skin turn 
partially white ? (But, if so, one might raise the question 
why diversity of colour in animals occurs at birth and not 
afterwards.) Or is it because the skin of other animals is 
hard, whereas man has naturally very thin skin ? Now white 
leprosy is an excretion of breath, 4 which in the other animals 
is prevented from escaping by the thickness of their skin. 5 

34 Why is it that in white leprosy the hair turns grey, but 
it does not necessarily follow that leprosy is always present 
where there is grey hair ? 5 Is it because the hair grows 
from the skin, and greyness is as it were a corruption of the 
hair ? When therefore the skin is in a morbid condition, 
the hair that grows from it is necessarily affected ; but when 10 
the hair is unhealthy the skin is not necessarily so. 

1 Reading us duos for ov8e \os : the Latin version renders non 

2 TO yva>pieiv is certainly corrupt and has probably come into the 
text as a gloss upon aicrdqaiv. r/}r 67rire\eorij/ rou an paras or its equivalent 
must be restored from 1. 35. (Richards suggests TO /3<i& r.) 

3 Cp. above, chapter 5. 4 Cp. 891*28. 
8 The source of this problem appears to be G. A. 784*25. 


Why is it that some animals are ill-tempered after bearing- 35 
young, dogs, for example, and pigs, but others are not 
noticeably so, for instance women and sheep ? Is it because 
those animals which are full of excretions 1 are mild- 
tempered, for that which causes them pain passes out at the 
15 time of birth ? Those, 2 on the other hand, who in bearing 
young lose healthy material, are made irritable by the 
reduced condition in which they are ; just as hens are bad- 
tempered, not just when they have laid, but when they are 
sitting, from want of food. 

Why is it that eunuchs, when they are emasculated, in 38 
20 other respects change into the likeness of the female, for 
they have the voice, the shapelessness, 3 and the looseness of 
joints which characterize women, and so undergo a violent 
change, as do other animals when castrated (in bulls and 
rams, however, we find the horns assuming contrary forms, 
the reason being that their females have contrary kinds of 
25 horns, and so bulls when they are castrated grow larger 
horns and rams smaller horns) in respect of size, however, 
alone eunuchs change into the likeness of the male, for they 
become larger ? Now size is characteristic of the male, for 
the female is smaller than the male. Or is it not after all 
a change into the likeness of the female rather than the 
male ? For it is not a change in every dimension, but only 
in height, whereas the male is characterized by width and 
30 depth as well ; for this is what his full growth involves. 
Furthermore, as is the female to the male, so within the 
female sex is the maiden to the woman ; for the latter has 
reached the full nobility of form, while the former has not 
yet done so. It is into the likeness of their nature 4 then 
that the eunuch changes ; for their growth is in height. 
So Homer well says, 

Stature chaste Artemis gave them, 5 

1 Such as women and sheep, cp. H.A. 584* 6. 

2 Omitting wore or reading TOVTOIS in its place. 

8 X* clearly preserves the right reading here, a^op^lav. ogvrrjTa has 
come into the text as a gloss upon (f)a)ff}v 6rj\vKrjv. 

4 Reading ets- rrjv TOVTMV ovi> (<frv<nv} /neret/SaXXfi (Richards). 

5 Homer, Od. xx. 71. 

BOOK X. 36 8 94 l 

as being able to give what, being a maiden, she herself 35 
possessed. When, therefore, a eunuch changes in size, he 
does not change into the likeness of the male ; for the change 
is not in the direction of physical perfection, but eunuchs 
increase in size only in respect of height. 

37 Why is it that eunuchs either never suffer from varicocele, 

or do so less than others ? Is it because, by their being 895* 
castrated, their nature changes into that of persons lack 
ing generative power? Now boys and women lack this 
power, and neither has varicose veins except women very 

38 Why is man better able to utter many voices, while other 5 
animals of one and the same species utter only one voice ? 
Has man too 1 really only one voice, but many forms of 
speech ? 2 

39 And why has man different forms of speech in different 
places, 3 while the other animals have not ? Is it because men 
in their speech make use of a number of letters, but the other 
animals employ either none or only two or three consonants ? 
(Now it is consonants combined with vowels that form i 
speech.) Now speaking is signifying something not merely 
by the voice but by certain conditions of the voice, and not 
merely to signify pain or pleasure; and it is the letters 
which regulate these conditions. But children express what 
they want to say just in the same way as wild beasts ; for 
young children cannot yet make use of the letters in speech. 

40 Why is it that of all animals man alone is apt to hesitate 15 
in his speech ? 4 Is it because he is also liable to be dumb, 
and hesitancy of speech is a form of dumbness, or at any 
rate the organ of speech is not perfect ? Or is it because 
man partakes more of rational speech, while the other 
animals only possess voice, and hesitancy of speech, as its 

1 Reading (?}) KCIL KT\. (So also Richards.) T. G. has an hominum 
etiam vox una est ? 

2 On 8ut\KTos and cfrwvt) see 898 b 30, and cp. H. A. 536 b I. 

3 Reading mm? <aAX?;> a\\rj (W. D. R.). 

4 Cp. below, Book xi. 55. 

I 2 


name implies, 1 is simply 2 being unable to explain one s 
meaning- continuously ? 

20 Why is it that man more than the other animals is apt to 41 
be lame from birth ? Is it because the legs of animals are 
strong (for quadrupeds and birds have bony and sinewy 
legs), but human legs are fleshy, and so owing to their 
softness they more easily become damaged through move 
ment ? 3 Or is it because in man alone of animals the period 

25 of gestation varies ? For he may be born after the seventh 
or the eighth or the tenth month. 4 For the other animals 
there is one fixed time for coming to perfection without any 
further delay ; 5 but in man the period of delay 6 is long, 
and so, when the foetus moves, its extremities being soft 

3 o are more 7 liable to become broken in the longer period. 

Why have eunuchs sore and ulcerated legs ? Is it because 4 2 
this is also characteristic of women, and eunuchs are 
effeminate ? Or, while this is true, is the cause in women 
as well this, that the heat has a downward tendency? 
(Menstruation shows that this is so.) So neither eunuchs 
35 nor women grow thick hair, owing to the presence of copious 
moisture in them. 

Why is it that no animal except man suffers from gall- 43 
stones ? 8 Is it because in beasts of burden and cloven-hoofed 
animals the ducts of the bladder are wide ? Those animals 
which produce their young alive not immediately but after 
an interval, like certain of the fishes, 9 never have bladders, 
but the sediment which might form gall-stones is forced 
into the bowels (as happens also in birds), and so easily 
passes out with the excrement. But man has a bladder and 
a stalk 10 to the bladder, which is narrow in proportion to his 

3 i.e. layoff) atvos from i&xeiv and (^ooz^, cp. 93 a 3^ ^ to^vo^ojvoi 

{(rxovTciL TOV ^coretf. 

2 Reading Kara TO oVofia ovdev r; ot> for ou Kara TO ovn^a ev TJ oiide. 

3 i. e. in the uterus before birth. 

4 Cp. G. A. 772 b 7 ff. 5 Reading ou Smrp/f nat (Richards). 
G eV TrX^et, if retained, must be used here of time, but some such 

reading as ev rfj /Lu ?T/;g, in the uterus , seems to be demanded by the 
context. (Richards makes the same suggestion.) 

7 Reading TrXeiov for TrXetw. 8 Cp. G. A. 519^ 20. 

9 Cp. P. A. 670* 10, 671* 15, 676 a 30. 
10 Cp. ^.^.497^20, 24. 

BOOK X. 43 

size ; so, because he has this part, the earthy matter is 5 
forced into the bladder (and so chamber-pots become 
discoloured by it) and, owing to the heat in that region, it 
becomes concocted and thickens still more and remains 
there and increases owing to the narrowness of the urethra ; 
for the earthy sediment, being unable to make its way out 10 
easily, coheres together and forms a gall-stone. 

44 Why is it that beasts of burden and cattle and horned 
animals and birds do not eruct ? l Is it owing to the dryness 
of their stomachs ? For the moisture is quickly used up 
and percolates through ; whereas eructation results when 
the moisture remains and evaporates. In animals with long I5 
manes and tails, 2 owing to the length of their necks, the 
breath tends to travel downwards, and therefore they 
generally break wind backwards. Birds and horned 
animals neither eruct nor break wind ; and ruminating 
animals do not eruct, because they have several stomachs 
and the so-called reticulum ; 3 and so the breath finds 

a passage up and down through many channels, and the 20 
moisture is taken up before it can become vaporized and 
cause either eructation or breaking of wind. 

45 Why is it that tame animals are invariably found also in 
a wild state, but wild animals are not always found also 
in a tame condition ? 4 For even men certainly exist in 

a wild state in some places, 5 and wild dogs are found in 25 
India and horses elsewhere; but lions and leopards and 
vipers and many other animals are never found in a tame 
state. Is it because the inferior condition is more easily 
acquired at first and it is easier to degenerate into it, since it 
is not the original but the ultimate nature which is difficult 
to attain to at once ? G For this reason all tame animals are 

1 This problem is quoted by Apollonius, Hist. Mirab., as from the 
(frvariKa irpofiXrifjiaTa of Aristotle. 

a This class is enumerated in H.A. 49i a I ff. 

3 Or second stomach , see H.A. 507^-8. 4 Cp. H.A. 488 a 30. 

5 Cp. P. A. 643 b 5 (but in H.A. 488 a 27 man is said never to be 
wild ). Darwin (Descent of Man, pp. 41, 42) insists on the fact that 
it is erroneous to regard man as more domesticated than the other 

c This statement seems to contain a glimmering of the Doctrine of 


3 o at first wild rather than tame (for example the child is 
greedier and more quick-tempered than the man), but 
physically weaker. So we find the same state of affairs in 
the products of nature as in those of the arts. For among 
the latter there are always badly made objects, and the bad 
are more numerous than the good, beds for instance and 

35 garments and the like ; and, where a good object is produced, 
it is always possible to find also a bad one, but, where a bad 
object is produced, it is not also possible always to find 
a good one. This can be seen from an examination of the 
works of the primitive painters and sculptors ; for in their 
day there was not yet any good painting or sculpture any 
where, but only inferior work. So likewise nature always 
8g6 a produces inferior specimens and in a greater number, 1 and 
superior specimens in a smaller number and in some cases 
not at all. Now the tame is superior and the wild inferior. 
It is, I suppose, easier for nature not the primitive nature 
but that towards which animals develop to make the good 
kinds also tame ; 2 but the opposite kinds never, or scarcely 
ever, become tame, and it is only under certain conditions of 
5 locality and time that sooner 3 or later owing to a general 
admixture of circumstances all animals can become tame. 
The same thing happens in plants of all kinds ; 4 those 
which are garden plants are also found in a wild state, but 
it is impossible for all to be cultivated, but some are so 
peculiarly conditioned in many respects in their natural soil 

10 that, though neglected and left wild, they grow better and 
more like cultivated plants than those which are carefully 
tilled in other soil. 

Why is it that men have large navels, whereas in the 46 
other animals they are inconspicuous ? Is it because in the 
latter, owing to the long period of gestation, 5 they wither 

1 Omitting K<U irXciW. 

2 Reading (pva-d 8e ov rf] e dpxrji a\X f(/> rjv, of//ai, paov rroiflv (rn) 

3 Reading n prt for dpriov, and placing the comma after Trore instead 
of after dpriou. 

4 With the whole of this passage cp. de Plantis, 8i9 b 29 ff., and 
Theophr. H. P. iii. 2. 2. 

6 i. e. the period of gestation is longer in proportion to the time 
from conception to the full maturity of the young. 

BOOK X. 46 8g6 

off and project outwards and swell all up into sores, and so 15 
the navel sometimes even becomes mis-shapen ? 1 Now man 
comes forth from the womb in an imperfect condition, and 
so his navel comes away still full of moisture and blood. 
That some animals are perfect and others imperfect at birth 
is shown by the fact that some animals can fend for them 
selves, but children require looking after. 

47 Why is it that some animals copulate only once, others ao 
frequently, and some only at certain seasons of the year and 
others at no fixed time ? 2 For example, man does so at all 
times but wild animals only occasionally, and the wild boar 
only does so once but the domesticated pig frequently. Is 

it the effect of nourishment and warmth and exercise, since 
4 Cypris depends on fullness ? 3 Again, the same species 
bears young once in some localities but several times in 25 
others ; for instance, the sheep in Magnesia and Libya have 
young twice a year. 4 The reason is the prolonged period 
of gestation ; for animals, when their desire is satisfied, feel 
desire no longer, just as, when they have fed, they no longer 
desire food. Also animals when pregnant feel less desire 
for sexual intercourse, because the menstrual purgation 
does not take place. 

48 Why is it that men who have porous teeth are generally 3 
short-lived ? 5 Is it a sign that the skull is thick ? For the 
brain is weak if it is not well ventilated, and so, being moist, 

it quickly decays, just as all other things decay if they are not 
in motion and cannot evaporate. For this reason too man 
has very thick hair upon the head, and the male is longer- 
lived than the female because of the sutures in his skull. 6 35 

1 The sense is unsatisfactory, since the latter part of the sentence 
seems to contain arguments which imply a prominence of the navel. 

2 Cp. Plutarch, Quaest. Nat. 21. 

3 A quotation from a lost play of Euripides ; cp. Nauck 2 , p. 647, 
no. 895. 

4 Cp. H. A. 573 b 30. 

5 Cp. xxxiv. i. 

8 Which permit more evaporation ; cp. P. A. 65 3 b I ff. and W. Ogle s 


But we must next consider length of life in relation to other 
conditions. 1 

Why then are men long-lived who have a cut right across 49 
their hands ? 2 Is it because animals whose limbs are badly 
articulated are shortest-lived, aquatic animals for example ? 
8g6 b And if those which are badly articulated are short-lived, 
clearly those that are well articulated must be the opposite. 
Now the latter are those in which even those parts are best 
articulated which are by nature badly articulated ; and the 
inside of the hand is the least well articulated part of the body. 

5 Why is it that man alone squints, or at any rate does so 50 
more than any other animal ? 3 Is it because he alone, or 
more than other animals, is liable to epilepsy 4 in infancy, 
when distortion of the vision also always begins ? 

Why is man more affected by smoke than other animals ? 5 1 
Is it because he is most prone to shed tears, and shedding 
tears is one of the effects of smoke ? 

10 Why does horse take pleasure in and desire horse, and 52 
man take pleasure in man, and generally why do animals 
delight in animals which are akin to and like them ? For 
every 5 animal is not equally beautiful, and desire is of the 
beautiful. The beautiful then ought to be pleasanter ; but 
in actual fact it is truer that not every kind of beauty is 
pleasant, 6 nor are pleasure and the beautiful equally 7 

15 pleasing to all men ; for example, one creature takes greater 
pleasure in eating or drinking and another in sexual inter 
course. The question why each creature prefers and takes 

1 The Latin version of T. G, is no doubt right in rendering here, 
an in ceteris quoque idem est cogitandum ; the reference being to the 
following problem, which is coupled to the present chapter by the 
connecting particle Se, and probably also chapter 64. 

2 i.e. the so-called line of life , cp. also xxxiv. 10. 

3 Cp. xxxi. 26, 27. 

4 eni\>inTov should probably be read here for X^TTTOV, cp. 960* 10 and 

5 Reading OTIOVV (Platt) for on nav. 

6 Omitting TO <a\ov KOL TO f)8u, which in its original form, TO KaXov nal 
j8i , was doubtless a marginal variant of /caXXo? 7781;. 

7 Reading naaiv ^6p<nW) 9 ydovf] to complete the sense. 

BOOK X. 52 8g6 b 

greatest pleasure in sexual intercourse with a creature that 
is akin to it is dealt with elsewhere ; l but to add that what 
is akin is also most beautiful is not true. 2 But we regard 
as beautiful that which is pleasing with a view to sexual 
intercourse, because, when we feel desire, we delight in 2 
looking upon the object of our desire. And indeed the 
same thing happens in other forms of desire ; for example, 
when we are thirsty we take greater pleasure in the sight 
of something to drink. So that which is beautiful in view 
of a certain use of it seems to be most pleasant because we 
particularly desire it. (But this is not true of that which is 
beautiful in itself, as is proved by the fact that even grown men 
appear to us beautiful, when we look at them without 3 any 25 
idea of sexual intercourse. Do they then appear beautiful 
in such a way as to give our eyes more pleasure than those 
who are of an age for sexual intercourse ? There is no 
reason why they should not, provided we do not happen to 
feel a desire for sexual intercourse.) Thus something to 
drink appears to us as particularly good ; for, if we happen 
to be thirsty, we shall see it with considerable pleasure. 

53 Why is it that in man the front of the body is more thickly 
covered with hair than the posterior portion, but in 3 
quadrupeds the posterior part is hairiest ? 4 Is it because 
all two-footed animals have the front part of the body more 
thickly covered ? For the birds resemble man in this 
respect. Or is nature always wont to protect the weaker 
parts and is every creature weak in some respect ? 5 Now 
in all quadrupeds the posterior portions are weaker than 35 
the front parts owing to their position ; for they are more 
liable to suffer from cold and heat ; but in man the front 
portions of the body are weaker and suffer likewise under 
these conditions. 

1 Viz. in iv. 15 and 26. 

2 Restoring the MS. reading oiWri, which is more idiomatic than 

OVK f(TTl. 

3 To make sense of this passage we must read (o) rrpos rfjv 
vwovviav pXtyacri, the negative here being implied by el 

TS Tux >in(v in 1. 27. (So too Sylburg and Bussemaker.) 

4 The source of this problem is clearly P. A. 658* 16 if. 
TOTTOV should perhaps be read for 


897* Why is it that man sneezes more than any other animal? 1 54 
Is it because he also suffers most from running at the nose ? 
The reason of this is that, the heat being situated in the 
region of the heart and being naturally disposed to rise 
upwards, in the other animals its natural direction is to- 
5 wards the shoulders and thence, splitting up owing to 
refraction, it travels partly into the neck and head and 
partly into the backbone and flanks, because these parts 
are all in the same straight line and parallel to the ground 
on which the animal stands. Now the heat, 2 as it travels 
along, distributes the moisture uniformly to these parts 

10 alike ; for the moisture follows the heat. Four-footed 
animals therefore do not suffer either much from running 
at the nose or sneeze ; for sneezing is due to the rush 
either of a mass of breath, when moisture evaporates more 
quickly than the body, or of unconcocted moisture (hence 
it precedes a cold in the head) ; 3 and these forms of 
moisture are not found in the other animals, because the 

15 rush of heat is equally distributed between the fore and 
hind parts of an animal. Man being naturally, like the 
plants, at a right angle to the ground on which he stands, 
the result is that a very copious and violent rush of heat 
takes place in the direction of the head, and the heat in 
its course thither rarefies and heats the ducts in the region 
of the head. Now these ducts being in this condition 

20 are better able to receive the moisture than those leading 
downwards from the heart. When, therefore, a man hap 
pens to have become in too moist a condition and to have 
been cooled off externally, 4 the result is that the heat 
obtaining nourishment and collecting within increases, and 
as it does so it is carried to the head and the ducts there. 

25 Into these the moisture, which is thin and unconcocted, 
follows the heat and fills them up and causes cold in the 
head and likewise sneezing. For at the beginning of 
a cold the heat, being carried along in advance of the 

1 Cp. above, chapter 18, and xxxiii. 10. 

2 Omitting TO o-co/xa, which has probably come in as a gloss. 

3 Punctuating aTre-rrTUtv (810 npo TO>V Karappav yiyverai), a KrX., and 
taking iyp&v as the antecedent of a. 

4 Putting the comma after instead of before i^&Qtv. 

BOOK X. 54 8g7 a 

moisture and inflating the ducts, causes sneezing by the 
expulsion of the breath and by the drawing off 1 of those 
humours which are light and pungent. Hence it happens 3 
that after sneezing from a cold in the head one wipes 
away watery matter. These all 2 having been set in motion, 
the continuous and solid 3 humours follow closely upon 
them and block up the ducts in the region of the head 
and nostrils. If they become swollen and distended, they 35 
cause pain in the region of the head. That the ducts are 
blocked is shown by the fact that no breath can pass out 
through them ; 4 so those who suffer from running at 
the nose neither sneeze nor can they use their sense of 
smell. Sneezing unaccompanied by running at the nose 
is due to the same causes, but has some slight and insig 
nificant origin ; and so the humours, being collected by 8g7 b 
the heat and vaporized by it owing to their small mass, 
are precipitated down the nostrils. The noise made by 
the breath is due quite as much to the violence of its rush 
as to its quantity. For the heat, being carried along in 
a direct line to the brain and rushing into it, is refracted 5 
into the nostrils, because the ducts there lead out from 
the brain. The rush made by the breath in breaking out 
into the nostrils, being unnatural, is consequently violent, 
and therefore makes loud noises. Amongst the other animals 
birds are most liable to running at the nose, because they 10 
most resemble man in form ; but they are less liable to 
it than man, because they usually hold their heads down, 
since they derive their food from the ground. 

55 Why are marine animals larger and better nourished 
than land animals? Is it because the sun consumes the 15 
outer surface of the earth and takes the nourishment out 

1 Omitting npo. T. G., who has duchtque humoris tenuis acrisque, 
does not render it, and its insertion destroys the sense of the passage, 
since the light humours are expelled in sneezing while the solider 
humours remain. 

2 i. e. the breath and the light humours. 

3 Reading ndxos exovra (cp. 87i a 26 and G. A. 739*12) for nddos 
f xovTd. The Latin version renders crassi. 

4 Reading TO p.r]8i v CKTOS di avroov. TO /i^r eVro? r} Si alnwv neither is 
Greek nor does it make sense. The required meaning, however, is 
clear. u</>tWdai should probably be read for dfalo-tfai. 


of it? (For this reason too those animals which are 
enclosed in the" earth are better nourished.) Marine 
animals then are free from all these disadvantages. 

Why is it that the other animals provide themselves 56 
20 more often with dry than with moist food, but man 
takes more moist than dry nourishment ? l Is it because 
man is naturally very hot and therefore requires most 

Why is it that eunuchs do not become bald ? 2 Is it 57 
because they have a large amount of brain-matter ? Now 
this is the result of their not having sexual intercourse 
25 with women ; 3 for the semen passes from the brain through 
the spine. For this reason too bulls which have been 
castrated appear to have large horns after castration. For 
the same reason also, apparently, women and children are 
not bald. 

30 Why is it that some animals are able to feed themselves 58 
directly after birth, while others cannot ? Are those who 
can do so the shorter-lived among those animals which are 
capable of memory ? It is for this reason that they always 
die sooner. 

Why does man produce more moist than dry excrement, 59 
35 but horses and asses more dry than moist ? Is it because 
the latter animals take more dry food, whereas man takes 
more moist than dry nourishment ? 4 For all excrement 
comes from food, and a greater amount of food produces 
a greater quantity of excrement. 5 Some animals then take 
more moist food, others more dry food, because some are 
8g8 a naturally dry and others moist, Animals then which are 
naturally dry feel more desire for moist food, since they 
require it more ; but those which are naturally moist desire 
dry food, for they stand more in need of it. 

Why is it that birds and men and the courageous animals 60 
5 have hard frames ? Is it because high spirit is accompanied 

Cp. below, 11. 35, 36. 

Cp. H.A. 632*4, G.A. ;84 a 6, and Hippocr. Aph. 6. 

G. A. 783 27. 4 Cp. above, 11. 19-22. 

Reading wXeiW (Richards) 

BOOK X. 60 8g8 

by bodily heat, since fear is a process of cooling ? Those 
then whose blood is hot are also courageous and high- 
spirited ; for the blood gives them sustenance. Plants too 
which are watered with warm water become harder. 

61 Why is it that quadrupeds of a small size most often 
give birth to monstrosities, whereas man and the larger 10 
quadrupeds, such as horses and asses, do so less often ? 1 

Is it because the small quadrupeds, such as dogs, pigs, 
goats, and sheep, have much more abundant progeny than 
the larger animals, which either always or usually produce 
only one offspring at a time ? Monstrosities come into 
being when the semen becomes confused 2 and disturbed 15 
either in the emission of the seminal fluid or in the mingling 
which takes place in the uterus of the female. So birds 
too produce monstrosities ; for they lay twin 3 eggs, and 
their monstrosities are born from such eggs in which the 
yolk is not separated by the membrane. 4 

62 Why is the head in man more hairy than the rest of the 20 
body 5 in fact quite disproportionately so while in the 
other animals the opposite is the case ? Is it because some 
of the other animals send an excessive amount of their 
nutritive material into teeth, others into horns, others into 
hair ? Those who expend their nourishment on horns 
have less thick hair on the head ; for the available material 

is used up in the horns. Those whose nourishment goes 25 
into teeth have thicker hair on the head than horned 
animals (for they have crests or manes), 6 but less thick 
than such creatures as 7 birds. For birds have the same 
sort of covering as man ; s but, 9 whereas in birds the 

1 Cp. G.A. 77o a ioff. 

- For Tra\\dTTfLv cp. G. A. 769 b 34, 36. 3 i.e. double-yolked. 

1 Cp. H. A. 562 a 24 ff., G.A. ;;o b 16, and A. Platt s notes. 

5 Cp. H. A. 498 b 17 ff., P. A. 658^ i. 

6 Ac<m includes both crest and mane. 

7 Reading, with Richards, otcoi/ opvdwv. 

8 The sense here is clear and is that of T. G. s version (his enim 
illud etiam, quod homini, genus integendi natura tribuit]^ but the 
reading is doubtful. TT\V rwv dvflpanrav seems to require a noun, and 
Richards suggests e/cSotrtyj but (l) is e^ovcri r/}i> roov av6p<t>Tr<dv eK.o(riv 
good Greek for have the same distribution of hair as men , and (2) is 
not this contradicted by what follows ? e^owi yap rfjv avrr^v x a Lrr l v T<$ 
avOfxJDTTw is perhaps preferable. 

9 Reading 6 ( ) CKCIVOIS (so also Richards). 


covering is distributed all over the body owing- to its 
abundance, in man x it breaks out only on the head ; for 
man is neither 2 on the one hand devoid of hair, nor on 
30 the other hand has he sufficient to cover the whole body. 

Why is it that in man alone of the animals the hair 63 
turns white ? 3 Is it because most of the animals shed 
their coats every year, for instance the horse and the ox, 
while others, though they do not do so, are short-lived, 
such as sheep and others (in which case the hair does not 
35 turn white, because it does not as it were grow old) ? 
But man does not change his hair and is long-lived, and 
so he grows white owing to age. 

Why is it that those in whom the distance from the 64 
navel downwards is longer than that from the navel to 
8g8 b the chest are short-lived and weak ? Is it because their 
stomach is cold owing to its small size, and therefore it 
tends to cause excretion rather than concoction ? Now 
such persons are unhealthy. 

Why is it that some animals come into being not only 65 
from the sexual intercourse of animals with one another 
5 but also spontaneously, while others, such as man and 
the horse, can only be born as the result of sexual inter 
course? 4 Is it due, if to no other cause, at any rate to 
the fact that the former have a short period of coming 
to birth, so that the moment of birth is not protracted 
and can take place at the change of the seasons ; 5 but 
of the latter class the coming to birth is much protracted, 
10 since they are born after a year or ten months, so that they 
must necessarily be born from the intercourse of animals 
with each other or not at all ? 6 

1 Reading TOVTO> (Richards) ; Y a has 

2 Reading oi/Ve . . . oyre (Richards). 

3 Cp. 89i b i, G.A. 778*25, 780*4, 782*11. 

4 Cp. chapter 13. 

5 Which sets up the process of decay necessary for spontaneous 
generation, cp. 892 a 35, 36 and G.A. 715*25. 

6 The text as it stands makes no sense. Since, however, the Latin 
version of T. G. renders quapropter vel nullo pacto vel ex coitu 
procreentur ilia necesse est, we should certainly read with Bussemaker 

(i) ^17) yivfo-Oai fj KT\. 

BOOK X. 66 898 

66 Why is it that the teeth of Ethiopians are white 
indeed whiter than those of other nations, but their nails 
are not correspondingly white ? Are their nails dark 
because their skin also is black and blacker than that 
of others, and the nails grow out of the skin ? But why 15 
are their teeth white ? Is it because those things turn 
white out of which the sun extracts the moisture without 
adding any colour to them, as happens in the case of wax ? 
Now the sun colours l the skin, but it does not colour the 
teeth, but the moisture is evaporated out of them by the 

67 Why is it that, when the head is removed, some animals 20 
die immediately or very soon, while others do not ? Does 
death occur less quickly in the bloodless animals, which 
require little nourishment, since they do not need food 
immediately and the heat in them is not diffused in 
moisture, whereas full-blooded animals cannot live with 
out food and heat ? The former can live after their heads 
are cut off, for they can live longer without breathing. 
The reason for this has been stated elsewhere. 2 2 5 

1 i.e. tans. 

2 This appears to be a direct reference to de Respir, 475** 20 ff. 

8 9 8 l 


WHY is it that of all the senses the hearing is most liable I 
to be defective from birth ? Is it because the sense of 
hearing and the voice may be held to arise from the same 
30 source ? ] Now language, which is a kind of voice, 2 seems 
to be very easily destroyed and to be very difficult to 
perfect ; this is indicated by the fact that we are dumb 
for a long time after our birth, for at first we simply do 
not talk at all and then at length begin only to lisp. And 
35 because language is easily destroyed, and language (being 
a kind of voice) and hearing both have the same source, 
hearing is, as it were, per accidens, though not per se^ 
the most easily destroyed of the senses. 3 Further evidence 
8gg a of the fact that the source of language is eminently easy 
to destroy may be taken from the other animals ; for no 
animal other than man talks, and even he begins to do 
so late, as has already been remarked. 

Why is it that the deaf always speak through their 2 
5 nostrils ? 4 Is it because they are near to being dumb ? 5 
Now the dumb make sounds through their nostrils ; for 
the breath escapes by that way because their mouth is 
closed, and it is closed because they make no use of their 
tongue for vocal purposes. 

10 Why have all hot-natured men big voices ? Is it because 3 
they necessarily have a large amount of cold air 6 in them ? 

1 Cp. de Anim. 426*27. 2 Cp. above, 895* 5. 

8 Reading e* for ei before o-u/z/Se/rtyKoToy and punctuating as follows : 
did re TO T>]V 8id\(K.TOv ev(f)QapTOv dvai, r/)i (ivrrjv Se apx>]v afj,(f>OTfpa)V 
fiVm, KCU rrjs $ia\(KTOv (<f)O)vr) yap TLS) KOI rrjS aKorjs, oxrTrep Kol eK 
(TvptieQriKOTOs paara TWV al(rdr j are(ov (pdeipfrai KOI ov K.a.6 avrrjv fj aKof). 

4 Cp. chapter 4 and xxxiii. 14. 5 Cp. H. A. 536 b 3 fT. 

6 T. G. evidently translates from a text which read dep/jLovfortyvxpov, 
for he renders perferuidum. If \jsvxpbv is retained the meaning is that 
the heat inside the body attracts a quantity of cold air from without ; 
there is therefore more air to expel and consequently the voice is big 

BOOK XI. 3 899 

For their breath, which is hot, attracts the air to itself, 
and the more of it there is the more it attracts. Now a big" 
voice arises from setting in motion a large quantity of air, 
and when the motion is swift, the voice is shrill, and when 
it is slow, it is deep. 

4 Why do the deaf always speak through their nostrils? 1 15 
Is it because the deaf breathe more violently ? For they 
are near to being dumb ; the passage therefore of the 
nostrils is distended by the breath, and those who are in 
this condition speak through the nostrils. 

5 Why are sounds more audible at night ? 2 Is it because 
there is more quiet then owing to the absence of great 20 
heat ? For this reason too there is usually less disturbance ; 
for it is the sun which is the source of movement. 

6 Why do voices sound shriller at a distance ? 3 For 
example, those who try to imitate persons shouting from 
a very great distance utter shrill noises, like those of an 
echo ; and the sound of an echo is distinctly shriller, 4 and 

it is a distant sound, being the result of refraction. Since 25 
then in sound the swift is shrill and the slow is deep, 
one would have expected voices to seem deeper from a 
distance, for all moving bodies move more slowly the 
farther they progress from their starting-point, and at last 
fall. May not the explanation be that these mimics use 
a feeble and thin voice 5 when they imitate a distant 30 
sound ? Now a thin voice is not deep, and it is impossible 
to emit a small and feeble sound that is deep, but such 
a sound is necessarily shrill. Or is it true that not only 
do the mimics imitate for this reason, but also the sounds 
themselves become shriller ? The reason is that the air 
which travels makes the sound ; and just as that which 
first sets the air in motion causes the sound, so the air 35 

in volume. The reading -^vxpov is borne out by Hippocr. Epid. vi. 4. 19 

(V oi? TrAeicrroj/ TO Bep^.6v } /ze-yuAo^coixmiroi* KCI\ yap ^D^pos dr)p TtXeicrTOS. 

1 A repetition of chapter 2 in a slightly different form ; cp. also 
xxxiii. 14. 

2 For a more elaborate treatment of this problem see chapter 33. 

3 Cp. chapters 20 and 47, and xix. n. 

4 i. e. shriller than the sound which it echoes. 

5 Reading p.i/J.ovvTai KOI 


in its turn must do likewise and be partly a motive 
power and partly itself set in motion. 1 That is why sound 
is continuous, motive power continually succeeding to 
motive power, until the force is spent, which results in 
falling in the case of bodies, when the air can no longer 
impel the missile, while in the case of sound the air can 
no longer impel other air. Continuous sound is produced 
when air is impelled by air, while the missile continues 
its progress as long as there is air to keep a body in 

5 motion. In the latter it is always the same body that is 
carried along until it drops, in the former it is always 
different air. Smaller objects travel more quickly at first, 
but do not go far. Therefore voices are shriller and thinner 
at a distance ; for that which moves more quickly is shrill 
a question which we have already raised. 2 It is for the 

10 same reason that children and invalids have shrill voices, 
whereas grown men and healthy persons have deep voices. 3 
That 4 from near at hand one cannot clearly distinguish 
degrees of deepness and shrillness and that altogether the 
conditions are not the same as those of heavy bodies 
thrown, is due to the fact that the body thrown is one 
and preserves its identity throughout ; whereas sound is 

15 air impelled by air. Consequently a body falls in one 
particular spot, while the voice scatters in every direction, 
just as though a body thrown were, in the course of its 
flight, to be broken into infinitesimally small pieces, some 
particles even returning on their track. 

Why are newly plastered houses more resonant ? Is it 7 
because their smoothness gives greater facility for refrac 
tion ? They are smoother because they are free from cracks 
20 and their surface is continuous. One must, however, take 
a house which is already dry and not one which is still 
quite wet ; for damp clay gives no refraction of sound. 
It is for this reason that stucco 5 has a higher degree of 

1 Cp. de And. 8oo a i-u. 2 i.e. in 899* 13 and 26. 

3 Cp. chapter 16. 4 Reading roO Se (Richards). 

5 Apparently a smoother and more expensive material than ordinary 
plaster : it was used for coating the inside of reservoirs, cp. de Col. 

BOOK XL 7 8g9 b 

resonance. Perhaps the absence of disturbance in the air 
also contributes something ; for when the air is l massed 
together it beats back the air that strikes against it. 

8 Why is it that if a large jar or empty earthenware 25 
vessels are buried in the ground 2 and lids placed on them, 
the buildings in which they are have more resonance, 
and the same is true if there is a well or cistern in the 
house ? Is it because, since an echo is due to refraction, 
the air when enclosed is necessarily massed together, and 
so the sound has something dense and smooth upon which 

it can strike 3 and from which it can be refracted, these 
being the most favourable conditions for an echo ? A well, 30 
then, or a cistern causes the contraction and massing 
together of air, and jars and earthemvare vessels also have 
dense surrounding walls, and so the phenomenon in ques 
tion results in both cases. For anything which is hollow 
is particularly resonant ; for which reason bronze vessels 
are particularly so. That resonance still continues when 
the vessels are buried need not surprise us ; for the voice 
is carried downwards as much as in any other direction 
indeed one conceives of it as being carried in a circle in 35 
every direction. 

9 But why is it that there is more resonance where vessels 

are buried than where they are not ? Is it because covered 900* 
vessels receive the air and retain it better ? The result is 
that the impact of sound upon them is more violent. 

10 Why does cold water poured out of a jug make a shriller 
sound than hot water poured from the same vessel ? Is it 
because the cold water falls at a greater speed, being heavier, 5 
and the greater speed causes the sound to be shriller? 

1 It is quite clear from a comparison with the next problem (11. 27- 
34 below) that &v must be read for l<bv. The meaning is that a mass 
of undisturbed air collected in an enclosed space (in this case in a 
room, in the next problem in an earthenware vessel, well, or cistern) 
is a good medium for the refraction of sound, and therefore gives an 
echo. For another instance of the confusion of <ui/ and i&v see 
Qo4 b 16 and note. 

2 The custom of burying storage vessels in the floors of houses is 
amply borne out by excavations on ancient sites from the earliest 
periods onwards. 

3 Omitting the comma after avaK\ao-dr)<TTai, and readi 

K 2 


Heat, on the other hand, makes water lighter by rarefying 
it and causing it to rise. 1 We may compare the phenomenon 
that torches deal softer blows when they are alight. 

10 Why is it that the voice is rougher when one has passed II 
a sleepless night ? Is it because the body, owing to absence 
of concoction, is moister than usual, especially in its upper 
part (which is also the cause of heaviness in the head), and 
moisture in the region of the windpipe necessarily makes 
the voice rougher ? For roughness is due to unevenness, 

J 5 whilst depth is due to congestion ; for the passage of sound 
is then slower. 

Why does the voice become broken very readily after 12 
meals ? 2 Is it because the region in which it is produced 
is thoroughly heated by constant impacts, and, becoming 
heated, attracts the moisture ? The moisture too is itself 
more copious and readier to hand when food is being taken. 

20 Why is the sound of weeping shrill, whereas that of 13 
laughing is deep ? 3 Is it because those who weep 4 either set 
only a little breath in motion, because they are weak, or else 
exhale violently, which makes their breath travel quickly ? 
Now speed makes for shrillness ; for that which is hurled 
from a body which is tense travels quickly. (On the other 
hand, a man who is laughing is in a relaxed condition. 5 ) 
Those who are weak make shrill sounds, for they set only 

25 a little air in motion, in some cases merely on the surface. 6 
Further, the air emitted by those who are laughing is warm, 
while the breath of those who are weeping is colder, just as 

1 i. e. by evaporation. 

2 Cp. chapter 22. On broken voices cp. de Aud. 8o4 b II ff. 

3 Cp. chapters 15 and 50. 

4 of fjifv 6\iyov Kivovai 7ri/ef /ua SY dcrdiveinv must refer to the weepers, 
not to the laughers, for (i) those who weep are weaker (cp. 904*25, 
26), and (2) laughers emit large quantities of air (cp. 11. 25-9 below). 
01 8e crtyodpws, 6 Troiei ra^u (pepecrBai TO Trpeu/za must also refer to weep 
ing, for breath which is quickly and violently expelled makes a shrill 
sound. The whole sentence therefore refers to two different cases of 
of K\alovTes. Any other way of taking the passage involves hopeless 
confusion in this problem and contradicts chapters 15 and 50. Greater 
clearness would be obtained by reading ^ oVi (of Khaiovres) of pev KT\. 
Richards (pp. tit., p. 18) suggests o~(f)o8pa>s de for of Se <r(f)odpS)s. 

5 Reading SmAeXu/jeVos for SinXeXv/neVco?. 

6 Richards (loc. dt.} suggests that of S do-faveis . . . eTmroXf}? is a gloss. 

BOOK XI. 13 goo a 

pain is a chilling of the region round the breast. Now heat 
sets a great mass of air in motion, so that its progress is 
slow, 1 whereas cold imparts movement to a little air only. 30 
The same thing happens with flutes ; when the player s 
breath is hot, 2 the sound produced is much deeper. 

14 Why do children :i and the young of other animals have 
shriller voices than the full-grown of their species, and that 
though shrillness involves a quality of violence ? Is it 
because 4 the voice is a movement of the air, and the swifter 
the movement the shriller is the sound ? Now a little air 35 
can be moved more easily and quickly than a large quantity, 
and it is set in motion owing either to its concretion or to its 
dissolution by heat. Now since we draw in cold air when we 
inhale, the air within us can become concreted by the act of 
inhalation; but exhalation, when heat sets air in motion, can 
become voice, for it is when we are exhaling that we speak, 

not when we are inhaling. And since the young are hotter goo b 
than their elders, and their interior passages are narrower, 
they may well have less air in them. So, as there is less 
in them of that which is moved 5 and more motive power, 
namely heat, for both reasons the movement of the air may 5 
be quicker ; and, for the reasons already stated, 6 the quicker 
the movement the shriller the voice. 

15 Why is. the sound of weeping shrill and of laughter 
deep ? 7 Is it because those who weep, in uttering their 
cries, strain and contract the mouth ? Owing to the tension 
the air that is in them is impelled into swift motion, and the 10 
contraction of the mouth, through which it passes, makes 
its speed still greater. For both these reasons the voice 
becomes shrill. On the other hand, those who laugh relax 
the tension in doing so and open the mouth. Since then 
for this reason they emit the air from the mouth through 

a wide aperture and slowly, their voice is naturally deep. 

J And therefore deep. 

2 Reading <9ep/>uu (Platt) ; all MSS. have 0ep/W. 

3 Cp. chapters 16, 34, 62. 

4 Reading r; (on) >} $om/, suggested by Ruelle. 

5 i.e. air. G 899 a 13, b 8, &c. 
7 Cf. chapters 13 and 50. 


15 Why is it that persons without generative power, such 16 
as boys, women, men grown old, and eunuchs, have shrill 
voices, while adult men have deep voices ? 1 Is it because 2 
the thin voice has only one dimension, just as the line and 
other thin things have one dimension, while thick things 
have more than one ? Now it is easier to create and set in 

20 motion one thing than several things. Now the breathing 
of the persons mentioned above is feeble and sets little air in 
motion ; and the air which has only one dimension is very 
small in quantity, for it will be thin for the reasons already 
stated. And the voice produced from it will be of the same 
quality, and a thin voice is shrill. This then is the reason 
why persons without generative power have shrill voices ; 

25 whereas men who are vigorous set a large quantity of air in 
motion with their breath, and the air, being large in quantity, 
is likely to move slowly and causes the voice to be deep. 
For shrillness of voice is, as we have seen, produced by 
a movement at once swift and thin, neither of which 
conditions is fulfilled in an adult man. 

Why are our voices deeper in the winter ? 3 Is it because 17 
30 then the air both inside and outside us is thicker, and, being 
such, its movement is slower and the voice therefore deeper ? 
Further, we are drowsier in the winter than in the summer 
and sleep longer, and we are heavier after sleeping. In the 
period then during which we sleep for a longer time than 
we are awake (namely, the winter), we may expect to have 
35 deeper voices than in the season when the contrary happens. 
For during the short interval of wakefulness the condition 
set up during sleep persists and causes a tendency to 

Why is the voice deeper as a result of drinking and 18 

9oi a vomiting and cold weather ? Is it due to the congestion 

of the larynx 4 caused by phlegm, which makes fluid matter 

collect in it ? In some people vomiting and drinking, in 

others the season and the constriction resulting therefrom, 

1 Cf. chapters 14, 34, and 62, and de And. 8c>3 b 18 ff. 

2 Reading r) (6Vt) KaBdnep. 3 Cp. chapter 61. 

4 Greek (pdfwy, cp. P. A. 664 a 16 and Ogle s note. 

BOOK XI. 18 


make the larynx narrower, so that the passage of breath is 5 
slower ; and its slow passage makes the voice deep. 

19 Why is it that a deeper voice is more audible close at 
hand, but less so at a distance ? Is it because a deeper voice 
sets a greater amount of air in motion, but not at a distance ? 
So we hear it less well at a distance, because it travels less 
far, but better from near at hand, because a greater mass 10 
of air strikes upon our sensory organ. A shrill sound is 
audible at a distance, because it is thinner ; and that which 

is thin has greater longitudinal extension. It might also 
be said that the motion which causes it is quicker ; this 
would be so, if the breath which sets the air in motion were 
at the same time dense and narrow. For, in the first place, 15 
air which is small in bulk moves more readily (for the air 
which is set in motion by that which is narrow is small in 
bulk) ; and, secondly, that which is dense deals more 
impacts, and it is these which cause the sound. This can 
be illustrated from musical instruments ; for, all other 
conditions being the same, it is the thinner strings that give 
shriller sounds. 1 

20 Why does the voice seem shriller to those standing at 20 
a distance, whereas shrillness depends on the rapidity at 
which the voice travels, and that which travels moves more 
slowly the farther it goes ? 2 Is it because the shrillness of 
the voice depends not only on the rapidity with which it 
travels but also on the attenuation of sound ? 3 The farther 
one is away the more attenuated is the voice when it reaches 25 
one, because very little air is set in motion. For the motion 
gradually diminishes ; and just as number in diminishing 
terminates in the unit, so a body terminates in a single 
dimension, and this in a body is tenuity. So it is also with 
the voice. 

21 Why is it that both those who have taken violent exercise 30 
and those who are ill speak shrilly ? 4 Is it because those 
who are ill set only a little air in motion, and a little air 

1 Cp. de And. 8o3 b 23 ff. 2 Cp. chapters 6 and 47. 

3 Reading Aem-of rbv (Richards) for Aen 

4 Cp. chapter 40. 


travels more quickly than a larger quantity ? Those who 
have taken violent exercise, on the other hand, set the air 
in vigorous motion, and air which is in vigorous motion 
travels more quickly, and in the voice quickness of motion 
causes shrillness. 

35 Why do those who shout after meals spoil their voices ? l 22 
9Ol b Indeed, we can see how those who are training their voices, 
such as actors and chorus-men and all such persons, practice 
early in the morning and on an empty stomach. Is it 
because the spoiling of the voice is simply the spoiling of 
5 the region through which the voice passes out ? So too 
those who have sore throats have their voices spoilt, not 
because the breath which causes the voice is any worse, but 
because the windpipe is roughened. This region by its 
nature is especially liable to be roughened by violent heat ; 2 
and so neither can those who are in a fever sing, nor can 

10 those who have been suffering from a violent fever sing 
immediately after it leaves them ; for their larynx is 
roughened by the heat. The consumption of food naturally 
increases and heats the breath, and it is reasonable to 
suppose that the breath being in this state makes the wind 
pipe sore and rough as it passes through ; and when this 

15 happens the voice is naturally spoilt. 

Why is it that the voice, which is air that has taken 23 
a certain form and is carried along, often loses its form by 
dissolution, but an echo, which is caused by such air striking 
on something hard, does not become dissolved, but we hear 
it distinctly ? 3 Is it because in an echo refraction takes 
20 place and not dispersion ? This being so, the whole 
continues to exist and there are two parts of it of similar 
form ; 4 for refraction takes place at the same angle. So the 
voice of the echo is similar to the original voice. 

1 This problem clearly continues the topic raised in chapter 12. 

2 In 9oo a 12-14 moisture is said to be the cause of roughness, not 
heat as here. 

3 This problem is repeated, in part verbally, in chapter 51. 

4 The two parts into which TO o/W is divided are (i) the voice on 
its way to the hard object from which it is refracted, and (2) the voice 
after refraction, i. e. the echo. 

BOOK XI. 24 901* 

24 Why is it that, although the young of all other animals 
and infants have shriller voices than the full-grown of their 25 
species, 1 calves have deeper voices than full-grown oxen ? 2 
Is it because in each species the young resembles the female 
of the same kind ? Now among cattle cows have deeper 
voices 3 than bulls, and the calves resemble the former 
rather than the latter ; but in all other species the males 
have deeper voices. 

25 Why is it that when the orchestra of a theatre is spread 3 
with straw, the chorus makes less sound ? Is it because, 
owing to the unevenness of the surface, the voice does not 
find the ground smooth when it strikes upon it and is 
therefore less uniform, and so is less in bulk, because it is 
not continuous ? Similarly light too shines more on smooth 
surfaces, because it is not cut off by anything which inter- 35 
cepts it. 

26 Why does salt make a noise when it is thrown on fire ? 4 902 
Is it because salt has a little moisture in it which is evaporated 

by the heat and violently bursting forth rends the salt ? 
Now anything which is rent makes a noise. 

27 Why is it that some children, before they reach the age 5 
at which it is time for them to express themselves clearly, 
find voice and say something distinctly, and then go on as 
before 5 until the usual age for speaking arrives ? Some 
regard such incidents as portents; and before now cases 
have been reported of children who spoke immediately after 
birth. Is it because generally the majority of children at I0 
birth c follow the usual course of nature (and so the pheno 
menon in question occurs only in a few), and their faculties 
keep pace with one another; and so they hear [and find 
voice] 7 and understand what they hear and speak and 
express themselves clearly all at the same time ? Sometimes, 

As has already been stated in 9oo a 32 ff. 
Cp. G. A. ;86 b 15, H. A. 545* 19. 
Cp. G. A. 786 b 22, H. A. 538* 14. 

Cp. chapters 42 and 43. fl i. e. do not speak again. 

Retaining the MS. reading yivoptvav. 

y KOI $&>i>fl is hardly necessary here, its meaning being more appro 
priately expressed by KOI Ae ya following. 


however, these things 1 do not go together, but some 

J 5 children understand before the faculty by which they 
converse is set free for use, while in others the opposite 
happens. The latter, then, would not converse intelligently 
(for they merely repeat what they hear) ; but when the time 
comes at which they can both speak and understand, they 
make a natural use of both functions. But in those in whose 

20 souls perception through hearing has been perfected before 
the organ 2 by which the voice is first set in motion and 
speech is formed, the full power and freeing of the organ of 
speech sometimes comes to pass when they already 
understand a great deal. This is especially likely to happen 
after sleep the reason being that sleep makes the body 
and the faculties more sluggish by giving them a rest or, 
if not after sleep, after some other similar change has taken 

25 place. We can do many things of this sort which require 
some short-lived opportunity after which the conditions 
are no longer suitable when the organ of speech is in this 
state of freedom ; and 3 when there has been obviously 
present to their sensation something by which thought was 
stirred, in virtue of having heard it the child returns to it 
and utters it. Now tunes and phrases often occur to us 

30 without our deliberate intention, but if we originally utter 
them deliberately, we afterwards speak or sing them without 
deliberate intention and cannot get rid of them from our 
lips. So too when this happens in children, they speak, 4 
and then the faculty involved relapses again into its natural 
condition, until the time comes for it to become strong and 

35 to be separately constituted. 

Why do some objects, chests for example, suddenly make 28 
a noise and move, when nothing perceptible sets them in 
motion ? Yet that which causes motion is stronger than 
that which is moved. The same question arises in connexion 

1 Reading raOra (Richards). 

Reading with Bussemaker (//) <y. 

3 Reading with Richards orav (6 ) . . . J. 

4 Reading ovro> Kal rots net idiots ornv o~vp.(3fj Tofro, etVoy, (.Ira TrdXiv 
KciT(T T r) KT-A. (cp. above, 11. 7, 8) ; this is supported by the Latin version 
of T. G., ita fieri potest ut pueri aliquid dicant, rursusque membrum 
. . . redeat ad suain naturani. 

BOOK XI. 28 go2 a 

with corruption and old age ; for everything which is said 
to be * destroyed by time is destroyed by something 
imperceptible. Is it similar to dripping water and stones 9 2b 
lifted by the growth of plants, namely, that it is not the 
final effort but its continuity w r hich raises or moves the 
object ? This continuity of effort is imperceptible, but it 
results in a movement which is perceptible. So too that 
which is contained within perceptible spaces of time 5 
moves and can be divided into imperceptible portions, 
but these cause motion and corruption by their sum 
and their continuity. 1 Now continuity is not in the 
present time but in the period of time terminated by the 

29 Why does one hear less well when one is yawning ? 2 Is 
it because a quantity of breath emitted in the yawn finds its 10 
way also into the ears, so that the motion which it sets up 
in the neighbourhood of the ears makes a distinct impression 
on the perception, especially after sleep ? Now sound is 
air or a certain condition of it. The sound then from out 
side enters the ear, and that from within comes into collision 
with it, and the movement thus caused checks the progress T 5 
of the sound from without. 

3 Why do children hesitate more in their speech than grown 
men ? Is it because, just as, when we are children, we 
always have less control over our hands and feet and at 
a still earlier age cannot walk at all, so the young cannot 
control their tongue ? Now when they are quite small, they 20 
cannot speak at all but can only make sounds like the 
animals, because they lack control. This is the cause not 
only of hesitancy in speech but also of lisping and stammer 
ing. Lisping is due to the inability to master a letter not 
any letter but some particular one ; stammering is due to 

1 i. e. it takes a considerable period for the growth of a tree to move 
a stone, and if it is examined at any particular moment the movement 
is imperceptible ; but there is a perceptible difference between the 
position of the stone at the beginning and at the end of the period, 
and this is the effect of the sum of the continuous but imperceptible 

2 Cp. chapter 44 and G. A. 78 i a 30. 


the dropping out of some particular letter or syllable ; l 
2 5 hesitancy is due to the inability to join one syllable to 
another sufficiently quickly. All three are due to want of 
power ; for the tongue is not an efficient servant of the 
intelligence. The same thing occurs in those who are 
drunken and in the old ; but always to a less extent than in 

30 Why is it that the voice trembles in those who are nervous 2 31 
or afraid ? 3 Is it because the heart is shaken by the passing 
out of the heat ? For this happens in both conditions, 
being an effect both of nervousness and of fear. 4 When the 
heart is shaken, the impact 5 is not one but many, like that 

35 from strings which are not properly stretched. 6 

Why is it that those who are nervous have deep voices, 32 
but those who are afraid speak shrilly ? 7 Is it because in 
those who are afraid the region about the heart is chilled, 8 
because the heat passes downwards, and so they set only 
a little air in motion ? For the force which sets the air in 
motion is derived from heat. In those w r ho are nervous the 
go3 a heat travels upwards, as happens in those who are ashamed ; 
for it is through shame 10 that nervousness is felt. In those 
who are ashamed the heat travels upwards to the face, as is 
shown by the fact that they tend to blush. 11 The heat 
therefore dissolves and thickens the air with which they 
5 speak, and such air can only be propelled slowly ; and in 
the voice that which is slow is deep. 

1 Cp. de Aud. 8o4 b 26-33. 

2 For a definition of aywia see 86g b 6 ; see also note on ib. a 2 for 
the difference between aya>via and (poftus. 

3 Cp. xxvii. i, 6, and 7. 

4 KOI yap . . . (f)opov(jLi>ois has perhaps come into the text as a gloss 
upon a/jL(poTfpaKis 8e Trdcr^ovat TOVTO. The doctrine here agrees with 
that of ii. 31 as far as the effect of fear is concerned (6 6e <o/3oy 

TK>V ai/w 

b 7), but the effect of nervousness is there said to be 
TO TO 6fp/j.ov avTwv i]6poi<rBai els TOV Trepl TO arfjOns rorrov (ib. 13)* 
5 i. e. of the voice upon the air. 

G Cp. de Aud. So4 a 38 ff. 7 Cp. chapter 53. 

8 Cp. 869 b 7 (quoted in note on 1. 32 above). 
In 869 a 4 u-yom a is called av{;r)(ns dep/jLOi . 

10 Cp. 905* 8. 

11 Contrast 869 a 8, where those who are nervous are said to turn pale. 

BOOK XI. 33 9<>3 

33 Why are sounds more audible in the night than in the 
day ? l Is it for the reason that Anaxagoras 2 gives, namely, 
that in the day-time the air, heated by the sun, hisses and 
roars, but at night it is still because the heat has ceased, 10 
and that when there is no noise hearing is easier ? Or is it 
because one hears more easily through a comparative void 
than through a plenum ? Now in the day the air is dense, 
being full of light and of the sun s rays ; but at night it is rarer, 
for then the fire and the rays, which are bodies, have gone 15 
out of it. Or is it because in the day-time the various bodies 
around us 3 distract our intelligence, and so it is less able to 
distinguish 4 what it hears ? Also because we do all that 
we have to do preferably in the day rather than at night, 
our intelligence 5 too is busy then ; and the perception apart 
from intelligence does, if one may say so, 6 only an im 
perceptible amount of work as the saying is, l It is the mind 20 
which sees, the mind which hears . 7 But at night when 
our sight has no work to do and our intelligence is more at 
liberty, the channel of hearing, being wider open, is just as 
receptive of sounds 8 and better able to report them to the 
intelligence, because the latter is neither busy nor distracted 25 
by the sight, as it is in the day-time. 

34 Why is it that persons without generative power, such 
as boys, women, men grown old, and eunuchs, have shrill 
voices, while adult men have deeper voices ? 9 Is it because 
of the weakness of the organ which sets the air in motion ? 
For that which is weak sets only a little in motion ; and 30 
a little air travels quickly, and that which travels quickly is 
shrill. Or is it because the first passage through which the 
air passes is narrow in those who are without generative 
power, so that that which expels the air from it has little force, 

1 A more elaborate statement of the problem already briefly treated 
in chapter 5. 

? Diels, Vorsokr?, p. 392. 

3 i. e. visible objects. 4 Reading fvKpivrjs (Richards). 

5 Reading aun? (sc~. fj Buivota) for avra. ; so also Richards. 

6 Kaddnep is inserted to apologize for the play upon the words aia-d^a-is 
and avaicrQrjTOV, 

7 Epicharmus, fr. 2. 

8 Omitting Kadi nrep TT?S fafpas (Platt) as having come from 1. 26. 

9 Cp. chapters 14, 16, and 62. 


and the air, being small in volume, travels quickly through 
the larynx above, which is wide ? But in the adult and 
35 fully developed men this passage is wide (just as also is 
that 1 leading to the testicles), and so the quantity of the 
air expelled is also greater ; and so passing through more 
slowly it makes a deeper sound. 

Why is it that those who hesitate in their speech cannot 35 

93 b speak in a low voice ? Is it because they are hindered 

from using their voice by some impediment ? Since, then, 

there is 2 not equal force exerted and similar movement 

set up when there is some impediment to the movement 

and when there is none, a violent effort is required. Now 

the voice is a movement, and those who use more force 

5 speak louder ; and so, since they have to force the hindrance 

out of the way, those who hesitate in their speech must 

necessarily speak louder. 

Why do those who hesitate in their speech become worse 36 
when they are nervous, but better under the influence of 
drunkenness ? Is it because their condition is a state 
resembling apoplexy 3 of some interior part of the body 
I0 which they cannot move and which by its coldness hinders 
their speech ? 4 Wine then, being naturally hot, tends to 
get rid of the coldness, but nervousness creates coldness ; 
for it is a form of fear, and fear is a chilling condition. 5 

Why is it easier to hear sounds from outside in a house 37 
than those from inside a house outside it? Is it because 
the sound from inside becomes dispersed because it travels 
15 over an immense space, so that each component part of 
the sound is not sufficiently strong to make itself heard, 
or at any rate is less audible ? On the other hand, a voice 
from without entering within into a smaller space and 
into stagnant air arrives in a close mass, and so being 
greater in bulk is more audible. 

1 Reading oxTrrep KO.\ (6) eVi (Platt). 

2 Reading Kivrjo-ews (otfo-qs-) (Richards). 

3 Reading a7ro7rX/j|i a (Bekker). 

4 Apoplexy is accompanied by loss of heat, cp. 86o a 34 

5 See note on 869 a 2. 

BOOK XI. 38 903 

38 Why are those who hesitate in their speech melancholic ? 
Is it because melancholy is due to their responding too 20 
quickly to the imagination ? Now this is characteristic 
of those who hesitate in their speech ; for the impulse to 
speak outstrips their power to do so, the mind responding 
too quickly to that which is presented to it. The same 
thing occurs in those who lisp ; J for in them the organs 
employed in speech are too slow. 2 This is shown by the 
fact that men under the influence of wine become lispers, 25 
since then they respond most to the objects presented to 
their vision and not so much to the mind. 

39 Why do leeks contribute to loudness of the voice (for 
we find that this is so even with partridges) ? Is it because, 
whereas boiled garlic makes the throat smooth, leeks 
contain a certain amount of adhesive matter, and this 
cleanses the larynx ? 

40 Why is it that in all other creatures the sounds made 30 
are shriller when more violence is used, but man speaks 
more shrilly when he is weak ? 3 Is it because then he sets 
less air in motion, and this passes along quickly, and its 
speed makes the sound shrill ? 

41 Why can one hear better when one holds one s breath 
than when one exhales ? 4 This is why people when 35 
hunting tell one another not to breathe. Is it because 
the power of perception rises into the upper parts of the 
body when the veins are distended ? For it sinks when 
one is asleep ; and so those who are sleeping exhale rather 
than inhale, and lose the sense of hearing. Or does the 
blood rise upwards when one exhales, so that the lower 904* 
parts of the body become void, and one can hear better 

in a void? Or is it because breathing is a noise, and 
when it takes place in the act of exhaling it impedes 
the hearing ? 

1 Cp. Hippocr. Epid. ii. 5. I voarj^ara 8e e^oim TpavXbs . . . r) 

2 Reading 

3 Cp. chapter 21. * Cp. chapter 48. 


Why do small quantities of salt make a noise and ex- 4 2 
5 plode more quickly, but large quantities more violently ? l 
Is it because in the former case the particles burst quickly 
because they are small (for the fire does not have far to 
penetrate), but in the latter case slowly, since a large mass 
is more difficult to burst than a small ? A small quantity 
makes a small noise because the impact is small, whereas 
10 a large quantity makes a loud noise because the impact 
is greater; and sound is an impact. The stronger an 
object is, the greater is the explosion if it is struck ; 2 for 
it is less yielding. 

Why is it that if the same quantity of salt is thrown 43 
on to a large fire, it makes less noise than if thrown on 
a small fire, or else makes no noise at all ? Is it because 
it is burnt up before it can burst ? For it burns because 
15 the moisture is used up, 3 and it makes a noise because 
it bursts. 

Why does one hear less well when one is yawning ? 4 44 
Is it because the action of yawning cuts off the breath 
internally and the breath so cut off accumulates in the 
region of the ears ? This is shown by the fact that there 
is a noise in the ears when one yawns. Now the breath 
20 thus cut off hinders the hearing. Further one also makes 
a noise when one yawns, and this tends to impede the 
hearing. Also the organs of hearing must necessarily 
become compressed by the distension of the mouth in 

Why is it that though the voice, since it is a kind of 45 
stream, is naturally inclined to travel upwards, yet it is 
more audible below from above than above from below ? 
25 Is it because the voice is a kind of air mingled with 
moisture, and this air being weighed down by the moisture 
is carried downwards instead of upwards, since it is the 
natural characteristic of moisture to be carried downwards ? 
For this reason one hears better when one is below. Or 

1 Sc. when thrown upon the fire, as in chapters 26 and 43. 

2 Reading nXrjyfj. s Cp> ^a 2> 3. 

4 This is the same problem as that of chapter 29, somewhat 
differently treated. 

BOOK XI. 45 904 

is such a result characteristic only of the voice of a living 
creature (for it contains moisture) , while the phenomenon 
which we are discussing is found also in other sounds ? 
Just as the sight then, if it be allowed to fall from a higher 3 o 
to a lower object, makes an upward reflexion and vice 
versa, 1 so the voice, which has a natural tendency to rise, 
coming into collision with the air which bars its progress, 
cannot overpower the air, which is greater in mass and 
heavier, but the air which is set in motion by the voice, 35 
being refracted, is carried in a contrary direction and down 
wards, and so, being scattered in a downward direction, 
it is more audible below. Somewhat similar is that which 
happens in an echo, which is clue to the refraction of the 
voice in a contrary direction. 

4^ Why are the voices of drunken persons more broken 
than those of the sober ? Is it because their voice breaks 
easily owing to their state of repletion ? This can be 
illustrated by the fact that chorus-men and actors practise 
not after a meal but on an empty stomach. 2 Now since 
a person in a state of drunkenness is in a condition of 5 
greater repletion, his voice is naturally more broken. 

47 Why can one hear shriller voices at a greater distance ? 
Is it because shrillness in the voice is rapidity, and what 
is carried forcibly along moves more rapidly, and what is 
carried violently along is carried farther ? 3 10 

48 Why can we hear better if we hold the breath ? 4 Is it 
because breathing makes a noise ? It is only natural there 
fore that we should hear better when the noise is less ; for 
the noise is less when we hold the breath. 

1 The reference here seems to be to the fact that if one gazes at an 
object and then lowers or raises the eyes, a momentary image is 
retained of the object first looked at. It is difficult to see the exact 
force of this comparison between the voice and the sight ; there is 
perhaps some confusion due to the use of the word avaK\a<ris in two 
senses, viz. refraction of sound and reflection of light. 

2 Cp. 9oi a 35~ b 3. 

3 This is a condensed form of the answer given to the same problem 
in chapter 6 ; cp. also chapter 20. 

B 4 This problem has been more fully treated in chapter 41. 

645.25 L 


15 Why is it that light cannot penetrate through dense 49 
objects, whereas sound can do so, although light is rarer 
and travels 1 farther and quicker than sound ? 2 Is it 
because light travels in a straight line, and so, if anything 
blocks its direct course, it is completely cut off, but sound, 
because it is a breath, can also travel in a line that is not 

20 direct ? So we can hear those who make sounds from 
any direction and not only those who are in a straight line 
with our ears. 

Why is the sound of laughing deep, whereas that of 5 
weeping is shrill ? 3 Is it because a voice which comes 
from those who are in a state of tension is shrill, and that 
which is shrill is weak ? Now both these characteristics 
25 are found rather in those who are weeping ; for they are 
in a state of greater tension and they are weaker. 

Why is it that the voice, being air which has assumed 5 1 
a certain form and is carried along, 4 often loses its form 
by dissolution, but an echo, which is formed by such air 
striking on something hard, does not become dissolved, 
30 but we hear it distinctly ? 5 Is it because in an echo refraction 
takes place, not dispersion ? It starts then as a complete 
whole and continues to be so. 6 Also, the effect produced 
upon it is due to a similar agency ; 7 for it is refracted from 
the air in the hollow, not from the hollow itself. 

Why is it that when one person makes a sound and 52 
a number of persons make the same sound simultaneously, 
35 the sound produced is not equal nor does it reach corre 
spondingly farther ? 8 Is it because each of them thrusts 
forward his own portion of air and they do not all impel 
the same air, except to a very small extent ? The result 

1 Reading with Bonitz (op. cit., p. 412) 16 for ov ; see also note on 
899* 24. 

2 This problem is more fully treated in chapter 58. 

3 The same question is treated in chapters 13 and 15. 

4 Reading eVri <a\ faponevos, dia\verai (W. D. R.); cp. 901^ 17. 

5 Cp. chapter 23. 6 Cp. 9oi b 2o. 

7 i. e. the air in the hollow upon which the sound strikes and from 
which it is refracted, resembles the air in the hollow of the mouth 
from which the sound first proceeded. 

* Cp. xix. 2. Reading yeyavaviv (cp. 9OI b 3l). 

BOOK XI. 52 9 o 4 b 

is much the same as when a number ot persons throw 
stones but each throws a different stone, or at any rate 
most of them do so. Neither in the latter case will any QO5 a 
missile travel far (or at any rate not correspondingly 
farther), 1 nor in the former case will the voice reach 
farther. For this great voice is that of many, not of one ; 
so at a short distance it appears correspondingly greater 
(just as a number of missiles reaches the same spot), but at 
a great distance this is no longer so. 

53 Why do those who are nervous have deep voices, but 5 
those who are afraid speak shrilly, 2 though a feeling of 
shame is a kind of fear ? 3 Or are the two conditions really 
very different ? For those who feel shame blush (and 
nervousness is a kind of shame), 4 whereas those who are 
afraid turn pale. It is clear then that in those who are 
afraid the heat fails in the upper part of the body, so that 10 
the breath, being weak, sets only a little air in motion ; 
and that which is small in bulk travels quickly, and in the 
voice quickness is shrillness. But in those who feel shame 
the heat in the region of the breast travels upwards, as 

is shown by the fact that they blush. Now a strong 
force 5 sets a great mass of air in motion, and a great 
mass travels slowly, and in the voice slowness is deepness. 15 

54 What is the cause of hesitation of speech ? G Is it due 
to the chilling of the region in which the sound is pro 
duced, and to a condition resembling apoplexy in that part 
of the body ? 7 This is why those who hesitate, if warmed 
with wine and deriving thence a continuity of speech, 
are better able to connect their words together. 

1 i. e. in the rare event of two persons helping to hurl the same 

2 The same problem is treated in chapter 32. 

3 And dyuvia is a kind of shame, see below. For the difference 
between 0o/3oy and dymvla see 86g a i ff., b 7 ff., and note on ib. & 2. 

4 It is impossible in English to find separate words to express al8a>s 
and alcrxvvrj. alaxvvrj is shame , but mfia>9 is a more complicated 
feeling which includes shame , awe , honour , and a ( sense of 
wounded honour ; here it seems to denote a combination of shame 
and awe or dread . 

5 Such as that exerted by heat. 

6 The same problem is treated somewhat differently in chapter 60. 

7 Cp. 903 b 8-io and note. 

L 2 


20 Why is it that of all animals man alone is apt to become 55 
hesitating in speech ? l Is it because he alone possesses 
the power of uttering- words, while the other animals only 
have voices ? Now those who hesitate in their speech use 
their voice, but they cannot connect their words together. 

Why is the voice shriller in winter and in those who 56 
25 are sober, and deeper in summer and in those who are 
drunken ? Is it because the quicker a voice is the shriller 
it is, and it is quicker when it proceeds from one who is 
in a state of tension ? The bodies of those who are sober 
are in a more solid condition than those of the drunken, 
and bodies are in a more solid condition in winter than in 
summer ; for heat and warmth have a dissolvent effect upon 

the body. 

30 57 

Why does the voice come to perfection later in man 

than in any other creature capable of sound ? 2 Is it 
because there are many variations and kinds of sounds in the 
human voice ? For the other animals can express few or 
no letters ; 3 and that which is most elaborate and contains 
a large number of variations takes a long time to perfect. 

r,5 Why is it that the sight cannot pass through hard 58 
objects, but the voice can do so ? 4 Is it because the course 
of the sight can only take one direction, namely, a straight 
line (as is shown by the rays of the sun and the fact that 
we can only see what is directly opposite us), whereas the 
voice can take many directions, since we can hear from 
everywhere ? When therefore the sight is prevented from 
making its way through in a straight line, because there 

40 is no continuous passage between the eye and the object, 
it is impossible to see through the impeding matter. But 
go5 b the air and the voice, since they travel everywhere, find 
their way everywhere and make themselves audible. On 
the other hand, the sight can penetrate through liquids, 
but voices cannot be heard through them or hardly at all, 
although the liquid is rarer than the earth, because the 

1 Cp. x. 40. 2 Cp. 898 b 32. 

3 Cp. 899 a i ; H.A. 488 a 32, 

4 Cp. chapter 49, and xxv. 9. 

BOOK XL 58 905 

passages are small and close together and continuous, and 5 
so the sight is not prevented from travelling in a straight 
line. For the same reason it is possible to see through 
glass, although it is dense, but not through a fennel-stalk, 
although it contains rarities, because in the former the 
pores are continuous, in the latter they are irregular, and 
their size is no advantage if they are not straight. 1 The 
voice is not audible through water, because the empty 10 
air-spaces 2 in it are too small and so cannot admit the 
voice or let it pass through, or only with difficulty ; for the 
voice is a kind of air. For that which is rarer is not 
necessarily more penetrable, unless at the same time the 
passages are adapted to that which is passing through. So 
also that which is rarer is not necessarily more compressible, 
unless its passages are of such a kind as to admit the 15 
passage of other bodies. But, it may be urged, that which 
is rare is soft and compressible. True, but in some things 
compression is impossible owing to the smallness of the 
passages in glass, for example ; for its passages cannot be 
contracted, although it may be rarer than a fennel-stalk, 
for the reason already mentioned. So too with water 20 
and the like. This then is clear, that, although the rare 
and the soft are either identical or else of a very similar 
nature, yet it does not follow that the rarer a thing is the 
more it admits of contraction. The reason in all these 
cases is the same. 

59 Why is it that the sound produced becomes less if some 
of those who produce it are withdrawn, 3 but its character 
is unchanged ? Is it because their voice had formed part 25 
of a general mingling of sound, and that which is mingled 
is not mingled in one part and not in another, but is 
mingled throughout ? 4 So when some of those who make 

1 Reading with Bonitz (pp. cit., p. 412) Sioparat, on rrjs fieV 01 rropoi 
KaraXA^Aot, rov de TrapaXAarrorres 1 , ovQcv $ 6<pe\os etVat KT\. 

2 TO. ftuiKwa are the same as the rropoi of the rest of the passage. 

3 This must be the meaning of eai/joL>jueVo>f, though it is very 
inadequately expressed in the text. The source of this problem, like 
that of chapter 52, is evidently a series of questions connected with 
chorus singing ; and in its original setting the context doubtless made 
its meaning clearer. 

4 Cp. M XG. 977 a * " 7rflJ/ aTTflVTi /nepos fiefJiiKTai o/Wcos KUI TO oAof. 


the sound are withdrawn, the volume of sound comes 
forth in the same way as before from the various voices, and 
must therefore, though smaller, necessarily retain the same 

What is the cause of hesitancy in speech ? l Are those 60 
who hesitate in too great a hurry because of the heat that 

30 is in them, and so they stumble and stop ? If so, they 
resemble those who are angry, for they too become full 
of panting, with the result that a large quantity of breath 
comes together. Or do they pant owing to the boiling 
of the heat, because it is abundant and cannot come forth 
before the proper moment 2 of exhalation ? Or is the 
right explanation the exact contrary, namely, that it is 
the chilling rather than the heating of the region in which 

35 the sound is produced a state resembling apoplexy in 
that part of the body ? That is why those who hesitate, 
when warmed with wine and deriving thence a continuity 
of speech, are better able to connect their words together/ 5 

Why are voices deeper in the winter ? 4 Is it because 61 
then the air is thicker and as a consequence its movement 
is slower, and therefore the voice is deeper ? Or is it 
40 because the air passes more slowly through narrow pas- 
go6 a sages, and the region round the larynx is closed by the cold 
and by the phlegm which flows into it ? 

Why is it that boys, women, eunuchs, and old men have 62 
shrill voices ? 5 Is it because the movement of air which 
creates a shriller sound is quicker ? Now it is more 
5 difficult to move a greater amount of the same thing, 6 
and so those who are in the prime of life draw in 
the air in greater quantities, and therefore this air, since 
it travels more slowly, makes the voice deeper. In boys 
and eunuchs the contrary occurs, because they contain less 

1 This problem is the same as that of chapter 54, but some alterna 
tive solutions are suggested here. 

2 It appears necessary to read rbv . . . naipov. 

3 This last explanation is a verbal repetition of 9c>5 a 16-19. 

4 Cp. chapter 17. 

5 Cp. chapters 4, 16, and 34. 

6 Reading n\flov ov (W. D. R.) for 

BOOK XI. 62 906* 

air. Old men s voices tremble l because they cannot control 
them, just as, when invalids and children take hold ofio 
a long stick by one end, the other end shakes, because they 
have no control over it ; this too is the cause of trembling 
in old men, namely lack of control. We must suppose also 
that trembling of the voice in those who are nervous or 
afraid or chilled is due to the same cause. For in one 
whose voice is in this state, since most of the heat collects 15 
within as a result of the above conditions, 2 the rest, 3 which 
is small in quantity, cannot control the voice ; consequently 
it shakes and trembles. This is the reason why artists 
who belong to the class of those who are conscious of 
nervousness speak in a low voice at first, until they settle 
down to their work ; for by keeping the voice low they 2 o 
can control it. 

1 There is an anacoluthon in this sentence, the infinitive 
being picked up by 8ia TOITO KCU ol 7rpeo-/3trai 

2 The text is disturbed. In the above TOUWT^V, (TO{) 

TOIOVTWV has been translated. The Latin version of T. G. has : cum 
enfm, qiii -vocem it a emit tit, eius calor pulsus ab affe dibits illis intro 
se coliigat maxima a parte, &c. The insertion of calor here is quite 
in accordance with the doctrine that it is heat which sets the voice in 
motion (cp. 9O2 b 37-9) ; also the theory of irfpiaTao-is or ai/riTrepi o-rao-ts- 
TO? dfpfj.ov is exceedingly common in the Problems, see note on 876^ 32. 

3 Reading <ro) XOITTOV (W. D. R.). 



WHY is it that perfumes produced by burning affect the I 
senses less at a short distance ? l Is it because the effluvium 
is pleasanter when mingled with the air in a weak form, 
25 as happens in medicinal myrrh? Or can the contrary 
of this be the explanation, namely, that the fire destroys 
the odour in the immediate neighbourhood of the flames ? 
For the odour is produced when the perfume evaporates ; 
wherefore near the embers the effluvium has no odour, 
but it appears purer and thinner the farther away it is. 

30 Why is it that the odours of burning perfumes and of 2 
flowers are less sweet-scented at a close distance ? 2 Is 
it because particles of earth 3 are given off with the odour, 
and these, owing to their weight, fall more quickly to the 
ground, and therefore the odour is pure at a greater 
distance ? Or is the effluvium not at its strongest either 
quite near to its source or very far from it? For close 

35 at hand it has not yet gained strength, while at a distance 

it has become dissipated. It is said that trees become 3 

sweet-scented upon which the rainbow has fallen. Is this 

true or false ? 4 And if it is true, what can be the cause of 

go6 b the phenomenon ? 5 That it does not happen always and as 

1 The same problem or kindred questions are treated in chapters 2, 
4, and 9. The source of these problems is clearly Theophrastus, de 
Cans. Plant, vi. 17. I ; fr. 3 (de Odoribus\ 12, 13. 

2 Cp. chapters I, 4, and 9. 

3 For the earthy element in plants, cp. de Plant. 822 a 12, b 2, &c. 

4 Aeyerat yap, as Prantl (pp. tit., p. 350) has shown, does not begin 
a new problem. Chapter 3 is a digression which raises a side issue, 
as in the source from which this problem is taken (Theophrastus, de 
Caus. Plant, vi. 17. 7). In several MSS. Ae yerai -yap . . . Karaa-K^y follows 
TO o-vpfiaivov (1. 38), which shows that a difficulty was felt in beginning 
a new problem with a statement such as A eye-rut yap, instead of a 
question; this alteration, however, would give a form of problem 
which cannot be paralleled elsewhere. 

6 Reading alrlav (a?) iirj (so also Richards). 

BOOK XII. 3 go6 l 

a universal rule is obvious ; for rainbows often occur without 
any visible effect on the trees. When it does happen (for it 
does occur sometimes and this has given rise to the saying), 
the effect is not produced on every kind of wood. The cause 
can only be attributed to the rainbow per accidens, espe- 5 
cially if the rainbow does not really occur in nature but 
is an effect produced on the eye by refraction. 1 Now the 
phenomenon, as we said, does not occur whatever the 
condition of the wood ; for shepherds say that sweet odour 
is noticeable after the rains which accompany the rainbow 
not in green or in dry trees but in burnt wood, and in 10 * 
particular where briers and brambles grow and trees which 
have sweet-scented flowers. The reason of the sweet scent 
is the same as in the soil ; for where the soil is hot and 
burnt through and through, anything which grows from it 
is at first sweet-scented. For things which contain but 
little moisture, if they are burnt at all, become sweet- 
scented ; for the heat concocts this moisture. (So, all the 15 
world over, those parts towards the sun have a sweeter 
odour than those towards the north ; and of the former 
those towards the east have a sweeter odour than those 
towards the south, for the districts of Syria and Arabia 
have more soil, but Libya is sandy and free from moisture.) 
For there must not be a large amount of moisture for 20 
much moisture is difficult of concoction nor must there 
be a complete absence of it, or else there will be no 
evaporization. These conditions are fulfilled in newly 
burnt wood and wood which naturally has a sweet odour 
in itself. This is proved to be true by the flowers, for 
it is through them that the wood emits its scent. The 
theory that sweet odour is engendered in any trees upon 
which the rainbow rests is due to the fact that this cannot 25 
happen without the presence of water ; for it is when the 
wood has been wetted and has then concocted the moisture 
by the heat which is in it, that it gives out the vapour 
which is being engendered in it. But 2 there must not be 
a large amount of water ; for too much water drenches the 

1 Cp. Meteor, 372* 18, 32 ; de Mundo, 395*29 ff. 

2 Reading oifie for otfre, as suggested by Bekker. 


tree and extinguishes the heat previously caused by the 
30 burning-. Now the rains which follow the rainbow, so far 
from being heavy, may almost be called slight. Also if 
there is a number of rainbows, the rain is not heavy, but 
it falls little and often. It is therefore natural under these 
circumstances that men notice nothing unusual except 
the rainbow and attribute to it the cause of the sweet 

35 Why is it that flowers and burnt perfumes smell sweeter 4 
at a distance, 1 whereas close at hand they have rather the 
smell either of vegetation or of smoke ? Is it because 
scent is a form of heat and sweet-scented things are hot ? 
907* Now heat is light, and so, the further the perfumes pene 
trate, the more does their scent become purified from other 
concomitant odours produced by their leaves and by smoke, 
which is a watery steam ; at a short distance, on the other 
hand, the mingled odours 2 are simultaneously perceptible 
in the plants in which they are present. 

5 Why do things always emit a stronger odour when they 5 
are in motion ? ;! Is it because they fill a larger space of 
air than when they are at rest ? The result is that the 
odour is thus transmitted more quickly to our perception. 

Why is it that we perceive odours less in the winter, 6 
especially in frosty weather ? Is it because the air is more 
10 free from motion when it is cold ? The motion therefore 
set up by the body which produces the odour cannot have 
such a far-reaching effect owing to the difficulty of im 
parting motion to the effluvium and to the air in which 
it is present. 

Why do perfumes have a more pungent odour when 7 
they are burnt on ashes than on the fire ? 4 And why is 
their odour stronger and more persistent when they are 
I5 burnt on ashes? Is it because their odour is less tho 
roughly concocted on ashes, and therefore greater in bulk ? 

1 Cp. chapters I, 2, and 9. 

2 i. e. the odour of the leaves and of the smoke as well as the 

3 Cp. xiii. 12. 4 Cp. below, chapter n. 

BOOK XII. 7 9 o7 a 

Now fire by quickly concocting their natural force alters 
their odour ; for concoction involves alteration in that 
which is concocted. 

8 Why do those roses in which the centres are rough 20 
smell sweeter than those in which they are smooth ? Is 

it because those roses smell sweetest which partake most 
of the natural characteristics of the rose ? Now the rose 
is naturally spiky , and so it smells sweeter when its 
characteristics are more a centuated. 

9 Why are the odours both of burnt perfumes and of 
flowers less pleasant at a short distance ? l Is it because 25 
at a short distance the earthy element is transmitted with 
the scent, and so mixing with it lessens its strength, whereas 
the oclour travels to a distance ? It is for this reason too 
that flowers when rubbed lose their scent. 2 

10 Are scents smoke [or air] 3 or vapour ? For it makes 

a difference, in that the former is produced by fire, the so 
latter without it. And is something transmitted from the 
sense to the objects producing the scent or vice versa, 
causing a continuous motion in the adjoining air ? Also, 
if any effluvium is given off by these objects, one would 
expect them to become less ; yet we see that those things 
which have the strongest scent last the longest. 

11 Why have perfumes a more pungent odour when they 35 
are burnt on ashes than on fire ? 4 Is it because their 
odour is less thoroughly concocted on ashes and is there 
fore greater in bulk ? Consequently a large quantity of 
the earthy element is vaporized in the process and becomes 
smoke; but the fire burns up the earthy element before 

it can escape, and so the odour is purer and reaches the 
senses untainted by the smoke. This is also the reason QO7 b 
why flowers when rubbed smell less sweet ; for the rubbing 

1 Cp. chapters i, 2, and 4. 

2 Because rubbing brings out the earthy element, which prevails 
over^the scent, cp. 9o; b 1-3, 33-4. 

3 jj arjp, which has probably crept into the text owing to the mention 
of di^p in 1. 33, should be omitted, since only two alternatives are 
offered in the next sentence. 

4 Cp. chapter 7. 


imparts motion to the earthy element and the slow heat 1 
does not destroy it. 

Why is it that sweet-smelling seeds and plants promote 12 
the flow of urine ? 2 Is it because they contain heat and 
5 are easily concocted, 3 and such things have this effect ? 
For the heat which is in them causes quick digestion 4 and 
their odour has no corporeal existence ; for evil-smelling 
plants, such as garlic, by reason of their heat promote 
the flow of urine, but their wasting effect is a still more 
marked characteristic. But sweet-smelling seeds contain 
heat, because odour is in general engendered by heat; 
10 while evil-smelling things are unconcocted. Now anything 
which is to promote the flow of urine must be not only 
hot but also easily concocted, in order that it may accom 
pany the liquids in their downward course and effect their 

Why is it that wines mixed with water have a less strong 13 
odour 5 than when they are unmixed ? Is it because wine 
1 5 mixed with water is weaker than unmixed wine? Now 
the weaker is more easily changed by any force acting 
upon it than the stronger. 1 So wine mixed in the water 
is more easily affected than unmixed wine. Now it is 
characteristic of that which is easily affected 7 to yield 8 
to something else or to receive something which does not 
belong to it ; unmixed wine, therefore, has a strong odour, 
but wine mixed with water is odourless. 

1 i. e. that produced by friction. 

2 This problem is partly identical with i. 48 and is repeated in xx. 16. 

3 Reading ei/VeTmz, cp. 865 a 20, 924** 19: the reading Xf/rru is 
probably due to Aorrui/ei in the next line. 

4 See note on 865*21. 

5 Reading TJTTOV for darrov. 

c Reading (0arToi>) eioraTai in order to have a comparative to 
govern the genitive rou iV^uporepoi;. 

7 Reading ein-frfo-repov. 8 Reading imel^ai (W. D. R.). 



1 WHY is it that urine acquires a more unpleasant odour 
the longer it remains in the body, whereas ordure becomes 
less unpleasant to the smell ? Is it because the latter 
becomes drier the longer it remains in the body (and what 

is dry is less liable to putrefaction), but urine thickens, and 25 
the fresher it is the more like it is to the original liquid 
drunk ? 

2 Why is it that things of unpleasant odour do not seem 
to have an odour to those who have eaten them ? Is it 
because, owing to the fact that the scent penetrates to the 
mouth through the palate, the sense of smell soon becomes 
satiated and so it no longer perceives the odour inside the 30 
mouth to the same extent for at first every one perceives 
the odour, but, when they are in actual contact with it, 
they no longer do so, as though it had become part of 
themselves and the similar odour from without is over 
powered by the odour within ? 

3 Why have flowers an unpleasant odour when they are 
rubbed ? Is it because the earthy element, which is in the 
flower, mingles with the odour ? l 

4 Why is it that no living creature is pleasant to the smell 35 
except the panther 2 which is pleasing even to the animals, 
for they are said to find pleasure in its odour and when 
they decay they are unpleasant to the smell, but many 
plants when they decay and wither become still more 
pleasant to the smell ? Is it because the cause of evil odour 

is an unconcocted condition of excretion ? For this reason go8 J 
the perspiration of some people is sometimes unpleasant, 

1 Cp. 9o; a 27, b i ff. 

2 Cp. Theophrastus, de Caus. Plant, vi. 5. 2. 


particularly in those whose perspiration is not usually un 
pleasant, as the result of disease. 1 Also the exhalations and 
eructations of those who are in an unconcocted state are 
unpleasant. The same cause must be ascribed for evil 
odour in the flesh and in that which is analogous to it (by 
5 which I mean that which in other animals corresponds to 
flesh) ; for here too there is sometimes unconcocted excre 
tion. This then when it putrefies is a cause of evil odour 
in living creatures and in decaying bodies. For this reason 
too the fat and the bony parts and the hair have no evil 
odour, because the fat and bones are already concocted, 

10 while the hair contains no moisture. Now plants contain 
no excretion. 2 Or is there excretion in them also, but, 
because plants are naturally dry and hot, is the moisture 
in them more easily concocted and not of a thick con 
sistency ? This can be illustrated from the soil, which is 
pleasant to the smell in hot regions, such as Syria and 
Arabia, and from the fact that the plants which come from 

15 there are sweet-smelling, because they are dry and hot; 
and such plants are not liable to decay. But animals are 
not dry and hot, 3 and so their excretions are unconcocted 
and malodorous, and likewise their 4 exhalations, and when 
they decay the moisture putrefies. This does not happen 
in plants, because they contain no excretions. 

20 Why are things of unpleasant odour more unpleasant 5 
when they are hot than when they are cool ? Is it because 
odour is a vapour and an effluvium ? A vapour, then, and 
an effluvium is caused by heat ; for a movement takes place, 
and heat is the source of the movement. Cold, on the 
contrary, is a source of stagnation and contraction and 

25 downward movement ; 5 but heat and all odours have an 
upward tendency, because they are in the air, and the 
organ which perceives them is above and not below ; for 
odour penetrates to the brain and so causes perception. 

1 The Teubner text misprints rotoO rot eWcoi/ for TOIOVTOL CK ro>i/. 

2 This is the Aristotelian view, cp. P. A. 650* 22, de Plantis, 8i7 b 19. 

3 Toiavrd <TTL Ka\ dfpfjid appears to be a mixture of two readings, 

(l) fyipdecTTi Kn\ dfpm i, (2) Toiavrd ( = r)pa KOI deppd) C OTI. 

4 Reading with Richards KOI (at) Sin$u<rei?. 

5 Reading (popovv, neuter of the participle of cpopea. 

BOOK XIII. 6 9 o8 a 

6 Why, if one eats garlic, does the urine smell of it, 
whereas this does not happen when other things are eaten 
which have a strong odour ? Is it because, as some of 
the followers of Heraclitus say, 1 vaporization takes place 30 
in the body just as in the universe, and then, when the 
process of cooling succeeds, moisture is formed in the 
universe and urine in the body, so the vaporization from 
the food, when it is formed by intermixture, causes the 
odour (for it is odour after it has undergone change) ? 2 If 
so, ought not all the foods too which have a strong odour 35 
to produce this effect, which we know they do not ? Further 
more, concretions from vapour do not resume their original 
form which would result in wine, for example, being 
produced from the vapour of wine instead of water, as 
actually happens and so this part of their theory is also 
untrue. The truth is that garlic, alone of foods which Qo8 b 
have an odour which is strong and also promotes the flow 

of urine, has the quality of inflating the lower part of the 
belly; all other such foods (radishes, for example) engender ;i 
breath higher up or else do not promote the flow of urine. 
But garlic 4 has these three qualities : it promotes the flow 
of urine, it engenders breath, and it does so in the lower 5 
part of the body. The region round the privy parts and 
the bladder feels the effect of such foods owing to its 
nearness 5 and because it is liable to admit breath; that 
this is so is shown by the distension of the privy parts. 
It is clear therefore that the excretion of garlic is more 
liable than that of any other such food to reach the bladder 
with the breath, and this excretion mingling with the urine 10 
imparts its odour to it. 

7 Why is it that the mouths of those who have eaten 
nothing, but are fasting, have a stronger odour, the smell 
of fasting , as it is called, but when they eat the odour 

1 For other applications of the Heraclitean doctrine of 
cp. below 934 b 33 ff., de Ammo,, 405* 25, 26. 

2 Reading /uera/SaXi;. 3 Omitting KI before ra 

1 /curco cannot stand here ; it is in its proper place in the next line. 
The Latin version of T. G. has allium i>ero tria niniirum haec facit , 
and we must read rourw (= o-Kopodw) which the context demands. 

5 i. e. to the lower part of the stomach. 


ceases, when one would expect it to increase ? Is it because, 
as the stomach becomes empty, the air becomes hotter from 
the absence of motion and causes the breath and the excre- 
15 tions of phlegm to putrefy ? That the air becomes hotter 
is proved by the fact that fasting also induces an increase 
of thirst. When food is taken, the odour ceases because 
it is less than that of the food ; for the heat in the food 
overcomes the internal heat, so that it cannot undergo any 
process of change. 1 

ao Why has the armpit a more unpleasant odour than any 8 
other part of the body ? Is it because it is least exposed 
to the air ? 2 Such parts have a particularly unpleasant 
odour because putrefaction takes place in them owing to 
the stagnation of fat. Or is it because the armpit is not 
moved and exercised ? 

Why is it that those who have a rank odour are still 9 
more unpleasant when they anoint themselves with un- 
25 guents ? Is it because this kind of thing happens in many 
instances ; for example, if something acid and something 
sweet are mixed, the resulting whole is sweeter? Now 
any one who perspires has an unpleasant odour, and 
unguents are productive of heat and therefore induce per 

Why is it that the odour of the breath of those who 10 
30 are bent and deformed is more unpleasant and oppressive ? 3 
Is it because the region round the lungs is contracted and 
bent out of an upright position, so that it does not give 
a free passage to the air, but the moisture and the breath, 
which tends to be enclosed within, putrefies ? 

Why is it that most unguents are unpleasant when they n 

mingle with perspiration, but others have a sweeter or at 

35 any rate not a more unpleasant odour ? Do those which 

change as a result of movement or friction deteriorate in 

odour, whereas those which do not are improved ? There 

1 i. e. produce putrefaction which engenders the smell of fasting . 

2 Cp. 867*4-7- 

3 This is quoted by Apollonius, de Mirab. 37, as from the Physical 
Problems of Aristotle. 

BOOK XIII. ii 908* 

are some such perfumes, just as there are some flowers 
from which scents are made, which deteriorate when rubbed 99 ? 
or heated or dried, white violets, for example ; but others 
remain the same, for instance roses. The unguents too 
made from flowers of the former class change, while those 
made from the latter do not ; and so rose-perfume is least 
liable to change. Also unguents have a more unpleasant 
odour on those whose perspiration is malodorous, through 5 
mingling with their opposite, just as honey when mixed 
with salt becomes not sweeter but less sweet. 

12 Why do objects always produce a stronger odour when 
they are in motion ? l Is it because they fill up the air ? 
The result is that the odour is thus transmitted more ro 
quickly to our perception. 

1 This chapter is an almost verbal repetition of xii. 5. 




WHY are those who live under conditions of excessive I 
cold or heat brutish in character and aspect ? Is the cause 
15 the same in both cases ? For the best mixture of conditions 
benefits the mind as well as the body, but excesses of all 
kinds cause disturbance, and, as they distort the body, so 
do they pervert the mental temperament. 

Why is it that in Pontus corn, if exposed to the cold, 2 
keeps intact for many years ? l Is it because the extraneous 
20 moisture is evaporated together with the heat, as happens 
in grapes ? For some things are evaporated by the cold 
and others with the heat. 

Why do burning fevers occur more frequently in the 3 
coldest season ? Is it because the cold imprisons the heat 2 
within ? In the summer the contrary occurs, the interior of 
25 the body being cooler than the exterior. Burning fever 
is the inflammation in which, 3 the exterior of the body 
being cold, the interior is in a condition of excessive heat. 

Why are the Ethiopians and the Egyptians bandy- 4 
legged ? Is it because the bodies of living creatures 
become distorted by heat, like logs of wood when they 
become dry ? The condition of their hair too supports this 
30 theory ; for it is curlier than that of other nations, and 
curliness is as it were crookedness of the hair. 

1 Cp. Theophr. de Cans. Plant, iv. 16. 2. 

2 For at-TiTrepiWttcrir rou 06,0/Moi) see 867 b 32 and note. 

3 The text, as it stands, does not give any good sense, but the 
meaning is quite clear from a comparison with 862 b 3iff., which 
expressly states that burning fever comes from within and is due to 
the collection of heat inside the body. The simplest emendation is 
to read with Sylburg Truperos (eV > TWV rX. 

BOOK XIV. 5 gog a 

5 Why is it that in damp regions copulation is more likely 
to lead to the birth of female offspring- ? 1 Is it because a 
large amount of moisture thickens more slowly, and in 
damp regions the semen is moister owing to the presence 
of more moisture in the temperament ? 

6 Why is it that in marshy districts sores on the head are 35 
quickly cured, but those on the legs only with difficulty ? 2 
Is it because the moisture, since it contains an earthy 
element, is heavy, and heavy tilings are carried down 
wards ? Thus the upper parts of the body are easily 
concocted, because the impurities are carried downwards ; 
but the lower parts become full of abundant excretion 
which easily putrefies. 40 

7 Why is it that those who live in airy regions grow old gog b 
slowly, but those who inhabit hollow and marshy districts 

age quickly ? Is it because old age is a process of putre 
faction, and that which is at rest putrefies, but that which 
is in motion is either quite free from, or at any rate 
less liable to, putrefaction, as we see in water ? In lofty 
regions, therefore, owing to the free access of the breezes, 5 
the air is in motion, but in hollow districts it stagnates. 
Furthermore, in the former, owing to its movement, the air 
is always pure and constantly renewed, but in marshy 
districts it is stagnant. 

8 Why are the inhabitants of warm regions cowardly, and 
those who dwell in cold districts courageous ? 3 Is it because 
there is a natural tendency which counteracts the effects of ro 
locality and season, since if both had the same effect man 
kind would inevitably be soon destroyed by heat or cold ? 4 
Now those who are hot by nature are courageous, and 
those who are cold are cowardly. But the effect of hot 
regions upon those who dwell in them is that they are 
cooled, while cold regions engender a natural state of heat 
in their inhabitants. Both races are large of stature those 15 

1 Cp. G. A. 766 1 34, where the same view is stated. 

2 The same problem occurs in i. 18. 3 Cp. chapter 16. 

1 For this use of aaietv for the effects of both extreme heat and 
extreme cold cp. Meteor. 382 b 8 Kaieiv Ae yerat ... TO 

M 2 


who live in cold regions because of the innate heat in them, 
and those who inhabit hot districts owing to the heat in 
which they live ; for increase of stature occurs both in those 
who are hot and as a result of heat, whereas cold has a con 
tracting effect. Since then those who live in cold districts 
20 have a powerful principle of growth in themselves, and 
those who live in hot regions encounter no external cold 
which prevents their growth, both naturally admit of con 
siderable increase in stature. But this is less true of those 
who live in our latitudes, because the principle of growth 
in them is less strong, and those who live in cold regions 
feel the contracting effect of cold. 

25 Why are those who live in hot regions longer-lived ? Is 9 
it because their natural condition is drier, and that which is 
drier is less liable to putrefaction and more lasting, and 
death is as it were a kind of putrefaction ? Or is it because 
death is due to the chilling of the interior heat, 1 and every- 

30 thing is chilled by a surrounding medium which is colder 
than itself? Now in warm regions the surrounding air is 
hot, but in cold regions it is cold and so more quickly and 
effectively destroys the interior heat of the body. 

Why are those who live in hot regions longer-lived ? lo 
35 Is it because they preserve their heat and moisture better ? 
For death is the corruption of these. 2 

Why is it that we become drowsier in marshy districts ? n 
Is it because there we are more cooled, and cooling, being 
4 o a kind of rest, 3 induces sleep, and sleep occurs during rest ? 

gio a Why is it that those who live on board ship, though 12 
they spend their time on the water, have a healthier colour 
than those who live in marshes ? Is the weather and the 
free access of the breezes the cause ? Now water makes 
men pale when it putrefies, a process which is due to the 
absence of movement; that is why those who live in 
marshy regions are rather pale. 

1 Cp. de luv. et Sen. 469* 18 ; de Vit. et -Mori. 478*32. 
- A condensed form of the previous chapter. 
3 i.e. cold is 570-^10, just as heat is 

BOOK XIV. 13 gio s 

13 Why is suffocating- heat very frequently experienced in 5 
wintry regions, much more so than in warm districts ? l Is 
it because of the moisture in the air ? For as a result of 
the same heat applied to it water becomes hotter than air, 
and therefore damper air 2 becomes hotter than dry air. 3 
Or perhaps the air is not really hotter 4 in these regions, 
but only seems so by contrast with the general coolness, as 10 
the sun emerging from a cloud seems hotter in contrast with 
its effect when it is behind a cloud. 

14 Why do those who live in southerly climes tend to have 
black eyes ? Is blueness of the eyes due to excess of 
internal heat, whereas blackness is due to its absence, as 
Empedocles affirms ? Just, therefore, as those who dwell 15 
in the north have blue eyes, because the internal heat is 
prevented from escaping owing to the external cold ; so in 
those who dwell in southerly climes the moisture cannot 
escape owing to the surrounding heat, but the heat escapes 
because there is nothing to bar its exit, and the moisture 2 o 
left behind causes blackness; for when light departs that 
which is left behind is dark. Or does the pigmentation of 
the eye assimilate itself to the colour of the rest of the 
body ? If so, the eyes of those who live towards the north 
are blue, because they are themselves white (for blue is 
akin to white) ; and those who dwell in the south being 25 
black, their eyes also are black. 

15 Why are those who live in warm regions wiser than 
those who dwell in cold districts?" Is it for the same 
reason as that for which the old are wiser than the young ? 
For those who live in cold regions are much hotter, because 
their nature recoils owing to the coldness of the region in 
which they live, so that they are very like the drunken and 
are not of an inquisitive turn of mind, but are courageous 6 30 
and sanguine ; but those who live in hot regions are sober 
because they are cool. Now everywhere those who feel 

; Cp. 9 38 a 37 ff. 

2 Reading 6 d?}p (6) vyporfpo? (W. D. R.). 

3 Reading ^ypov for Qeppov (W. D. R.). 

4 Reading #ep/udrfpo? for ^pdrepoy (W. D. R.) ; T. G. renders calidior. 

5 Cp. Pol. I32; b 23 ff. G Cp. 9<D9 b 10 ff. ; 9io a 37 ff. 


fear make more attempt to inquire into thing s than do the 
self-confident, and therefore they discover more. Or is it 
because the race of those who live in warm regions is more 
ancient, the inhabitants of the cold regions having perished 
35 in the Flood, 1 so that the latter stand in the same relation 
to the former as do the young to the old ? 

Why are the inhabitants of warm regions cowardly, and 16 
those who dwell in cold regions courageous ? 2 Is it because 
human beings have a natural tendency which counteracts 
gio b the effect of locality and season (for, if both had the same 
tendency, they would soon be destroyed) ? Now those who 
are hot by nature are courageous and those who are cold 
are cowardly. The effect of hot regions upon their in 
habitants is to cool them (for, their bodies having rarities, 
5 the heat escapes out of them), but those who live in a cold 
climate become heated in their nature, because their flesh is 
densified by the external cold, and when it is in this 
condition the heat collects internally. 

1 For references to the Flood in Aristotle see Pol. I269 a 4ff., 
Meteor. 352 b 16 ff. Synesius is perhaps referring to this passage 

when he says (Encom. Calvit. 22) nepl &>v Trnpot/utW ApiororeX^s 

OTL TrnXcua? 0tXocro(/)/ns (v.l. ttrropias 1 ) f v rai9 pfyiVrni? (pdopals a7ro\op.vrjS 

ey/caTaezuaru Trfpicrco^eVrn $ia frvvro^ iai K.IU Se^iorryra. The doctrine of 
the Flood is also found in Theophrastus, cp. J. Bernays, Theophrastos* 
Schrift iiber Frommigkeit, p. 50. Plato refers to the Flood in Tim. 
22 A, c, 23 A, B, Crit. 1 09 D, in E; for other classical references see 
J. B. Mayor s note on Juvenal i. 83. 

2 This problem is partly identical with chapter 8. 

gio b 



1 WHY is it that of all the lines which divide a rectilinear 
figure into two parts that drawn from angle to angle alone 
bears the name of diameter ? l Is it because the diameter, as 
its name implies, divides the figure of which it is the dia 
meter into two parts without destroying it ? The line 
therefore which divides it at its joints 2 (by which I mean 15 
the angles) will be the diameter ; for it does not destroy 
the figure but divides it, like those who divide up 
implements of war for distribution. But a division which 
cuts through a composite figure in the lines which form it 
destroys the figure ; for a rectilinear figure is constructed 
on angles. 

2 Why is the diameter so called ? 3 Is it because it is the 
only line which divides a rectilinear figure into two parts, 
as though one should call it the dichameter ? 4 And why 5 20 
is it the only one that bears this name of all the lines which 
divide a rectilinear figure into two parts ? Is it because it 

is the only line which divides the figure at the points 
where its limbs bend, 6 whereas all other lines divide it in its 
sides ? 

3 Why do all men, barbarians and Greeks alike, count up 
to 10 and not up to any other number, saying for example, 

2, 3, 4, 5 and then repeating them, one -five , two-five , 25 

1 SidncTpos has the meanings both of diameter and diagonal. 

2 The rectilinear figure is conceived as something organic, its sides 
being members which are jointed together at the angles ; this is more 
clearly brought out in 11. 21, 22 below. 

3 A repetition in a shorter form of chapter i. 

4 i.e. that which measures into two parts . All the MSS. here 
read 8ici/i6T/>or, but the emendation to Sixap-fTpos is certainly correct. 

5 Reading with Bekker 8u\ ri for Sidu. 

6 Cp. above, 11. 14, 15 and note. 


just as they say eleven, twelve ? l Or why do they not stop 
at some point beyond ten and repeat from there ? For 
every number is made up of one, two, &c., combined with 
a preceding number, 2 and thus a different number is formed ; 
but the counting always proceeds in fixed sets of ten. For 
it is clearly not the result of chance that all men 3 invariably 

30 count in tens ; and that which is invariable and universal 
is not the result of chance, but is in the nature of things. 
Is it because ten is a perfect number ? For it combines 
every kind of number, odd and even, square 4 and cube, 
length and surface, prime and composite. Or is it because 
ten is the original number, since one, two, three, and four 

35 together make ten ? 5 Or is it because the bodies which 
move in the heavens are nine in number ? 6 Or is it 
because in ten proportions four cubic numbers result, 7 from 
which numbers the Pythagoreans 8 declare that the whole 
universe is constituted ? Or is it because all men have ten 
fingers, and so, as though possessing counters that indicate 
gil a the numbers proper to man, they count all other things by 
this quantity ? One race among the Thracians alone of all 
men count in fours, because their memory, like that of 
children, cannot extend farther and they do not use a large 
number of anything. 

(Why is it that the shapes of the heavenly bodies always 4 
5 appear to us the same ? Is it) 9 because the earth is a 
centre ? For the shapes which appear to us are always 

1 The Greek ev8(Ka, 8u(Ka, one-ten 3 , two-ten , bring out the point 
better than the English eleven , twelve . 

2 e. g. thirty-one, thirty-two, &c. 

3 Reading with Bekker TTOIOVVTZS (Trdvres ) fyaivovTai. 

4 Omitting the commas after apnov and Teipdyvvov. 

5 i. e. ten, not one, is the unit, which for convenience has been 
divided into four fractions i, 2, 3, and 4, which added together 
make 10. 

6 i. e. there are nine planets (including the sun and moon), which 
with the addition of the earth make 10. 

7 e. g. in ten proportions obtained by continuous multiplication of 
I by 2 four cubes occur: i (i 3 ), 2, 4, 8 (2 s ), 16, 32, 64 (4 3 ), 128, 256, 
512 (8 s ). 

8 Diels, Vorsokr. I s , 350. i. 

9 This problem is not translated in T. G. s Latin version and the 
text is clearly unsatisfactory. The statement of the problem is derived 
by Bussemaker from another ancient version. 

BOOK XV. 4 gir 

similar. This does not seem * to be so unless one views them 
from the centre, but they would sometimes appear triangular, 
sometimes irregular foursided figures, and sometimes take 
other forms. 2 Now the earth would appear to us to be the 
centre of the universe, if we could view it from the heavenly 
bodies. For the earth being spherical, the centre of the uni 
verse and of the earth will be the same. But we dwell on the 10 
surface of the earth, so that it is not from the centre but at 
the distance of half the diameter that the heavenly bodies 
appear to have the shapes that they do appear to have. 
What reason then is there why the appearance of their 
shapes should not remain the same when the distance is 
increased ? 

5 Why is it that, although the sun moves with uniform 
motion, yet the increase and decrease of the shadows is not 
the same in any equal period of time ? :J Is it because the 15 
angles to the objects seen, that is the angles made by 
the rays 4 of the sun and subtending equal arcs, are equal ? 
Now if these are equal, so also are the angles which the 
rays when produced 5 make in the triangle formed by 
the first ray 6 and the object seen and the shadow. If 
the angles are equal, the line which is farther from the 20 
object seen must be greater than that which is less far ; 
for we know that this is so. Let the circumference, 
therefore, be divided into any number of equal parts, and 
let the object seen be S. When therefore the sun at A 
falling on & 1 makes the shadow A, 8 the ray must fall on 
A? But when the sun comes to B, the ray from B will 25 

1 Reading with Bussemaker (ou) fio/cft. 

2 No sense is to be made of the text as it stands ; in particular 
there is nothing for TOVTOV (1. 9) to refer to. It seems probable that 
something has fallen out owing to homoeoteleuton^ e.g. e SoKft (oV. TOV 

df KOCT/JLOV av e So/ca) 17 yrj. 

3 Putting the comma before, and not after, lv r lira X/JOPW. 

4 Retaining the MS. reading VTTO TG>V UKTWUV. 

Reading el <$ atrai, Km (s) K$a\\6[j.vai Troiovaiv (t^ aK.rl.ves. 
T. G. renders quodsi illi aequales sunt, eductos quoque inde aequales 
esse necesse est. 

G i.e. the ray from the sun when it is at A to A, the top of the 
object 6. 

7 Reading 7rpocrfta\tv T<$ (W. D. R.), cp. 91 1 b 37. 

8 Reading with Bussemaker 9A for 9A. 

9 Reading with Bussemaker A for A. 


fall within QA, 1 and similarly again when the sun comes to 
r ; otherwise one straight line will touch another straight 
line at two points. Since therefore AB is equal to BP, the 
angles which subtend them 2 at A will also be equal, for 
they are situated about the centre. But if the angles on 
this side 3 of A are equal, so also are the corresponding 
30 angles in the triangle ; for they are at the apices of the 
first pair of angles. 4 So while the angle is divided into two 
equal parts/ the line AE will be greater than the line EZ 
within A@. G So too with the other angles formed by the 
rays from the circumference. At the same time it is clear 


A E Z 

that the shadow must be shortest at midday and that then 

35 its increases are least. For the sun is most over our head 

at midday, and stifling heat occurs both for the reason just 

mentioned 7 and because there is no wind ; for wind is 

caused when the sun dissipates the air near the earth. If 

gil b therefore it does so simultaneously in both hemispheres, 

midnight and midday would naturally be windless. 

1 Reading with Bussemaker 0A for 6A. 

2 Reading VTTO ravrnif. 

3 Reading with Bussemaker rr/Se for rfj. 

4 i. e. the angle AAE equals the angle EAZ, these angles being at the 
apices of the triangles AAB and BAP. 

8 i.e. the angle AAZ is divided into two equal parts AAE and 

6 Reading with Bussemaker /; AE rijs EZ eV rfj A0. The fact that 
AE is greater than EZ proves the main point of the problem, viz. that 
the decrease of the shadows is][not uniform in an equal period of time. 

7 i. e. because the sun is directly overhead. 

BOOK XV. 6 911 

6 Why does the sun penetrating through quadrilaterals 
form not rectilinear shapes but circles, as for instance when 
it passes through wicker-work ? Is it because the projec- 5 
tion of the vision is in the form of a cone, 1 and the base of a 
cone is a circle, so that the rays of the sun always appear 
circular on whatever object they fall ? For the figure 
also formed by the sun must be contained by straight lines, 
if the rays are straight ; for when they fall in a straight line 
on to a straight line, they form a figure contained by straight 
lines. And this is what happens with the rays ; for they 10 
fall on the straight line of the wicker-work, at the point 
where they shine through, and are themselves 2 straight, so 
that their projection is a straight line. But because the 
parts 3 of the vision which are cut off towards the extremi 
ties of the straight lines are weak, the parts of the figure 15 
about the angles are not seen ; but what there is of straight 
line in the cone describes a straight line, while the rest does 
not, but the sight falls on part of the figure without perceiving 
it. For there are many things to which the sight penetrates 
without our seeing them, objects, for instance, which are in 
darkness. A similar phenomenon is the fact that a quadri 
lateral figure appears polygonal, and at a greater distance 
circular. Now since the projection of sight is in the form of 20 
a cone, when the figure is removed to a distance the parts of 
the vision which are cut off towards the angles, because they 
are weak and few, do not see anything when the distance is 
increased ; but the parts of the vision which fall upon the 
centre of the figure, being numerous and strong, are more 
persistent. When, therefore, the figure is near at hand, they 25 
can 4 see the parts in the angles ; but, when the distance is 
greater, 5 they cannot do so. For this reason too a curved 
line removed to a distance appears straight, and the moon 
on the eighth day seems to be contained by straight lines, 
if the vision falls upon the line which encloses it and not on 
its breadth. For when the circumference is near, the sight 3 

1 Cp. above, 8;2 a 37. 

2 Reading avral with Bekker. 

8 Omitting dnb after aTroa-^o^eVnr, cp. below, 1. 22. 

4 Reading bvvavrai (Sylb.). 

5 Reading TrXe/oj/o? S aorcn) (W. D. R.). 


can discern how much nearer one part of the circumference 
is than another ; but when it is distant, the sight does not 
perceive it clearly, and it seems to be equally distant ; and 
so it appears to be straight. 

35 Why, though the moon is spherical, do we see it straight 7 
when it is half- full ? Is it because our vision and the 
circumference of the circles which the sun makes when it 
falls upon the moon are in the same plane ? Whenever 
gi2 a this happens, the sun appears as a straight line ; for, since 
that which casts its vision on a sphere must see a circle, 
and the moon is spherical, and the sun looks down upon it, 
there must be a circle which is caused by the sun. When 
therefore this is opposite to us, the whole is visible and the 

5 moon appears to be full ; but when it changes owing to the 
altered position of the sun, its circumference becomes on a 
plane with our sight and so it appears straight, and the rest 
appears circular, because a hemisphere is opposite our 
vision, and this has the appearance of a semicircle ; for the 

10 moon is always facing our vision, but when the sun sheds 
its rays we do not see it. And after the eighth day it 
begins to fill out from the middle, because the sun as it 
passes on makes the circle incline more towards us ; and the 
circle being thus presented to view resembles the section of 
a cone. It assumes a crescent -like appearance when the 
sun changes its position ; for when the circle of the sun 

15 reaches the extreme points, which make the moon seem 
half- full, the circumference of the circle appears ; for it is 
no longer in a straight line with the vision, but passes 
beyond it. When this happens and the circle passes 
through the same points, it must necessarily appear to have 
a crescent shape ; for a part of the circle is directly on a 

20 plane with the eye (a part of the circle, that is, which was 
formerly opposite to us), 1 so that part of the brightness is 
cut off. 2 Then the extremities too remain in the same 
position, so that the moon must have a crescent shape to 
a greater or less extent according to the sun s movement ; 

1 Putting a comma after ovros. 

2 Reading dirortp-vtrai (rt). 

BOOK XV. 7 912* 

for when the sun changes its position, the circle upon 
which it looks also turns, remaining on the same points ; 
for it might assume an infinite number of inclinations, since 25 
an infinite number of the largest circles can be described 
through the same points. 

8 Why is it that the sun and moon, which are round, have 
the appearance of being flat ? Is it because all things l of 
which the distance is uncertain seem to be equidistant, when 
they are more or less distant ? And so in a single body 3 
composed of parts, provided that it is uniform in colour, 
the parts must necessarily appear equidistant, and the equi 
distant must appear to be uniform and flat. 

g Why does the sun make long shadows as it rises and sets, 
and shorter when it is high in the heavens, and shortest 35 
of all at midday ? Is it because, as it rises, it will at first 
make a shadow parallel to the earth and cast it to an 
infinite distance, 2 and then make a long shadow, which 

Z E B 

grows ever less because the straight line from the higher 
point falls within that from the lower point. Let AB be 
the gnomon, 3 and JT and A two positions of the sun. The 40 
ray from T, the line TZ, will fall outside the line AE ; 4 and gi2 b 
the shadow BE is formed when the sun is higher in the 
heavens, and BZ when it is lower, 5 and it will be shortest 
when 6 the sun is at its highest and over our head. 

1 Reading -n-uvTa. 

2 Reading vTreprei/el, and omitting avivov as the corruption of a gloss 

3 i.e. the pole or pillar used for casting a shadow, or the index of 
a sun-dial. 

4 Reading AE for TK. 

5 Reading Karcorepco (W. D. R.) ior Karcorarco. 

6 Reading orav ai/w-dro) r] (Ruelle). 


Why are the shadows thrown by the moon longer than 10 

5 those thrown by the sun, though both are thrown by the 

same perpendicular object ? Is it because the sun is higher 

than the moon, and so the ray from the higher point must 

fall within that from the lower point ? Let A A be the 

gnomon, B the moon, and P the sun. The ray from the 
moon is JBZ, so that the shadow will be AZ ; but the ray 
from the sun is PE, and its shadow therefore will necessarily 
10 be less, viz. AE. 

Why is it that during eclipses of the sun, if one views ll 
them through a sieve or a leaf for example, that of a 
plane-tree or any other broad-leaved tree or through the 
two hands with the fingers interlaced, the rays are crescent- 
shaped in the direction of the earth? 1 Is it because, just 
as, when the light shines through an aperture with regular 

1 5 angles, the result is a round figure, namely a cone 2 (the 
reason being that two cones are formed, one between the 
sun and the aperture and the other between the aperture 
and the ground, and their apices meet), so, when under 
these conditions part is cut off from the orb in the sky, 3 
there will be a crescent on the other side of the aperture 
from the illuminant, that is, in the direction of the earth 

20 (for the rays proceed from that part of the circumference 
which is a crescent) ? 4 Now as it were small 5 apertures are 

1 i. e. on the lower side of the medium through which they shine. 

2 Cp, 9ii b 5. 

3 The Latin version of T. G. renders ergo cum pars orbi superior* 
detrahitur, and something like the following is probably the right 
reading, OTUV ovv ^6i Ta>v ouTcoy (rot;) tivadfv KVK\OV airoTffjivriTai (i~i^, 
corai pivio-Kos KT\. * Placing a full Stop after aKrlves. 

5 at 8e is certainly corrupt, and we should probably read piKpal Se, 
which is indicated by the Latin version of T. G., pro foraminum 
exiguitate, and which is implied by the contrast of i) Sia 

BOOK XV. ii 9 i2 b 

formed between the fingers and in a sieve, and so the 
phenomenon can be more clearly demonstrated than when 
the rays pass through wide apertures. Such crescents are 
not formed by the moon, whether in eclipse or waxing or 
waning, because the rays from its extremities are not clear- 
cut, but it sheds its light from the middle, and the middle 25 
portion of the crescent is but small. 

12 Why does the parhelion not occur either when the sun 
is in mid-heaven or above the sun or below it, but only at 
the side of it ? Is it because the parhelion is produced 
when our visual ray to the sun is refracted, and this station- 3 
ary condition of the air, on the occasion of which the vision 
is refracted, cannot occur either near the sun or far away 
from it ? For, if it is near, the sun will dissolve it, whereas, 
if it is far away, the sight will not be refracted ; for, if it is 
strained to a distance, it is weak when refracted from a 
small refractor. 1 (So too a halo does not form.) If then 
a refractor forms opposite the sun and near to it, the sun 35 
will dissolve it, whereas if it be far away, the incidence of 
the sight upon it will be too weak. If, however, it forms at 
the side of the sun, it is possible for the refractor to be at 
such a distance that neither does the sun dissolve it nor does 
the sight ascend weakened 2 by passing under the earth. 
It does not form below the sun because, being near the earth, 40 
it would be dissolved by the sun ; whereas, if it were above 
the sun when the sun is in mid-heaven, the sight would be Ql3 a 
distracted. And it cannot form at all even at the side of 
the sun when it is in mid- heaven, because, if the sight is 
directed too far under the earth, very little of it will reach 
the refractor, so that, when it is refracted, it will be very 3 

13 Why does the extremity of the shadow caused by the 5 
sun seem to tremble ? For it is not due to the fact that the 

1 i. e. the stationary air. Sight and light are identified here as else 
where frequently in the Problems, the sight being said to travel up to 
the object seen and back again to the eye. 

2 Reading avdtvi) for a6p6av, which gives exactly the opposite of the 
sense required, cp. below, 9i3 a 2-4. 

3 Reading iraw with Ruelle. 


sun is travelling along ; for it is impossible for it to move 
in contrary directions, and it is of such motion that trem 
bling consists. (Moreover it is uncertain why a shadow 
changes its position, as also why the sun itself moves.) Is 
it due to the movement of the so-called motes in the air ? 

10 These can be seen in the rays which enter through a 
window ; for they move even when there is no wind. These 
then being constantly carried from the shadow into the light 
and from the light into the shadow, the common boundary 
between the light and the shadow is seen to move similarly. 
For changing l from side to side of it, these motes cause as 
it were shadow in one place and light in another ; so that 

15 the shadow appears to move, though it is not really it but 
the motes which move in this way. 2 

1 Reading ^iera/3uXAorra for p.(Tapd\\oi>T(n. 

2 Reading eWfa for eKeivai with Bussemaker. 



1 WHY is it that the bases of bubbles in water are white, 
and if they are placed in the sun they do not make any 2 o 
shadow, but, while the rest of the bubble casts a shadow, the 
base does not do so but is surrounded on all sides by sun 
light ? And, what is still more wonderful, even if apiece of 
wood is placed on the water in the sunlight, (there is no 
continuous shadow but) l it is cut off by the water at that 
point. 2 Is no shadow really formed ? Is the shadow dissolved 
by the sun ? If then a shadow is to be defined as anything 35 
which is not visible to the sun, the whole mass of the object 
all round must be visible to the sun ; but the impossibility 
of this has been demonstrated in the treatises on optics," 
for even the largest optical system cannot see the whole 
circumference of the smallest visible object. 

2 Why are bubbles hemispherical ? Is it because the radii 
between the centre and the outer air extend in every direc 
tion upwards to the same distance and thus necessarily 30 
produce a hemispherical form ? The corresponding hemi 
sphere below is cut off by the watery surface in which 
the central point is situated. 

3 Why is it that in magnitudes of uneven weight, 4 if you 
set the lighter part of them in motion, the object throw r n 

1 The text here makes no sense, and it is clear from T. G., who 
renders nee si lignum per aquam in sole apposueris^ umbra ligni 
contimia exsultabit sed, &c., that something has fallen out. 

2 raCra gives no possible sense, and TVT/ (= on the surface of the 
water ) has been translated. 

3 There is no evidence that Aristotle wrote a work on Optics (cp. 
Bonitz, Index, 104* 61 ff.) ; so we must suppose a general reference 
here to works on Optics, cp. 959 b 2 ot 7re/u TO. OTTTIKU. 

4 The example of the loaded dice indicates that we should read 

fiapos for j3ci0o?. 

645-25 JVf 


35 revolves in a circle, as happens, for example, with loaded 
dice if you throw them with the unweighted side turned 
towards you ? l Is it because the heavier part cannot travel 
at the same speed as the lighter when hurled with the same 
force ? Now the object must travel as a single whole, but 
gi3 b cannot move alike in all its parts ; therefore if the parts were 
moved with equal speed they would move in the same line, 
while since one part 2 travels more quickly than the other, the 
object necessarily revolves as it moves ; for it is only in 
this manner that the parts 3 which are always opposite one 
5 another can follow unequal paths in the same time. 

Why is it that objects which fall to the earth and rebound 4 
describe similar angles to the earth s surface on either side 
of the point at which they touch the surface ? 4 Is it because 
all things naturally tend to travel at right angles to the 
earth ? Objects, therefore, which fall upon the ground at 

10 right angles, striking the surface perpendicularly and dia 
metrically, when they rebound, form angles of that size, 5 
because the diameter divides the angle at the surface into 
equal parts. But objects which fall obliquely, since they do 
not strike the ground perpendicularly but at a point above 
the perpendicular, when they are thrust back by that against 

15 which they strike, travel in the opposite direction. This in 
the case of round objects is due to the fact that, 6 striking 
against it 7 in their course, they revolve in an opposite 
direction to that in which they are thrust back, whether 
their central point is at rest or changes its position. In the 
case of rectilinear objects it is due to the fact that their 
perpendicular is thrown backwards after being brought 
forward; 8 just as happens to those whose legs are sheared 

1 This problem is partly identical with chapter 12 below. 

2 i. e. the lighter. 3 Reading ra (W. D. R.) for 
4 Cp. chapter 13. 6 i.e. right angles. 

6 ore of the Teubner text is a misprint for on. 

7 fv aurtu is perhaps corrupt. 

8 Reading tita TO rf^v Kadtrov a\)Ta>v tls T<wjj.wpocr6(v 
fKKpoveadai. T. G. renders rectis vero compacia lineis, quod per- 
pendiculum eorum in par tern prior em adductum retorquetur. The 
corruption of irpoa-fvexOelcrav may have been due to a desire to provide 
a princioal verb, which is unnecessary, since crvpftaivfi <pepfcr@ai is to 
be supplied from 11. 14-15. 

BOOK XVI. 4 9 3 b 

away from under them or whose scrotum is pulled down- 20 
wards, for such persons always fall in a contrary direction 
and backwards, because their perpendicular is raised above 
the ground 1 and then thrust forward. For clearly the 
opposite of perpendicularity will be to fall backwards and 
downwards, and objects carried downwards would be 
heavier. That, therefore, which in these persons involves 25 
a fall, becomes movement in rebounding- objects. Neither 
round nor rectilinear objects therefore rebound at right 
angles, because the perpendicular divides the objects in 
motion into two parts depthways, and there cannot be 
several perpendiculars to the same plane surface cutting 
one another, 2 which will happen if a perpendicular is formed 30 
at the moment of their impact at the point where the object 
in motion strikes the plane surface, 3 so that the original 
perpendicular along 4 which it travelled must necessarily be 
cut by the new perpendicular. Now since the object will 
be borne back, but will not be borne back at a right angle, 
it remains that the angle on either side of the point of 
impact with the plane surface must be an acute angle ; for 35 
the right angle forms the division between the opposite 

5 Why is it that a cylinder, when it is set in motion, travels 
straight and describes straight lines with the circles in 
which it terminates, whereas a cone revolves in a circle, its 
apex remaining still, and describes a circle with the circle in 9H* 
which it terminates ? Both move with a circular motion, 
but the cylinder describes straight lines on the plane surface, 
while the cone describes circles because the circles which 
compose the cone are unequal and the greater circle 
always moves more quickly than the less about the same 5 

1 Omitting ladfeiv avra and reading eWtVrovoriJ/ 8t.a TO rrjv 
re copoy re KT\. (W. D. R.). 

2 Reading avT<is for aura s- (so too Bussemaker). 

3 The text as it stands will not translate, since the repetition of 

gives two principal verbs. C a omits UTT avrtjs . . . 
; but better sense is gained by omitting Si^oro/netcr^at . . . 
t, its insertion being probably due to a gloss on the words 
immediately following. 

4 Reading *< rjs (Bussemaker). 

N 2 


centre. Now since all the circles composing the cone move 
at different rates, it results that the outermost circles travel 
over most space and describe the longest line in the 
same time (hence they must move in a circle) ; for all the 
circles are described by the same straight line, 1 and when 

10 the straight line revolves the various points on it do not 
describe an equal line in the same time, but can travel along 
an equal line only if they proceed in a straight direction. 
But in the cylinders, since all the circles are equal and 
about the same centre, the result is 2 that, since they touch 
the plane surface at all the points on them at the same 
time, as they roll they travel at a uniform speed (because 

^cylinders 3 are uniform throughout), and reach the plane 
surface again simultaneously when each has completed its 
own circuit ; thus the straight lines described on the plane 
surface are also equal, for the circles describe them by 
contact, since they both are equal and travel at the same 
speed. Now the lines described by the same line travel 
ling in a straight direction 4 are straight, and so the 

20 cylinder would travel 5 straight along them ; for it makes 
no difference whether you drag the cylinder over the plane 
surface at the line where it first G touched the plane surface, 
or whether you roll it over it ; 7 for the result will always 
be that an equal and similar line made up of points on the 
cylinder will touch the plane surface, both when the cylinder 
is dragged and when it is rolled along. 

25 Why is it that the section of a rolled book, which is flat, 8 6 
if you cut it parallel to the base becomes straight when 

1 i.e. the line from the apex of the cone to the point of contact of 
the plane surface and the base of the cone. 

2 The sense here is clear and is that of the Latin version of T. G., 
Evenit ut et simul suis omnibus punctis planum contingendo parili 
celeritate volvantur. Hence avpficiLvei aim roO eViTJ-eSou ra eV avrols 
TrdvO UTTTO/xeVous crr/fieta 0e f>eo-$at is read. 

3 Bonitz, op. cit., p. 412, reads KVK\OVS for <v\iv8povs ; but TOVS 
KVK\OVS is already the subject of the sentence and would not be 
repeated, and TOVS KvXivdpovs clearly refers to cylinders in general. 

4 i. e. when drawn along instead of being rolled. 

5 Reading av (pepoiTO for aracjbepoiro. 

6 Reading /} TT/JCOTT; for rj 17 Trpcor^ (so too Bussemaker). 

7 Reading auro> (Bonitz) for avro. 

8 Omitting al evdfla with C a . 


unrolled, but if it is cut obliquely becomes crooked? 1 
Is it due to the fact that, since the circles in the first section 
are in the same plane, the result is that the oblique section 
is not parallel but is partly 2 more and partly less distant 
from the first section, so that, when the roll is unfolded, the 
circles, which are in the same plane and have their origin 30 
in the same plane, 3 assume, when unrolled, the line which 
they themselves form ? For the resulting line is formed 
from the circles which are in the same plane, so that the 
line, being on a plane, is also straight. But the line 4 of the 
oblique section when it is unrolled, not being parallel to 35 
the first section, but partly more and partly less distant 
from it (this being the position of the section relative to it)> 
will not be on a plane and therefore not straight either ; 
for part of a straight line cannot be in one plane and part 
in another. 

7 Why is it that magnitudes always appear less when 
divided up than when taken as a whole ? Is it because, 
though things which are divided always possess number, 
in size they are smaller than that which is single and 
undivided ? For that which is great is said to be great 
owing to its continuity and because it is of a certain size, 
but the number of its parts 5 is always greater than the 
number of any undivided magnitude. So it is only natural 5 
that the whole should appear greater than the parts into 
which it is divided ; for, though the whole and its parts are 
identical, the whole, being continuous, possesses more of 
the quality of magnitude, while the parts have more of the 
quality of number. 

8 Of the phenomena which occur in the water-clock the 
cause seems to be in general that ascribed by Anaxagoras ; t 

1 The problem might be stated in other words thus: Why does 
a roll which is made up of sections of parchment unroll absolutely 
straight if all sections are cut square, while it will not do so if any 
section is cut obliquely ? 

2 Reading d\\a rrj ^v (W. D. R.). 

3 Reading a comma instead of a full stop after eViTrefiw. 

4 Reading 17 de for fj re. 

5 Reading 6 8e dpidpos (ra>i> pep&v) IT as KrX., to complete the sense ; 
T. G. renders numems vero partium omnis. 

6 Diels, Vorsokr? i, p. 390, 28 ff. ; cp. P/iys. 213*27. The present 


for the air which is cut off within it is the cause of the water 
not entering when the tube has been closed. The air, how 
ever, by itself is not the cause ; for if one plunges the water- 
clock obliquely into the water, having first blocked up the 
tube, the water will enter. So Anaxagoras does not adequately 

15 explain how the air is the cause ; though, as has been said, 
it certainly is the cause. Now air, whether impelled along 
or travelling of itself without any compelling force, naturally 
travels in a straight line like the other l elements. When 
therefore the water-clock is plunged obliquely into the 
water, the air preserving its straight course is driven out 

ao by the water through the holes opposite to those which are 
in the water, and, as it goes out, the water flows in. But if 
the water-clock is plunged upright into the water, the air 
not being able to pass straight up, because the upper parts 
are closed, remains round the first holes ; for it cannot 
contract 2 into itself." The fact that the air can keep out 

25 the water by its immobility can be illustrated by an experi 
ment with the water-clock itself. For if you fill the bulb 
itself of the water-clock with water, having stopped up the 
tube, and invert it with the tube downwards, the water does 
not flow along the tube to the outlet. And when the outlet 
is opened, it does not immediately flow out along the tube 

30 but only after a moment s interval, since it is not already at 
the outlet of the tube but passes along it afterwards, when 
it is opened. But when the water-clock is full and in an 
upright position, the water passes through the strainer 4 as 
soon as ever the tube is opened, because it is in contact 
with the strainer, whereas it is not in contact with the 

35 extremities of the tube. The water does not, therefore, flow 
into the water-clock, for the reason already mentioned, but 

passage is the locus classicus on the construction of the clepsydra, or 
water-clock, in its simplest form as used in the law courts to regulate 
the length of speeches. It appears to have been a hollow globe 
terminating above in a narrow neck or tube (av\6s) with a stopper and 
with several holes at the bottom, through which the water escaped 
when the vessel was filled and the stopper removed. 

1 Reading ruXXa. 

2 Reading o-drTfcrOai (Bonitz). 

3 Reading avrbv (so also Diels) ; T. G. renders in sese contrahi 
non possit. 

4 i. e. the holes at the bottom of the bulb of the water-clock. 

BOOK XVI. 8 gi 4 b 

flows out when the tube is opened because the air in it being- 
set in motion up and down causes considerable movement 1 
in the water inside the water-clock. The water then, being 1 
thrust downwards and having itself also a tendency in that 
direction, naturally flows out, forcing its way through the air 
outside the water-clock, which is set in motion and is equal in 9*5* 
force to the air which impels it but weaker than it in its power 
of resistance, because the interior air, since it passes through 
the tube, which is narrow, flows more quickly and violently 
and forces the water on. The reason why the water does 
not flow w r hen the tube is closed is that the water on 5 
entering into the water-clock drives the air forcibly out 
of it. (That this is so is shown by the breath and noise 
engendered in it as the water enters. 2 ) And driving the 
air forcibly along it rushes into the tube itself, and 3 like 
wedges 4 of wood or bronze driven in by cleavage, remains 
in position without anything else to hold it together, until 10 
it is expelled from the opposite direction, as pegs 5 which 
are broken in wood are knocked out. This occurs when 
the tube is opened for the reasons already mentioned. If 
this is the reason, it is only natural that it 7 should not flow 
out or make its way forth, since the air forcibly prevents it 8 
and becomes inflated. (The noise which is made shows that 15 
the water is drawn up by the air, and this is a common 
phenomenon.) All the water then, being drawn up and 
being in itself 9 continuous, remains in the same position 
under the pressure of the air, until it is thrust away again 
by it ; and, since the first part of the water remains in the 
same position, the rest of the water is dependent from it in 

1 Reading Kii>r]<TLv for KWOHTIV ; T. G. renders motum excitat 

2 Reading epvyp-os elauh Tos TOV vdnros ; T. G. renders spiritus 
ructusque quos ingrediente humore intus excitari sentimus, 

2 Reading /3/a (5 } udovv <rui>ei(r/ri7rrei (Is rov <ivhbi> nvrbv (K(U) 

Reading e/nTneora with Y a . 

Reading, with Diels, eiriovpovs. 

Reading ft with all the best MSS., and placing a comma after 


Reading avrb (Bussernaker). 

Reading /) ei{evai K<uAu)oi/ros (with Diels) /3i a rou aepos-. 

Diels reads ai/ra> (sc. rat aepi). 


one continuous mass. It is only natural that this should be 
20 so ; for it is the property of the same thing to move some 
thing from its own place and to hold it when it has moved 
it, 1 and to do so for a longer time, if that which holds and 
that which is held are of equal force, or if that which holds 2 
is stronger, as occurs in the present case ; for air has greater 
force than water. 

35 Why is it that the parts of plants and of animals which 9 
have no functional importance are all round in plants, for 
instance, the stem and the shoots, and in animals the legs, 
thighs, arms, and chest and no whole or part is triangular 
or multi-angular ? Is it due, as Archy tas 3 used to say, to 

30 the fact that in natural movement the proportion of equality 
is always present (for he holds that all things move in a 
proportion), and that this is the only proportion which can 
return to itself, and so it forms circles and rotundities 
wherever it occurs ? 

Why do extremities always take rounded forms ? Is it 10 
because nature makes everything as excellent and as 
35 beautiful as the available material permits, and a rounded 
form is the most beautiful, being as uniform as possible ? 

Why does a circular object 4 when it is thrown at first II 
describe a straight line, but, as it ceases to move, describe 
a spiral, until it falls ? Does it describe a straight line at 
first, because the air on either side of it alike keeps it 
gi5 b upright ? The inclination then to either side being equal, 
the line also which it describes must be of such a nature 
that it divides the space on either side of it equally, 
and such a line is a straight line. But when it inclines 
to one side, because the air on either side of it is not 
even, it no longer describes an equal line with its inner 
5 and with its outer edge, but is forced to describe a circular 

1 Reading &$ (Kivr]<rev (Bussemaker) for o>s eKcivrjs. 

2 Reading TO i^xov (so too Bussemaker). 

3 The Pythagorean philosopher. 

4 The writer has no doubt a flat-edged discus in mind as the 
circular object. 

BOOK XVI. 12 gi5 b 

12 Why is it that in magnitudes of uneven weight, 1 if you 
set the 2 lighter part of them in motion, the object thrown 
revolves in a circle, as happens for example with loaded 
dice if you throw them with the unweighted side towards 
you ? 3 Is it because the heavier part cannot travel at the 10 
same speed as the lighter when hurled with the same force ? 
Now since it must necessarily move, but cannot do so in the 
same manner, that is in a straight line, it must take an 
inward direction and revolve ; just as, if part of the object 
had as a whole remained motionless owing to a weight in 
the centre, the part next to the person setting the object 
in motion would have moved so as to occupy the position 
of the part away from him, while the farther side would 15 
have moved towards him. But when the whole object 
moves and, as it travels, has a weight in the middle, it must 
necessarily behave in the same manner. 4 

13 Why is it that objects which are travelling along, when 
they come into collision with anything, rebound in a direc 
tion opposite to that in which they are naturally travelling, 
and at similar angles ? 5 Is it because they move not only 
with the impetus which accords with their own nature but 20 
also with that which is due to the agent which throws them ? 
Their own impetus then ceases when they reach their own 
proper position (for everything comes to rest when it reaches 
the position to which it is naturally carried), but, owing to 
the extraneous impetus, it is forced to continue to move, 
not, however, in a forward direction, because it is prevented 25 
from doing so, but either sideways or in a direct line 
backwards. Now every object rebounds at similar angles, 
because it is travelling to the point to which it is carried by 
the impetus which was imparted by the person who threw 

it ; and at that point it must be travelling at an acute angle 
or at a right angle. Since then the repelling object stops 
the movement in a straight line, it stops alike the moving 

1 Reading ftapos for ftddos ; see note on 91 3 a 34. 

2 Reading (TO) Kovcporepov with Richards; cp. 9i3 a 35, 9i5 b 9f. 

3 This problem is partly identical with chapter 3 above. 

4 i. e. revolve. D Cp. chapter 4. 
6 We should probably read OTTIO-QCV (W. D. R.) for 6p66i>. 



30 object and its impetus. As then in a mirror the image 
appears at the end of the line along which the sight travels, 
so the opposite occurs in moving objects, for they are 
repelled at an angle of the same magnitude as the angle at 
the apex l (for it must be observed that both the angle and 
the impetus are changed), and in these circumstances it is 

35 clear that moving objects must rebound at similar angles. 

1 Let A be the point from which the 
object is thrown, and BC a wall against 
which it strikes at the point D. The 
angle which it forms, ADC, will be 17 Kara 
Kopwfirjv yavia. The object will rebound 
to E forming the angle BDE which will 
equal the angle A DC. Thus the object 
rebounds at a similar angle . The above 
is a case where the object strikes the wall 
at an acute angle ; if it strikes it at right 
angles the similar angles will be right 



I WHY do those who are unsymmetrical appear larger 
when set side by side with other men l than by themselves ? 
Is it because that which is symmetrical is one, and symmetry 
more than anything else gives unity to a thing, and that 916 
which is one tends to be indivisible, and the indivisible is 
smaller, whereas asymmetry by causing diversity creates 
a multiplicity ? When things therefore are seen by them 
selves, their dimensions are less likely to be noticed ; but 
this is not so when they are seen side by side with one 
another. That then which is indivisible appears to be one, 5 
and the impression which it makes on the beholder is one 
because of its symmetry. But that which is unsymmetrical 
makes a greater impression, as though it \vere many, and 
appears greater because, though in reality only one, it 
seems to be many ; for it partakes of the nature of magni 
tude, because it is continuous, and of number, because of 
the inequality of its parts ; and so being increased in both ro 
these respects, it naturally appears great by the side of that 
which is simple and one. 

2 Why do animals and plants grow more in length than 
otherwise ? Is it because length increases three times over, 
width twice, and depth once ? Eor length is the first and 
original dimension, and so it increases both of itself, and 15 
secondly in combination with width, and thirdly in combina- 

-, if retained here, must be used not in its fullest reciprocal 
sense, but more generally of other men , i. e. members of the same 
species but not aa{<pp.erpm. If this involves too much straining of the 
meaning of aXX^Aour, the simplest change is to aXXous-. It is quite 
clear from 91 6 a II that the unsymmetrical are contrasted not with one 
another but with the symmetrical (there called ro unXovv Kal /). The 
Latin version implies the reading crupperpov?, which is perhaps right, 
the reading aXX^Xou? having arisen either from Trap u XXf/Xa of 9i6 a 5, 
or from a gloss on no-uppeYpous- copied by mistake for 


tion with depth. But width implies an increase in two 
dimensions only, in itself and at the same time in depth. 1 

In what sense must we understand the terms * prior and 3 
4 posterior ? As those who lived in the time of Troy are 
4 prior to us, so are those who lived before them 4 prior to 

20 them and so on ad infinitum ? Or since there is a beginning 
and a middle and an end of the universe, and when a man, 
as he becomes old, reaches the limit and turns again towards 
the beginning, 2 that 3 which is nearer to the beginning is 
earlier, what prevents our being nearer to the beginning 
than to the end, in which case we should be prior ? Just 

25 as the course 4 of the firmament and of each of the stars is 
a circle, why should not also the coming into being and the 
decay of perishable things be of such a kind that the same 
things 5 again come into being and decay ? This agrees 
with the saying that human life is a circle . To demand 
that those who are coming into being should always be 
numerically identical is foolish, but one would more readily 

30 accept the theory of the identity of the species. And so we 
should ourselves be prior , and one might suppose the 
arrangement of the series to be such that it returns back in 
a circle to the point from which it began and thus secures 
continuity and identity of composition. For Alcmaeon " 
declares that men perish because they cannot link together 

35 the beginning to the end 8 a clever saying, if one supposes 
that he uses it metaphorically and the literal meaning is not 
insisted upon. If then human life is a circle, and a circle 
has neither beginning nor end, we should not be prior to 
those who lived in the time of Troy nor they prior to us 
by being nearer to the beginning. 

| Reading pdtiei for /ieye &i with Bonitz, op. cit., p. 412. 

2 i. e. the point where existence and non-existence meet. 

3 Omitting fie. 4 Reading, with Richards, /; <op. 

5 Reading ravra for ravra. 

6 Cp. Phys. 223 b 24 ; Herodot. i. 107 ; Tac. Ann. iii. 55. 

7 Alcmaeon of Croton, cp. Met. 986 a 27 and Ross s note; H. A. 
492 a 14, 58 1 a 1 6 ; and Diels, Vorsokr?, p. 135, 10. 

8 i.e. when a man reaches the end of life, personal identity is lost 
and the new life starts with a new personality. 



WHY is it that some people, if they begin to read, are9i6 b 
overcome by sleep even against their will, whereas others 
wishing to be overcome by sleep are kept awake by taking 
up a book ? l Is it because in those in whom movements 
of breath take place owing to the coldness of their nature 5 
or of melancholic humours, which by their coldness engender 
an unconcocted excretion of breath in such people, the 
intelligence, when it is set in motion and does not think of 
anything with concentrated attention, is checked by the 
second movement, 2 which has a cooling effect, and this 
causes a tendency to sleep ? But when they fix the intelli 
gence firmly upon something, as happens in reading-, they 10 
are impelled by the heating movement, which is unchecked 
by anything, and so they cannot go to sleep. In those who are 
in a natural condition, however, when the intelligence, which 
is very powerful, stands at a single point and does not keep 
changing from one subject to another, every function in that 
region 3 (whose inactivity involves sleep) is at a standstill ; 4 15 
and when the intelligence stands still and is as it were weary, 
being situated in the head, it weighs it down and produces 
sleep. But as long as the mind moves naturally, it does 
not go to sleep ; for it is then that it is most alive, and 
wakefulness rather rj than sleeping is the cause of life. 

1 A comparison with the parallel passage in chapter 7, which clearly 
deals with the same problem and is partly identical with the present 
chapter, shows that TOVS de ftov\o[j.fvovs noifl fyprjyopcvai must be read 
here; cp. 9i7 a 19 and note (so too Bussemaker). 

2 i. e. the unconcocted excretion of breath. 

3 i. e. the head. 

4 Reading ten-arm as in 9l7 a 3O. 

5 Reading with Bonitz, op. cit., 413, (juaXXov) atndf eorii> ; but 
alriav is possibly itself corrupt and some such word as Idiairepov, 
more characteristic of, seems to be required. 


Why are contentious disputations useful as a mental 2 
exercise ? Is it because they involve frequent victories and 
20 defeats ? They therefore quickly instil a spirit of rivalry ; 
for, when men are victorious, they are induced by their joy 
to contend yet more, and, when they are defeated, they 
continue the struggle in hopes of turning defeat into victory. 
Those engaged in struggles of other kinds act in the same 
way, and so when fighting and getting the worst of it often 
refuse to come to terms. 

25 Why is it that in rhetorical displays men prefer examples l 3 
and fables 2 rather than enthymemes ? 3 Is it because they 
like to learn and to learn quickly, and this end is achieved 
more easily by examples and fables, since these are familiar 
to them and are of the nature of particulars, 4 whereas 
enthymemes are proofs based on generalities, with which 

30 we are less familiar than with the particular ? Further, we 
attach more credence to any evidence which is supported 
by several witnesses, and examples and fables resemble 
evidence, and proofs supported by witnesses are easily 
obtained. Further, men like to hear of similarities, and 
examples and fables display similarities. 5 

35 Why do we talk of an orator, or a general, or a business 4 
man as being shrewd, but not use the term of a musician 
or of an actor ? Is it because the powers of the two last 
are exercised apart from any desire of gaining an advantage 
(for their aim is pleasure), whereas the three first aim at 
some advantage ? For a good orator or general or business 
gi7 a man is one who can gain some advantage, and shrewdness 
consists mainly in getting the better of some one else. 

Why is the philosopher generally regarded as superior 5 
to the orator ? 6 Is it because the philosopher treats of the 
nature of injustice, while the orator says that such and such 
a person is unjust, and the orator states that such and such 

1 Cp. Rhet. I357 b 25-30, Rhet. ad Alex. 1429* 21 ff. 

2 Xoyoi here equivalent to ^vdot, cp. below, 1. 35. 

3 Cp. Rhet. I357 a 32 ff., Rhet. ad Alex. 1430** 23 ff. 

4 Cp. Rhet. I357 a 27, 28. 5 Cp. Rhet. ad Alex. 1429* 25-7. 
6 This problem is repeated in a longer form in xxx. 9. 

BOOK XVIII. 5 917* 

a person is a tyrant, while the philosopher discusses the 
nature l of tyranny ? 

5 Why is it that some men spend their time in pursuits which 
they have chosen, though these are sometimes mean, rather 
than in more honourable professions ? Why, for example, 
should a man who chooses to be a conjurer or an actor or 
a piper prefer these callings to that of an astronomer or an 
orator ? Is it because some men would prefer to undertake 
the more honourable professions but do not do so because 10 
they do not feel confident that they would succeed in them ? 
Or is it because each man chooses the calling in which he 
thinks he can excel and devotes himself to that which he 
chooses, giving up the greater part of each day to it, in 
order that he may improve his own proficiency 2 in it ? 
Now when men have chosen a calling from the first and 15 
have become accustomed to it, they lose the pow r er of 
discriminating between the higher and the lower ; for their 
mind is warped by their bad choice. 

7 Why is it that some persons, if they begin to read, are 
overcome by sleep even against their will, whereas those 
who wish to go to sleep are made unable to do so if 
they take up a book ? 3 Is it because in those in whom 2 o 
movements of breath take place owing to the coldness of 
their nature or of melancholic humours, which by their 
coldness engender an unconcocted excretion of breath in 
these w r hen the intelligence is set in motion and does not 
think of anything with concentrated attention, the intelli 
gence is checked by the second movement, 4 and so they 
undergo a great mental change and go to sleep (for the 25 
movement of breath is overcome) ? But when they fix their 
intelligence on something, as happens in reading, they are 
impelled by the movement of breath 5 unchecked by any- 

1 Reading, with Richards, irotov. 

2 Reading Kparia-Tfixav (cp. above, 1. 12) for Kparurros wv. 

The problem of this chapter is obviously the same as that of 
chapter I and we must read rovs 5e @ov\ofj.evovs ov notel 8vva<rdai 

4 Reading r// ere pa Kivrjcra, cp. above, 9i6 b 8 and note. 

6 The parallel passage (9i6 b 10) has 6epjMVTiKr)s, but TrvevfiariK^s can 
stand here since rj -nvfv^ariKrj and y dep^avriKt] KIVIJCTLS both refer to 


thing, and so cannot sleep. But in those who are in a 
natural condition, when the intelligence is fixed on one 

30 thing and does not keep changing from one subject to 
another, every function in that region (the inactivity of 
which involves sleep) is at a standstill. (Similarly during a 
rout, 1 if the leader halts, all the forces under his command 
halt also.) For naturally that which is light rises, while the 
heavy sinks.- As long, therefore, as the mind moves 
naturally, it does not go to sleep ; for it is then that it is 

35 most alive. 3 When the mind stands still and is as it were 
weary, the intellect undergoes a change, and the corporeal 
elements rise to the head and produce sleep. Reading 
might be expected to prevent sleep ; but wakefulness is not 
due to the fact that we are thinking (for then our mind is 
most concentrated) but to the constant change ; for the 
giy b intellectual activities which cause wakefulness are those in 
which the mind searches and finds difficulties rather than 
those in which it pursues continual contemplation ; for the 
former cause lack of concentration, while the latter do not. 

Why is it that in contentious disputes no trifling can ever 8 
occur ? Is it because such reasoning is apparent syllogism, 
5 and syllogism involves only a brief discussion ; and, if it be 
prolonged, after a time the false reasoning is detected and 
the disputant can withdraw the premisses which he has 
granted ? 

Why do we feel more pleasure in listening to narratives 9 
in which the attention is concentrated on a single point than 
in hearing those which are concerned with many subjects ? 
10 Is it because we pay more attention to and feel more pleasure 
in listening to things which are more easily comprehended, 
and that which is definite is more easily comprehended 

the same thing, viz. the movement of breath when it is unaffected by 
natural cold or melancholic humours. 
Cp. Post. An. ioo a 12. 

2 This sentence seems out of place here and would make better 
sense if it were inserted after Tj-otei rbv vrrvov, 1. 36. 

3 ourco yap e^fi gives no sense and is obviously corrupt. As the 
parallel passage 9i6 b 17 has >/ yap Tore /xaXtora, we should here read 
ovrco yap ?; /xaAiara or something similar. 

BOOK XVIII. 9 917 

than that which is indefinite ? Now a single thing is definite, 
but a plurality partakes of the nature of the infinite. 

IO Why do we like to hear of events which are neither very 
old nor quite new ? Is it because we discredit events which 
occurred long before our time and take no pleasure in 15 
events which we discredit, while we can still as it were 
perceive very recent events and so take no pleasure in 
hearing about them ? 

gi7 b 



WHY do those who are grieving ] and those who are I 
enjoying themselves alike have the flute played to them ? 
20 Is it in order that the distress of the former may be lessened 
and the pleasure of the latter increased ? 

Why is it that, when the same person uses the same vocal 2 
power, the sound travels farther when he is singing or 
shouting with others than when he does so by himself? 2 
Is it because the doing of anything with a number of other 
people compressing, for instance, or pushing something 
does not produce an effect in simple proportion to the 
25 number of persons ; but, just as a line two feet long 
describes a circle 3 which is not double but quadruple that 
described by a line a foot long, so collective actions have 
greater force in proportion to their number than when they 
are carried out separately ? 4 When, therefore, a number of 
persons sing together, the force of their voice unites, and 
impels the air simultaneously, so that it travels many times 
as far ; for the voice produced by all is the multiple of each 
single voice. 

30 Why does the voice waver most when singing parhypate 5 3 
and to no less a degree than when singing nete and the 
higher notes, although the interval is greater ? Is it because 

1 The reference is to the use of the flute at funerals. 

2 Cp. xi. 52. 

3 Vollgraff is no doubt right in thus interpreting ypdcbeiv in its usual 
sense in geometry. 

4 i.e. multiplication takes place and not mere addition. 

5 The following is the usual scheme employed by Peripatetic writers 
(see Jan, Musici Scriptores, p. 81) : 

hypate parhypate lichanos mese paramese trite paranete nete 
e f a a be d e . 

There seems no reason why, in a diatonic scale, parhypate should be 
specially difficult to sing. Bojesen and Sturnpf therefore suppose that 
the reference is to an enharmonic scale, in which the interval from 
hypate to parhypate is a quarter-tone, which would actually be hard to 


the interval ] is more difficult to sing and is a primary 
element ? 2 Now the difficulty is due to the straining and 
pressure of the voice ; and these require an effort, and 
things which require an effort are more likely to fail. 

4 But why \sparhypate difficult to sing, but hypate easy, 35 
although there is only a quarter-tone between them ? 3 Is it 
because hypate is accompanied by relaxation of the voice 
and also because after tension it is easy to slacken ? 4 It is 
probably for the same reason that what a man says with 
violence, 5 he says with this note or paranete? [For one 
must . . . with a consciousness of the character which one is 
representing and under conditions most akin to it according 
to one s purpose.] 7 [But what is the first condition o 
concordant music ?] 8 

5 Why do men take greater pleasure in listening to those 
who are singing such music as they already know than 
music which they do not know ? 9 Is it because, when they 
recognize what is being sung, it is more obvious that the 5 
singer is as it were achieving 10 his aims, and this is pleasant 
to contemplate? Or is it because it is less 11 pleasant to 
learn ? And the reason of this is that in the one case there 
is acquisition of knowledge, in the other the use and recog 
nition of it. Further, that which is familiar is always 
pleasanter than the unfamiliar. 

5 Why does recitation with a musical accompaniment have 10 
a tragic effect when introduced into singing ? Is it owing 

1 Stumpf has been followed here in taking ravrrjv and our/? to refer 
to the quarter-tone. 

2 i. e. the quarter-tone is the smallest interval in the musical scale. 

3 The meaning seems to be : Why is it easier to sing the same 
interval downwards than upwards ? 

4 Reading with Jan n^a^aXai/ for ai>a> /SuXXai/. 

6 Reading with Bussemaker and Stumpf ftiav for \u.nv. The inter 
pretation here adopted is that of Stumpf. 

6 We should, with Stumpf, expect paramese rather than paranete 

7 This sentence (which is incomplete, since there is no infinitive 
after Set) appears to be out of place here. 

8 This sentence appears to be the statement of another problem, 
the solution of which is lacking. 

9 Cp. below, chapter 40. lo Omitting 6 ; cp. a 24. 
11 Reading with Richards ?? 6Vt 

O 2 


to the resulting contrast ? For the contrast gives an ex 
pression of feeling and implies extremity of calamity or 
grief, whereas uniformity is less mournful. 

Why did the ancients, when they gave the scale seven 7 
notes, leave in hypate and not nete ? T Is this a false state- 
15 ment, since they left in both and omitted trite, or is the truer 
answer that the lower note contains the sound of the higher 
note, 2 so that hypate gives the impression of the octave 
above better than (nete for the high note needs 3 more 
force, while the low note is easier to utter) ? 

Why does the low note 4 contain 5 the sound of the high 8 
20 note ? G Is it because the low note is greater and resembles an 
obtuse angle, while the high note resembles an acute angle ? 7 

Why do we listen with greater pleasure to a solo when a 9 
man sings it to the accompaniment of a flute or lyre ? 8 Yet 
the same tune is sung note for note 9 with or without 

1 Cp. below, chapter 47. For the scheme of eight notes used by 
the Peripatetic writers, see note on 9i7 b 30. Two stages can be traced 
in the earlier evolution of the seven-stringed lyre (see Jan, op. cit., p. 81). 

(a) The earliest form was : 


hypate parhypate lichanos mese or trite paranete nete 
e f gad c d 

(b] After the time of Terpander trite (= 6) was omitted (cp. below, 
920 a 15-17), and nete was made equivalent to e : 

hypate parhypate lichanos mese or trite paranete nete 

e f g a c d e 1 

The Peripatetic, being familiar with the eight-note scale which was 
evolved from the seven-note scale, inverts the order in which the two 
systems came into being. The question arises why nete ( = e } was 
omitted as in system (a) above. The answer, having system (b) in 
mind, asks whether it is not a truer statement of the case to say that 
nete (= d ) was retained and trite (= b) rejected. 

2 The phrase iVxuei TOV TTJS o^vrepas (f)66yyov gives no meaning since 
lo-xvci is a neuter verb and cannot govern an accusative. If it is 
retained, we must read something like iV^uei {rrXeoi ) TOV Trjs o^vrepas 
(j)66yyov. A better alternative is to read to-^fi, with Eichtal and 
Reinach (Rev. t. Grec. v. (1892) p. 33), who compare 9i8 a 40 i) 6Vt TO 
/3apu fjicyci eartf, ware Kparepof j KOI fve(mv fv r< /zeyiiAa) TO fjuxpov. 

3 Some verb must be supplied to complete the sense : eVei (Stlrm) 
TO ot< Sum/Liecos (Wagener) is more probable than the insertion of 
o-ij/Lieloi/ by the Teubner editors. eWi . . . ffrOty^aa-Ocu seems, however, 
quite irrelevant here. 4 i. e. hypate. 

5 Reading TX, as above, for to^uei. 6 i. e. nete. 

7 Cp. de. An. 42O b I ff. 8 Cp. below, chapter 43. 

9 Reading Trpoo-^opSa (Jan) ; cp. Plato, Laws, xii. 812 D. 

BOOK XIX. 9 gi8 s 

accompaniment. This creates a problem, for if it gave more 
delight to hear more of the same thing, 1 we ought to sing to 
the accompaniment of a large number of flute-players and this 25 
ought to be even more pleasant. Is it because the singer is 
more obviously achieving his aim when he is accompanied 
y a flute or lyre ? And the accompaniment of a number 
of flute-players or lyres does not add to the pleasure, 
because it drowns the singing. 

10 Why, if the human voice is more pleasant than an instru 
ment, 2 is the voice of a man singing without words as, for 3 
example, when making meaningless warblings 3 not so 
pleasant as a flute or lyre ? Or is it true that even in 
the case of an instrument we get less pleasure if it is not 
expressive of meaning ? The instrument, however, has an 
advantage even in its actual effect ; for while the human voice 
is pleasanter, instruments strike the note better than the 
human mouth, wherefore they are pleasanter to hear than 
meaningless warblings. 

11 Why is the voice higher when it echoes back ? 4 Is it 35 
because it is smaller, 5 having become weaker ? 

12 Why does the lower of two strings sounded together 
always give the tune ? For if one omits paranete, when 
one should sound it w r ith mese, the tune is given none the 
less ; but if one omits mese, when one should sound both, 
the tune is lost. 7 Is it because the low note is large and 4 
therefore strong, and the less is contained in the greater ? 8 
So too if hypate is stopped down in the centre, 1 two netes 
are produced. 

1 Reading fl yap erepTTf (Jtin) /jLii\\ov TO avro TrXeop (Jov , e Sei KT\. 

2 Putting a comma after (pwvr) instead of after qftovros. 

3 For the meaning ofrepcTifav see An. Post. 83 a 33. 

4 For djrr]Xfiv cp. 899*24. 6 Reading with Vollgraff fXarrwi/. 

6 Cp. above xi. 6 and 20. Lord Rayleigh (Theory of Sound, ii. 
p. 152) notes that echoes returned from such reflecting bodies as a 
group of trees are sometimes raised an octave. 

7 Reading av yap edarrj Tf]v irapavfjTrjv, dfov crufix/ rJXm rfj ^077, yivtrat 
TO fJLfXos ov&i> r/TToj/* fciv dt Tr)V p-earjif, de ov (lp.<p(t) \}sr]\ai ov yiverai* This 

is the reading of Monro, except that he reads napapeo-^v, for which 
Fetis and Gevaert read Trapavrjrrjv. The Teubner editors wrongly 
report Monro as reading \lri\d. 

8 Cp. 9i8 a 2o. 

9 i. e. by striking the string on either side of the central point. The 


Why is it that the low note in the octave gives the effect 13 
of unison with the high, but not vice versa ? l Is it because, 
5 if possible, the sound of both notes is in both notes, but, 
failing that, in the low note, since it is greater ? 

Why does the accord in the octave escape notice, and 14 
why does there appear to be a simple unison, as for example 
in the Phoenician lyre and in the human voice ? 2 For the 
upper and lower notes :! do not give the same sound but are 
analogous 4 to one another at the octave. Is it because their 
10 sound appears to be practically the same owing to the 
analogy, and analogy is equality in sounds, and equality is 
of the one ? 5 The same deception occurs also in the pipes. 

Why were nomes not composed in antistrophes like 15 
all other songs, that is, choric songs ? Is it because the 
nomes were assigned to virtuosi, and as these were 

15 already able to imitate different characters and sustain their 
parts, the songs composed for them became long and elabo 
rate ? Like the words, therefore, the music conformed to 
the imitation, becoming constantly different ; for it was more 
essential for the music to be imitative than the words. 6 (For 
this reason too dithyrambs, since they have become imita 
tive, no longer have antistrophes, as they had formerly.) The 

20 reason is that in the old days free citizens themselves formed 
the choruses ; it was difficult, therefore, for a large number 

fact that hypate can be made to produce two netes is a proof that the 
less is contained in the greater. 

1 i. e. a note contains as a harmonic or upper partial the note an 
octave higher than itself, whereas it does not contain the note an 
octave lower than itself. Our author seems to have had some know 
ledge of undertones , i. e. harmonics which work downwards instead 
of upwards, so far as the octave is concerned. 

2 e. g. a man and a boy, when they think they are singing the same 
tune, are really singing an octave apart. 

3 Reading with Eichtal and Reinach eV rots o(eW KO.\ TO LS lBap}eaiv 
OVTCI. 4 Reading d^a Adyof. 

6 Reading diet TO avaKoyov, (jo ^e aviiKoyov} tcroTT/? eVi (ftBoyyaV) TO St 
icrov TOV (v<>s. This is clearly the text rendered by T. G., who translates 
an modus proportionis facit ut sonus quasi idem esse appareat ? pro- 
portio enim in sonis aequalitas est, aequale autem omne ad unitatem 
referendum est . 

This is certainly true of the only nome of which the words have 
come down to us, the Per sue of Timotheus, which resembles the 
meaningless libretto of an inferior opera and must have depended for 
its effect on the music and the mimetic powers of the performer. 

BOOK XIX. 15 gig 1 

to sing together like virtuosi, so they sang in one mode. 1 
For it is easier for a single person to make many changes 
than for a large chorus, and for a professional than for 
those who are preserving the character of the music. And 
so they made the music more simple for them. Now the 
antistrophic song is simple ; for there is one rhythm 2 and 25 
one unit of metre. For the same reason songs executed 
from the stage are not antistrophic, but those sung by the 
chorus are so ; for the actor is a virtuoso and an imitator, 
but the chorus is less imitative. 

16 Why is antiphonal 3 accompaniment 4 more pleasing 3 o 
than 4 symphonic accompaniment ? 5 Is it because in the 
former the consonance is more obvious than w r hen the 
accompaniment of the singing is 4 symphonic ? For of 
the two notes played by the instrument one must be in 
unison with the note sung*, and so two notes contending 
against one drown the other note. 

17 Why is it that singing in fifths 7 does not give the effect 
of antiphony ? 8 Is it because one * symphonic note is 

Y a , fv fytpovia C a X a AP. Chabanon s conjecture ev pia 
has been adopted ; the corruption can be explained by suppos 
ing that fjLia was written a. 

2 Reading with Jan els pvO^os. The MS. reading can be 
explained as a misunderstanding of (= els) pvdpos. 

3 dvTitfxavos can be applied in general to any reproduction of a tune 
in a different part of the scale ; but it is frequently used in these 
problems in the technical sense of the accord in the octave, the only 
interval in the view of the Greeks which could be used consecutively in 
singing, o-vp-fpuvos is used either (i) of any consonance (cp. the use 
of (TufjLcfcwvelv in 1. 31, and 17 Sin iraa-wv avfj,cp<ovia (\, 40), and chapter 39, 
where TO vvpfytovov includes all consonances), (2) in the technical sense 
as applied to musical accompaniment when two notes are played by 
an instrument, one of which is the same as that of the voice (6//d<jWoy), 
the other consonant with the voice, i.e. a fourth or a fifth higher. 
6p.o(p(0via (= unison) occurs when two identical notes are used simul 

4 That harmonized musical accompaniment is here intended is 
shown by the words of 11. 31-2 orav irpbs crvpcptoviav udrj (cp. D. B. 
Monro, /. of P. I, pt. ii, pp. 87-8). 

5 Cp. chapters 35 and 39. 

6 i. e. one of the notes played on the instrument is identical with 
that uttered by the singer ; these two notes drown the third note, 
i. e. the second note played on the instrument. 

7 T. G. appears to render 6i nevre \KUL 8ia rfa-o-apco^. 

8 Antiphonal is here used in its wider sense of reproducing the 
same tune in a different part of the scale. 


35 not the same as the other symphonic note, 1 as are the 
notes which are an octave apart ? For in the accord 2 in 
the octave the deep note in the lower part of the scale is 
analogous to the high note in the upper part ; it is, there 
fore, as it were at once the same and different. But this 
does not occur in fifths and fourths, so that the sound 
of the antiphonal note does not appear, for it is not 

40 Why is it that the accord in the octave alone is used in 18 
gi9 a singing ? 3 For in * magadizing 4 this and no other accord 
is used. Is it because it alone is made up of ( antiphonal 
notes, and with antiphonal notes, if but one be sung, the 
same effect is produced as if both were sung ? For the one 
note in a way contains the sounds of both, so that, when one 
5 is sung, the concordant note 5 at this interval is also sung ; 
and when they sing both, or when one note is sung and 
the other played on the flute, they both as it were sing one 
note. Therefore the accord in the octave alone is sung, 
because the * antiphonal notes have the sound of one note. 

But why does the power of producing the effect of a single 19 
10 note belong only to antiphonal notes ? Is it because they 
alone are equidistant from mese! 1 The presence then of 
this mean creates a certain similarity in their sounds, and 
the ear seems to tell us that it is the same note and that 
they are both extremes. 

Why is it that, if, after tuning the other strings, one alters 2O 
mese and uses the instrument, the ear is offended and an 
15 unmusical effect is produced not only when mese is used, 

1 Reading with Jan f) o-vfji(pu>vos 777 

2 Reading eW with Vollgraff for e /ceiVr?. The meaning clearly is that 
there is the same succession of corresponding notes in the scale as sung 
by a man s voice and by a boy s. 

3 Cp. below, chapter 39 b . 

4 The pdyabts was a large stringed instrument containing at least 
two octaves (Athenaeus, xiv. 36; Anacreon, fr. 18 ; Xen. Anab. vii. 
3. 32) ; hence ftayndi^eiv comes to mean the singing of a succession of 
notes by different voices in octaves. 

5 Reading with Jan rj avptytovos for f) tru/u^coi/ia. 

6 Punctuating Kai /u<<o qdovres, 77 rr)S pev qdofjievrjs, rrjs Se nv\ovfj.vr}s t 
&(nrep KT\. 

7 This is untrue, and the whole problem is singularly inept and clearly 
inserted by a writer who knew nothing of music. 

BOOK XIX. 20 919 

but in the rest of the piece as well, whereas, if lichanos or 
any other string is altered, it only seems to make a difference 
when that particular string 1 is used ? T Surely this is only 
natural ; for in all good music mese occurs frequently, and 
all good composers have frequent recourse to mese, and, if 20 
they leave it, they soon return to it, as they do to no other 
note. Similarly in language, if certain connecting particles 
are removed, such as re and /ecu, the language is no longer 
Greek ; whereas the omission of some particles does not 
offend the ear, because certain particles must be frequently 25 
used, if there is to be language, but others not. So mese 
is as it were a conjunction among sounds, and more so than 
the other 2 notes, because its sound occurs more often. 

21 Why is it that of singers those who are singing low notes 
are more conspicuous if they sing out of tune than those 3 
who are singing high ? So too those who make mistakes 
in time in the lower notes 3 are more conspicuous. Is it 
because the period of time occupied by the low note is 
longer, and this longer period is more perceptible (for, 4 
lasting for a greater time, it creates a deeper sense - 
impression), whereas a quick," high note escapes notice 35 
owing to its swiftness ? 

22 Why does a large choir keep better time than a small 
one ? G Is it because they look more to one man, their leader, 
and dance 7 more slowly and so more easily achieve unity ? 
For mistakes occur more frequently in quick singing. 

23 Why is hypate double nete ? 8 Is it because in the first 
place, when half the string is struck and when the whole 

1 Cp. below, chapter 36. 

2 Reading with Ruelle and Stumpf aXXi> for /caXcor^. /zaXiora TWV 
Ka\S>v (jUfXoo^) is, however, possible : * particularly in good music , cp. 
above, 1. 19. 

3 Reading with the MSS. /3npurep&>. The generally accepted emenda 
tion /3pa<Wep spoils the sense; the question of duration being 
introduced in the solution. 

4 Omitting r\ before on with Reinach and Eichthal, and punctuating 
a.i(rdr]TQS, on. 

6 Reading ra^ with the MSS. 6 Cp. below, chapter 45. 

7 Reading ( p^oiWai with Graf. 

8 Reading with Wagener and Jan rfjs VTJTI^S jj vnaTrj. The solution 



string is struck an accord in the octave is produced ? So 
too with wind instruments, 1 the sound produced through 
the middle hole and that produced through the whole flute 
5 give an accord in the octave. Again, in the reed-pipe an 
accord in the octave is obtained by doubling the length, 
and this is how flute-makers produce it. Similarly they 
obtain a fifth by means of a length in the ratio of 3 to 2. 2 
Again, those who construct Pan-pipes stuff wax into the 
extreme end of the Ayjpate-reed, but fill up the nete-reed 
to the middle. Similarly they obtain a fifth by means of 
a length in the ratio of 3 to 2, and a fourth by means 
of a length in the ratio of 4 to 3. Further, hypate and 
nete* on triangular stringed instruments, when they are 
equally stretched, give an accord in the octave when one is 
double the other in length. 

Why, if one strikes nete* and then stops it down, does 24 
hypate alone seem to resound ? 5 Is it because the vibration 
produced from hypate is very much of the same nature as 
the sound of nete, because it is in accord with it ? When it 
is increased by the addition of its like, it alone is audible, 
the other sounds being imperceptible owing to their small- 

Why is mese ( the middle note ) so called in the scale, 25 
though there is no middle of eight notes ? 6 Is it because 
in the old days scales had seven notes, 7 and seven has 
a middle ? 

shows that hypate is double nete in length of string. In 92O a 29, where 
nete is said to be double hypate, the reference is to frequency of pitch. 

1 TMV a-vplyywv is here used generally of wind instruments, of which 
particular examples are given, (i) the single flute (crvpiyt;), (2) the 
reed-pipe (<w\6s), and (3) the Pan-pipes (crvptyyes). 

2 Deleting the square brackets inserted in the Teubner text and 
putting a full-stop after ^/uioXfw. There is no reason why the method 
of producing a fifth should not be mentioned here as well as in 1. 10, 
since it is a question of a different instrument. 

3 Reading with Bojesen ul for ot or of the MSS. 

4 Deleting the second vf^rrjv. 

5 Cp. below, chapter 42. As a matter of fact the striking of hypate 
would set up a sympathetic vibration in nete to a much greater extent 
than vice versa. 

c A longer version of this problem occurs at chapter 44. For the 
usual scheme of eight notes used by the Peripatetic writers see note 
on 9i7 b 3o. 

7 See note on 918* 14. 

BOOK XIX. 26 gi 9 b 

26 Why do most men sing high when they sing- out of 
tune ? 1 Is it because it is easier to sing high than low ? 
Or is it because singing high is worse than singing low, 2 
and a mistake is doing what is worse ? 25 

27 Why is it that of all things which are perceived by the 
senses that which is heard alone possesses moral character ? 3 
For music, even if it is unaccompanied by words, yet has 
character ; whereas a colour and an odour and a savour 
have not. Is it because that which is heard alone has 
movement, not, however, 4 the movement in us to which the 
sound gives rise (for such movement exists also in the other 3 
things which affect our senses, for colour also moves our 
sight), but we perceive the movement which follows such 
and such a sound ? This movement resembles moral 
character both in the rhythms and in the melodic dis 
position of the high and low notes, but not in their 
commingling ; for symphony does possess moral character. 
This does not occur in the other objects of sense-perception. 35 
Now these movements are connected with action, and 
actions are indicative of moral character. 

28 Why are the nomes (Vo/iot) which are sung so called ? 
Is it because before men knew the art of writing they used 
to sing their laws (vo^ai) in order not to forget them, as 
they are still accustomed to do among the Agathyrsi ? 5 9 2 a 
They, therefore, called the earliest of their subsequent songs 

by the same name as their earliest songs. 

29 Why do rhythms and tunes, which after all are only voice, 
resemble moral characters, whereas savours do not, nor yet 
colours and odours ? f) Is it because they are movements, 5 
as actions also are ? Now efficient action is already moral 
and determines character, but savours and colours have no 
similar effect. 

1 Cp. below, chapter 46. 

2 Cp. 92o a 23, where a low note is said to be more noble than a high. 
8 Cp. below, chapter 29. 

4 Punctuating with most editors p.( n>ov } oi^l rjv. 

5 A Scythian tribe (Herod, iv. ico). 6 Cp. chapter 27. 


Why is neither the Hypodorian nor the Hypophrygian 30 
mode suitable for use by the chorus in tragedy ? l Is it 
because they do not admit of antistrophic melody ? 2 They 
^ are used, however, from the stage, because they are imita 
tive. 3 

Why were Phrynichus and his contemporaries primarily 31 
musicians ? Is it because in those days the lyrical portions 
of tragedies were many times longer than the purely 
metrical ? 4 

Why is the diapason (accord in the octave) so called 3 2 
and not named after the number of notes a diocto , like 
15 the diatessaron (fourth) and the * diapente (fifth) ? Is it 
because the notes were originally seven in number, 5 and 
then Terpander took away trite and added nete, and in his 
time it was called diapason and not diocto , since it was 
really diepta ? 

Why is it more satisfactory for a singer to pass from 33 
a high to a low note than from a low to a high note ? Is it 
20 because the former amounts to beginning at the beginning, 
for the mese, or leader, 6 is the highest note in the tetra- 
chord ? But in passing from a low to a high note one 
begins not at the beginning but at the end. Or is it because 
a low note is nobler and more euphonious after a high 
note ? 

Why are a double fifth 7 and a double fourth not con- 34 
25 cordant, whereas a double octave is ? 8 Is it because 

1 The same problem is treated at greater length in chapter 48. 

2 Gevaert explains as follows : Elles se pretaient mal a la me lodie 
absolue, exprimant un etat d ame permanent. Elles s appliquaient 
uniquement aux chants sceniques ou semi-sceniques coupes en sections 
libres ; elles affectionnaient en consequence la melopee declame e, 
visant a une expression precise. 

3 Reading with Wagener /Lu/*??r(Ka. For the meaning of the term 
cp. o.22 b 17-27. 

4 i. e. the choruses were still the principal element (as in Aeschylus 
earliest play, the Supplices), and the actor who spoke and did not sing 
his lines took only a minor part. 

5 See note on 918* 14. 

6 Omitting the KOL inserted by Ruelle after i^ye/nwj/. 

7 5i oeio>i> is the Pythagorean name for a fifth (cp. Nicomachus, 
ch. 9 in Jan s Mus. Script,, p. 252). 

8 This problem is more fully and clearly treated in chapter 41. 

BOOK XIX. 34 92o a 

neither a double fifth nor a double fourth is in a super- 
particular ratio, 1 though a fourth and a fifth are so ? 2 

35 a Why is the accord in the octave the most beautiful of all ? 
Is it because its ratios are contained within integral terms, 3 
while those of the others are not so contained ? For since 
nete is double hypate,^ as nete is two, so hypate is one ; and 30 
as hypate is two, nete is four ; and so on. But nete is to 
mese in the ratio of f to i (for a fifth is in this ratio), and 
that which is in the ratio of | to i r> is not contained within 
integral terms; for as the lesser number is one, so 6 the 
greater number is one with the addition of a half, so that it 
is no longer a comparison of whole numbers, but fractions 
are left over. The like happens also with the fourth ; for 35 
the epitrite 7 of a term is as great as that term 8 and one 
third as great again. Or is it because the accord which is 
made up of both the other two 9 is the most perfect, and 
because it is the measure 10 of the melody ? u 

35 b Why (is the sound shrillest in the middle of the note ? 
Is it because) 12 in any body which is displaced the move- 

1 This sentence is obviously incomplete in the MSS. and for the 
above translation Jan s suggestion 8\s 5ta rerrapcoy (eVt/xopiof) fcmv has 
been read ; cp. 92i b 5. The meaning of empopiov (c^.Met. A. io2i a 2) 

is that which is - of something else ; but the author seems to 

confine his attention to values of n not greater than 3, since only 
octaves, fourths, and fifths are considered. 

2 A fifth being in the ratio of 3 to 2 and a fourth in the ratio of 4 to 3, 

is 2- ( = ^^-} to I, and a double fourth (= ^iZ 

a double fifth 

to i. 

5 Unity is always taken as the second term of the ratio ; the 
author s idea is that for a consonance the first term must either be an 

integer, as in the octave, or of the form - - (ciri/uopioi ), as in the 

fourth and fifth. 

See note on 919* I. 

Reading TO -yap Sia irevre {^puoXtoi/, TO ) rjfiloXiov. 

Reading with Bekker and Bojesen TOO-OVTOV re 

i. e. that which is in the ratio of $ to I. 

Reading with Bussemaker and Bekker oo-ov r eKtlvo KCU. 

i. e. the accord in the octave. 

10 i. e. the melody keeps within the compass of the octave. 

11 Putting a question mark after peXwdias, where the problem 
evidently ends, as it does in Gaza s version. 

12 It has been generally recognized that the latter portion of this 


ment is most violent in the middle and quieter at the 

g2O b beginning- and end, and when the movement is most violent 

the sound of that which is displaced is shriller ? For this 

reason also strings which are tightly stretched give a shriller 

note, for their movement is quicker. 1 Now if a sound is the 

displacement of air or of something else, 2 a sound which is 

5 in the middle of its course must be shrillest. If this \vere 

not so, there would be no displacement of anything. 

Why is it that if mese is altered, the sound of the other 36 
strings also is spoilt, 3 but if on the other hand mese is left 
alone and one of the other strings altered, the note which 
10 is altered 4 alone is spoilt? 5 Is it because for all strings 
being in tune means standing in a certain relation to 
and the tension 7 of each is already determined by 
? If, therefore, that which is the cause of their being 
in tune and which holds them together is taken away, their 
proper relationship appears to be no longer maintained. 
But if one string is out of tune but mese is not altered, 
15 naturally the defect lies in that string only ; 8 for all the 
others are in tune. 

Why is it that, though height in a voice is in accordance 37 
with smallness and lowness in accordance with largeness 
(for a low note is slow owing to its largeness, and a high 
note quick owing to its smallness), yet more effort is required 
to sing a high than a low note, and few can sing the top 
20 notes, and the * Orthian songs 9 and high music are hard to 
sing owing to the strain which they involve ? Yet it requires 
less effort to set in motion that which is small than that which 
is large, and this ought to be true also of the air. Is it 

chapter belongs to another problem. Reinach and Eichtal s sug 
gested statement of the problem has been adopted in the translation : 
diet (ji f) $>wvr) ava pevov o|vrar7/ ; rj on) navrbs KT\. 

1 Cp. 899* 13. 2 Placing a comma after $opa. 

3 Reading with Stark (fr0eip6fj.evat. 

4 Reading with Sylburg {/)} KivrjOelo-a. 

5 Reading with Stark (frdeipcrat. The problem is the same as that 
of chapter 20. 

6 Omitting the comma after the first dnda-ais and Se after TO, and 
deleting the second dTrda-ais. 

7 Reading rdaris for rafts- (so also Ruelle). 

8 Reading eVcXein-et p.6vov with Bojesen. 

9 Reading of VOJJLOI (ot) 8p6ioi. Orthian songs were of a stirring, 
martial kind. 

BOOK XIX. 37 9 2o b 

because the possession l of a naturally high voice and the 
singing of high notes are not the same thing, but naturally 
high voices are always due to weakness because of the 
inability to set more than a little air in motion, and the little 
air thus set in motion is carried quickly along? But height 25 
of note in singing is a sign of strength ; for that which is 
carried violently along is carried swiftly. 2 Hence persons 
in robust health 3 can sing high. And it requires an 
effort to sing the high notes, but the low notes are easier. 4 

38 Why do all men delight in rhythm and melody and 
concords in general ? Is it because we naturally rejoice 
in natural movements ? 5 This is shown by the fact that 30 
children rejoice in them as soon as they are born. Now 
we delight in the various types of melody for their moral 
character/ but we delight in rhythm because it contains 
a familiar and ordered number and moves in a regular 
manner ; for ordered movement is naturally more akin to 
us than disordered, and is therefore more in accordance 35 
with nature. This is shown by the fact that by working 
and eating and drinking in an ordered manner we preserve 
and improve our nature and strength, whereas if we do 
these things irregularly we destroy and derange our nature ; 
for diseases are disturbances of the natural order 7 of the g2I a 
body. Thirdly, we delight in concord because it is the 
mingling of contraries which stand in proportion to one 
another. Proportion, then, is order, which, as we have 
said, 8 is naturally pleasant. Now that which is mingled 
is always more pleasant than that which is unmingled, 
especially if, being perceived by the senses, it contains 
equally the force of both extremes ; and in a concord the 5 
proportion has this characteristic. 9 

1 Reading (r6> ov<f)a>vov. 

2 Omitting <5i6 TO oii Swdpfus a-^^elov as a repetition from the 
preceding line. 

8 Reading CVCKTIKOI (W. D. R.). 

4 KUTCO is clearly due to a gloss on TCI jSnpe n and has displaced another 
word. For the above translation paov (Jan) has been read. 

5 Cp. Pol. viii. 1340*3, 4. 

6 Reading TI&OS with most editors. 

7 Omitting ou with most editors. 8 92o b 33, 34. 

9 Reading dvvap.iv (ex??* TOVTO 8 1 ) fx fi (W. D. R.). 


Why is c antiphony l more pleasant than * homophony ? 39 
Is it because 2 antiphony is concord in the octave ? For 
antiphony is produced by young boys 3 and men whose 

10 voices are separated in pitch as nete is from hypate. Now 
any concord is more pleasing than a simple note for the 
reasons already stated, 4 and of concords that in the octave 
is the most pleasing ; whereas homophony produces only 
a simple sound. Magadizing fl is in the concord of the 
octave, because, just as in verses the syllables stand to one 

15 another in the proportion of equal to equal, or two to one, 
or some other proportion, so too the sounds in a concord 
stand in a proportion of movement to one another. In the 
other concords the termination of one of the two notes is 
incomplete since it coincides with the end of only a half of 
the other ; and so they are not equal in force, 7 and being 
unequal they make a different impression 8 on the sense- 

20 perception, as happens in a chorus 9 when at the conclusion 
some are singing louder than others. 10 Furthermore, hypate 
happens to have the same conclusions to the periods in its 
sounds as nete^ for the second stroke which nete makes 
upon the air is hypate. As, then, these notes, though 

35 they do not do the same thing, terminate together, the 
result is that they carry out one common task, like those 
who are playing a stringed accompaniment to a song ; for 

1 Reading avricfxovov with Bojesen and most editors, following T. G. s 
version. For the meaning of the terms Antiphony and Homophony 
see note on 91 8 b 30. 2 Reading 77 (on) with most editors. 

3 Omitting Kai inserted in the Teubner text before vcwv. 

4 i. e. in chapter 38. 

5 See note on 9i9 a i. Some editors, following T. G., hold that a 
new problem begins at this point and read (Sta n } fj.ayai(ovan.v eV rrj 
dia Traa-tov Grv^wvia ; f) (6Vt) KT\. The rest of the chapter, however, 
seems to follow naturally on the remarks about the superiority of the 
concord in the octave. 

6 i. e. in the fifth, the length of the two notes being as 3:2, the 
slower terminates when one and a half beats of the faster have taken 
place; in the fourth, the length of the two notes being as 4:3, the 
second beat of the faster terminates when one and a half beats of the 
slower have taken place. 

7 Placing a comma instead of a full-stop after ei<nV. 

8 Reading didcfropoi with Reinach and Eichtal. 

9 Deleting the comma after ^opol?. 

10 Reading aXXcov (aAAo>i>) (bdeyyo^vutv or oAAou (a AAooy) <j)deyyop.vois 
(W. D. R.). 

11 Reading a-v^aivei (rfj vearfl) rrjv avrrjv from T. G. s version. 

BOOK XIX. 39 9 2i a 

these, though they do not play the same other notes as the 
singer, yet, if they finish on the same note, give more 
pleasure by their conclusion than they give pain by the 
differences which occur earlier in the piece, because after 
diversity the unity clue to the accord in the octave is very 
pleasing. 1 Now magadizing is made up of contrary notes, 2 
and for this reason it is carried out in the accord in the 3 

40 Why do men take greater pleasure in listening to those 
who are singing tunes which they already know than if 
they do not know them ? > Is it because it is more obvious 
that the singer is as it were achieving his aim when they 
recognize what is being sung, and when they recognize it 35 
the contemplation of it is pleasant ? Or is it because the 
listener is in sympathy with one who sings what he himself 
knows ? For he sings with him ; and every one enjoys 
singing when he is under no compulsion to sing. 

4 1 Why are a double fifth 4 and a double fourth not concor- g2i b 
dant, whereas a double octave is? 5 Is it because a fifth is 

in the ratio of 3 to 2, and a fourth in that of 4 to 3 ? Now 
in a series of three numbers in a ratio of 3 to 2 7 or 4 to 3, 
the two extreme numbers will have no ratio to one another; 5 
for neither will they be in a superparticular ratio s nor will 
one be a multiple of the other. But, since the octave is in 
a ratio of 2 to i, } if it be doubled the extreme numbers 
would be in a fourfold ratio. So, since a concord is a 
compound of sounds which are in a proper ratio 10 to one 
another, and sounds which are at an interval of two octaves J0 
from one another are in a ratio to one another (while 
double fourths and double fifths are not), the sounds con- 

1 Reading T fK diaffiopwv TO KOIVOV fj^icrrov KrX. 

2 i. e. high and low. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 5. 

4 For df o^eiwv see note on 920* 24. 

5 This chapter is a longer version of chapter 34. 

6 Reading with the MSS. rpivv. 

7 This phrase clearly means a series consisting of?/, n x f , n x (f) 2 . 

8 For the meaning of eVi/zopios see note on 92o a 26. 

9 Putting a comma instead of a full-stop after Xo-yw. 

10 Reading euAoycos- with Stumpf ; cp. rtfc Sensu, 439 h 3i fif. 


stituting the double octave would give a concord (while the 
others would not) for the reasons given above. 

Why is it that, if one strikes nete and then stops it 4 2 

15 down, hypate seems to respond ? l Is it because nete, as it 
ceases and dies down, becomes hypate} (This can be 
illustrated by the fact that it is possible to sing nete from 
hypate ; for the similarity can be taken from hypate as being 
a response to nete?} And since an echo is a response to 
a note 3 , and when nete ceases a sound 4 is set in motion 

20 which is the same as the note of hypate, it is only natural 
owing to the similarity that nete should seem to set hypate 
in motion. For we know that nete is not 5 in motion, 
because it is stopped down, and seeing that hypate itself is 
not stopped down and hearing its note we think that it 
is hypate which is giving forth a sound. (This kind of 

2 5 illusion is quite common, where we cannot perceive the 
exact truth either by reasoning or by the senses.) Again, 
it would be nothing extraordinary if, after nete is struck 
when it is very tightly stretched, the bridge were set in 
motion ; and it would not be strange if, when the bridge 
moved, all the strings were set in motion with it and made 

3 a sound. Now the sound of nete is alien to the other notes 
both in its end and in its beginning, but is the same as 
hypate in its end. This having been added to the move 
ment of hypate itself, it would not be strange that the 
sound should seem to be entirely that of hypate ; and it 
will be louder than the combined sound of the other notes, 
because the latter, being as it were impelled by nete, 

35 give only a soft sound, whereas nete, being the most violent 
of notes, sounds with its full force ; and so naturally its 
second sound would be louder than that of the others, 
especially if only a slight movement has taken place in them. 7 

1 Cp. chapter 24. 

2 Reading u>s yap OUCTTJS a^rtuSJ}? ^T^y) vfaTrjs (W. D. R.). 

3 Reading eVet 8e Km rjx^ 3 uvTto&rj ris eVrt [a<pr) icrriv\ 0cov^?, KOI rrjs 
vedrrjs ^rj-yoixrrjs r)X s (W- D. R.). 

4 Reading /ai/cmu for Kivel with Vollgraff. 

5 Reading with Jan to-pev (on) ou. 

6 Cp. 92i a 23. 

7 Reading with Sylburg aXXtos re KOI /Spa^ei a? Kivrjcreoes avrals 

T. G. clearly renders aXXcay re Km. 

BOOK XIX. 43 922* 

43 Why do we listen 1 with greater pleasure to a solo sung Q22 a 
to a flute than to one sung to a lyre ? 2 Is it because 
anything becomes still more pleasant when mingled with 
what is more pleasant ? 3 Now the flute is more pleasant 
than the lyre, so that singing would be more pleasant when 

it mingles with the flute than with the lyre. Further, 4 that 
which is mingled is more pleasant than that which is un- 
mingled, if there is a simultaneous perception of both the 5 
elements. For wine is pleasanter than oxymel \ 5 because 
natural mixtures are more thoroughly mingled than those 
which we make ourselves. For there is also wine which is 
mingled of bitter and sweet savours, as is shown by the 
so-called vinous pomegranates. Singing, then, and the 
flute mingle w T ith one another owing to their similarity, 10 
for they are both produced by breath. But the sound of 
the lyre, since it is not produced by breath (which is what 
makes the sound of the flute less noticeable), 6 mingles less 
well with the voice and, causing a contrast in the percep 
tion, has a less sweetening effect, as has been said of savours. 
Furthermore, the flute by its own sound and by its likeness 
to the voice covers up many of the mistakes of the singer; 15 
but the sounds of the lyre, which are isolated and mingle 
less well with the voice, since they are themselves observed, 
and exist, on their own account, 7 show up the mistakes of 
the singing as well, providing as it were a standard for 
criticizing it. And when there are many mistakes in the 
singing, the combined effect of the singing and the accom- 20 
paniment must necessarily be worse. 

44 Why is mese* ( the middle note ) so called, though 
there is no middle of eight notes ? <J Is it because in the 

1 Reading with X a novwftias aKovo^v eav /crX. 

2 The sense of the solution requires rj (e ai> rrpos) \vpuv. This is not 
the same problem as that of chapter 9, although in the MSS. the 
questions are identical. 

3 Reading TTO.V ro> ydiovi fj.i%6ev fjdiov en eVnV. 

4 Putting a full-stop after efy and reading with Bojesen en for eVei. 

5 An artificial drink made of honey and vinegar. 

6 So that it mingles better with the voice. Reading ?J (Egger for ?}) 
rJTTOv ai(rOr)Tui> 6 T&>V avX&v. 7 Reading avrot (W. D. R.) for avTOis. 

8 Omitting TWV p.i> OKTU> : the MSS. have TWV /xeV eVra, which gives 
just the wrong sense and is due to a false gloss. 

9 This problem is a longer version of chapter 25. 

P 2 


old days the scales had seven notes, 1 and seven has a 
middle ? Again, since of the points which fall between 
two extremes the middle alone forms a kind of starting- 
35 point, 2 that which lies between the points which verge 
towards either end in an extended space, being also a 
starting-point 3 that will be the true middle. And since 
nete and hypate are the extremes of the scale 4 and the 
other sounds lie between them, of which the one which is 
called mese alone is the beginning of the second tetra- 
chord, 5 the name mese (* middle note ) is amply justified ; 
for of the points lying between certain extremities, as has 
been shown, the middle alone forms a beginning. 

30 Why does a large chorus keep the rhythm better than a 45 
small one ? 6 Is it because they look more to one man, 
their leader, and dance 7 more slowly, and so more easily 
achieve unity ? For mistakes occur more frequently in 

35 quick singing. Now a large chorus attends to its leader, 
and no one by differing from the rest would render himself 
conspicuous by making himself heard above the rest : in a 
small chorus, on the other hand, individuals can make 
themselves more conspicuous ; they, therefore, vie with 
one another instead of looking to their leader. 

Why do most men sing high when they sing out of 46 
Q22 b tune ? 8 Is it because it is easier to sing a high note than a 
low note ? They have at all events a tendency to sing 
high and so make mistakes in what they sing. 

Why did the ancients, when they made the scales consist 47 
of seven strings, leave in hypate but not nete ? 9 Or should 
5 we say that they omitted not nete but what is now called 
paramese and the interval of a tone? 10 They treated 

1 See note on 918* 14. * Cp. Phys. 262*25. 

5 Reading en eVeidq . . . a/J^r} ri j eWtv, [eoTivJ {TO) rwv <(eVi) ddrepov 
. . . 6ta(TT?7fiari (MSS.) ava nevov, ov dp^jy, TOUT eVrcu pzcrov (W. D. R.). 
Very possibly, however, eo-Tii/ . . . apxh is a gloss. 

4 Reading ^v for /ueVoy with Usener. 

5 i. e. in the old scale of seven notes. 

6 This is a longer version of the problem of chapter 22. 

7 Reading opxovvrai as suggested by E. Graf in 919*38. 

8 Cp. above, chapter 26. 

9 Cp. above, chapter 7 and the note on 918* 14. 
10 i. e. the disjunctive. 

BOOK XIX. 47 922 

then, as the lower note of the upper pycnon ; 2 
whence came the name mese, because 3 it was the end of 
the upper tetrachord and the beginning of the lower, and 
was in pitch in an intermediate relation between the 
extreme notes. 

48 Why do the choruses in tragedy not sing either in the 10 
Hypodorian or in the Hypophrygian mode ? Is it because 
these modes have very little of the kind of tune 4 which is 
specially necessary to a chorus ? Now the Hypophrygian 
mode has a character of action (hence in the Geryone 5 the 
march-forth and arming are composed in this mode) ; and 
the Hypodorian is magnificent and steadfast, and so is the 15 
most suitable of all the modes to accompaniment by the 
lyre. Now both these are unsuited to the chorus and more 
proper for the characters on the stage ; for the latter 
imitate heroes, and among the ancients the leaders alone 
were heroes, and the people, of whom the chorus consists, 
were mere men. So a woeful and quiet character and type 20 
of music are suited to the chorus, for they are more human. 
These characteristics belong to the other modes, but least 
to the Phrygian among them for it is exciting and orgi 
astic and most to the Mixolydian. 7 In accordance with this 
mode, then, we adopt a passive attitude, and the weak are 
more passive than the strong ; and so this mode is appro 
priate to choruses. When we use the Hypodorian and 
Hypophrygian modes, on the other hand, we are active, 25 
and action is not fitting for choruses ; for the chorus is in 

1 Reading with Jan fj-ea-rj rfj eV^nr*/. 

2 Pycnon is a term used for the range covered by the three lower 
notes of the tetrachord when that range is less than that which is 
included between the two upper notes ; cp. Aristoxenus, i. 24. 

3 Reading with Bojesen Trpotnjyopevo-ai/ [/;], on and putting a full-stop 
at the end of the sentence. 

4 Reading on (TO) ^eXo?. 

5 A tragedy attributed to Nicomachus (Nauck 2 , p. 762). 

c The MSS. here read viro^>pvyurrl t which cannot stand here, since 
the Hypophrygian mode has already been shown to have the character 
of action (TrpuKTiKos), which Aristotle in the Politics (i34i b 34) con 
trasts with fvdova-KHTTiKos. The Phrygian mode is characterized in 
the Politics (i342 b 3) as opyiavriKos and is therefore appropriate here. 

7 Inserting with Bojesen /^uXio-ra Se r) jui^oXurWri from T.G* The 
Mixolydian mode was mournful (Pol. 1340* 42 ff.) and is therefore 
appropriate here. 


attendance and takes no active part, for it simply shows 
goodwill towards those with whom it is present. 

Why is it that of the sounds which form a consonance 49 
the lower is more suited to melody ? l Is it because 
30 melody is in its own nature soft and tranquil, but becomes 
harsh and full of movement by the admixture of rhythm ? 
Now since the low note is soft and tranquil, and the high 
note full of movement, of the notes which maintain the 
same melody the lower would rather be more melodious 2 in 
the same melody ; for melody in itself, 3 as has been shown, 
is soft. 

35 Why is it that the sounds produced from two jars of the 50 
same size and quality, one empty and the other half- full, 
give an accord in the octave ? Is it because the sound 4 
produced from the half-full jar is double 5 that produced 
from the empty jar ? This surely is just what happens in 
the pipes. For the quicker the movement, the higher 
Q23 a seems the note, and in larger spaces the air collects more 
slowly, and in double the space in double the time, and 
proportionately in the other spaces. A wine-skin too 
which is double the size of another, gives an accord in the 
octave with one which is half its size. 

1 Reading with Bojesen /neAiKo>repoi< ; cp. 9i8 a 37. The meaning 
seems to be that where there is an independent accompaniment, it 
should be above, not below, the singing voice. This appears to have 
been the Greek practice. 

2 Reading /zeXtKobrepos 1 ; see last note. 3 Reading avro with C a . 

4 Omitting <ai after yivcrat with Bojesen. 

5 diir\a<ria here means twice as rapid . 




1 WHY is it that celery can endure salt water, but the leek 
cannot ? Is it because the roots of the latter are weak, but 
those of the former are strong, and that which is stronger 
is less liable to be affected ? 

2 What is the reason of the saying : 

Mint should neither be eaten nor planted in season 

of warfare ? l 

Is it because mint has a cooling effect upon the body, as is :o 
shown by the corruption which it causes in the semen ? 
This is opposed to courage and spirit, being the same in 

3 Why is it that some plants, though they have blossom, 
have no fruit, such as the cucumber and the pumpkin and 
the pomegranate ? Or have they fruit, the blossom being 
the fruit ? For example the part which blossoms is a fruit- J 5 
case, and the cucumber is a fruit-case. 

4 Why is it that some plants are edible only after they 
have been boiled, while others can be eaten raw ? Do the 
juices of such plants as are not at first edible become 
sweeter when the plants have been warmed by heat, whilst 
in others the juices are originally sweet, and these can be 20 
eaten raw ? 

5 Why is it that some plants are boiled, others roasted ? 
Is it because the moister plants do not require so much 
moistening, 2 while the drier plants must not be further 
dried ? Now anything which is boiled becomes moister 

1 See Leutsch, Paroemiogr. ii. 530. 

2 Reading ov TOO-OITOV {uyp(ivOij^<n}. The Latin version of T. G. 
renders an quod humidiora non eatenus humectari . . . oportet . 


and softer, and that which is less moist becomes dry if 
exposed to the fire. 

25 Why are some plants edible and others inedible ? Is it 6 
owing to their juices ? For plants which in their raw state 
have unconcocted juices and, when heated, do not undergo 
change, are inedible. Now those of which the juice is 
edible but somewhat strong are used as condiments ; for 
plants which have a strong savour in a small compass serve 
toflavour those of which the savour is distributed over a 
large bulk. 

30 Why is it that some plants live only until they have 7 
produced seeds and having borne seeds dry up grass, for 
instance, and the so-called herbs while others do not, but 
bear seeds time after time ? And of those which live only 
until they have produced seed why are the majority annuals, 
while horse- parsley produces its fruit in the second year and 

35 having done so dries up ? Is it because all things flourish 
until their seed l reaches its prime (for man too continues 
to grow until the age of thirty, sometimes in height 2 and 
sometimes in bulk), but when they can no longer produce 
seed, as in the case of man, they begin to dry up and grow 
old in some cases slowly and in proportion? 3 The reason 
why some forms of life are long-lived and others short 
lived is to be the subject of another treatise. 4 But since 
the perfection of the seed is the limit in all cases, it neces- 

5 sarily follows that the short-lived bear fruit only once or 
only a few times, and the long-lived many times ; so that 
the weakest bear 5 only once and so necessarily dry up; 
and those of them which can bear seed in a year are 
annuals, whilst others, like horse-parsley, do so in the second 
year, both plants and trees alike. 

1 Reading KCU for Kara (Platt). Some MSS. read Ka\ Kara. 

2 Reading /^/cei (Bonitz) for TrXq&t. 

3 i. e. in proportion to their length of life. 

4 Apparently a direct reference to de Longit. etBrev. Vitae 464^ 19 ff. 

5 Reading eveyKelv (Bonitz) for cvcyicoi. 

6 The Latin version here translates a longer text : alia postero ut 
equapium. Ouae vero praevalida surgunt, haec annis plusculis post 
fructificare incipiunt, diuque vitam agere possunt, fructificareque 
saepius, ut arbores . This gives a much fuller sense and the Greek 

BOOK XX. 8 923 b 

8 Why is it that if one digs down to the roots of celery 10 
and surrounds them with barley-husks, and puts earth over 
these and then waters the plants, the roots become very 
large? 1 Is it because the barley-husks, being hot and 
spongy, hold the nourishment in a mass so that it does 
not rise upwards, but, being hot, causes concoction, and so 
considerable growth takes place ? i 5 

9 Why is it that if one buries gourds or pumpkins in the 
ground when they are still small, they become large ? 2 
Is it because the w r ind and the sun dry everything up and 
prevent growth, and make everything smaller in bulk 
but closer in texture ? (As can be seen in the difference 
between trees growing in windy and sunny :>J localities and 20 
those in hollow and moist places, the latter being large and 
spongy in texture, the former small and dense.) Now 
the burying of things in the earth is the contrary of 
this and produces a contrary result. (A similar difference 
occurs in fruits placed in vessels; if pumpkins are placed in 
hollow fennel-stalks or boxes, and pomegranates or apples 25 
in earthenware jars, the apples become large and spongy, 4 
but the pumpkins become small and hard because they 
grow against a resisting surface.) The reason then is that 
the nutriment is increased, because it is not dispersed by 
the wind or dried up ; for the covering of earth prevents it 
from being thus affected. 

10 Why are the seeds of pungent plants more pungent than 30 
the roots and the leaves ? Is it because everything is derived 

text as we have it probably has a lacuna between T&> vvrepa) erei and 
owTTrep ra devdpa. 

1 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, de Cans. Plant, v. 6, 3. 

2 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit. v. 6, 4. 

8 Reading etXcoSeo-i for e\(a8nv ; Theophrastus has eveiXois. 
4 The text here is unsatisfactory and perhaps beyond emendation. 
For the above translation the following text has been read : TO. p.ev 

p.eydXa (TOjJifpa de, ol 8e fiiKpol arfppol de, avav6[JLVOl els avTirvnov. The 
omission of ^ before els avrirvnov may be justified since (i) the 
negative should be ov not p.i], and (2) ^ gives no sense. The phrase 
els (\VTLTVTTOV seems to imply a reference to the well-known practice in 
ancient and modern times of enclosing growing gourds in some narrow 
receptacle in order to shape them for use as receptacles for liquid 
(cp. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, vii. 3, 5). The contrast then is 
between gourds placed in a fennel-stalk or some other narrow receptacle 
and apples stored in a large earthenware vessel. 


from the seed and distributed to the other parts from it, as 
it were pre-existing 1 in it, as some contend, including 1 the 
juices and odours, since the odours always become distinc 
tive as soon as the seeds are formed ? If, therefore, the 
35 pungency in the rest of the plant is derived from the seed, 
it is only natural that it should be present in the greatest 
degree in the seed. 1 

Why are thin radishes more pungent ? Is it because the II 
larger radishes are more concocted owing to the lapse of 
time ? 

924* Why is it that the caper-plant will not grow easily in 12 
tilled ground - for the experiment has often been made of 
transplanting the roots or sowing the seed (for in some 
places it is more profitable than roses) but grows best 
5 among the tombs because the ground is most untrodden ? 
As regards this and similar questions the principle must be 
accepted that all things do not come into being and grow 
from the same matter, but some things originally come 
into being and grow from the corruption of other things 
for instance lice and the hair on the body when its 
10 nutriment is corrupted and when the body is itself 3 in 
a state of deterioration. As therefore in the body cer 
tain products are engendered from the excrement of 
nutriment (which means that concoction is incomplete), 
and since, when nature cannot prevail over the excre 
ment, the commonest excretions are absorbed into the 
bladder and bowels, while from others living organisms 
1 5 are engendered 4 (and so these attain the greatest growth 
in old age and disease 5 ), so in the earth some products are 
engendered and grow from the concoction of nutriment, 
others from excretions and matter that is in a condition 
which is the opposite of concoction. Now tillage concocts 

1 Reading aurw (= rw arrrepfJLdTi) for atrd. 

2 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit. i. 3, 6 ; iii. 2, i. 

3 Reading atroO for da TO. Richards reads TOV for TO. 

4 This passage is directly referred to in Meteor, iii. 38 l b 9-1 3, where 
the question of the formation of living organisms in the body is said to 
be treated h rot? eVepotr, which Alexander Aphrodisiensis interprets as 
ev TOLS 7r/jO|3\jj/Lia(rt. 

6 Because then nature has the least power of resistance. 

BOOK XX. 12 924 

the nutriment and makes it productive, and from this the 
cultivated fruits are formed. The products, therefore, of 
this cultivation are called cultivated because they are bene 
fited by art, undergoing as it were a kind of training. 
Plants, on the other hand, which cannot be so benefited 20 
or are formed from an opposite condition, are wild and 
will not grow in a highly tilled soil. For tillage spoils 
them by trying to train them ; for they are engendered 
from corruption. It is to this class that the caper-plant 

13 Why is it that, when radishes are in their prime in the 
winter, if one cuts off the leaves and heaps earth round 25 
them and treads it in so as to keep out the \vater, they 
grow to an extraordinary size in the summer? 1 Is it 
because the heaping up of the earth round them secures 
them from becoming corrupted by preventing the water 
from rotting them, and the nutriment, which the plant 
used to send into the shoot, enters into the radish, so 30 
that it must either itself increase in size or send out lateral 
shoots and grow other roots, as do onions ? For onions, 

if they are not pulled up each year but are left in the 
ground during the winter, become multiplied. Now onions 
are among the plants which send out shoots laterally ; but 
the radish does not do so, and must therefore increase in 
bulk, because it absorbs all the nutriment. 35 

14 Why is it that if one plants pumpkins or gourds near a well 
and, when they are ripe, lets them clown into the well and 
covers them over, they remain green for a whole year ? 2 Is 
it because the vapour from the water cools them and prevents 
them from drying up and keeps them in good condition, 
and the covering of them up fosters the breath which has 
formed in them ? Their conservation is due to the fact that 
they still receive nutriment, because their roots are left undis 
turbed ; for even if one removes the shoots, when they have 
borne fruit, and after cutting them away heaps earth round 
the roots and treads it down, the plant will produce early 5 

1 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, tie Cans. Plant, v. 6, 2-3. 

2 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit. v. 6, 5-6. 


pumpkins, because the roots can survive; for the pumpkin- 
plant 1 is not a biennial. Plants treated in this way 2 will 
bear fruit more quickly than seedlings, because the root, 
the most important part of their organism, is already 
present in their growth, whereas in seedlings the roots 
must grow first. Furthermore, 3 the heaping of earth round 
10 the root engenders warmth, so that it is preserved and 
sends up a shoot more quickly. So too if one sows gourd- 
seeds during the winter in small wicker baskets and waters 
them with hot water and carries them out into the sun and 
places them by the fire, very early gourds will be produced 
if one plants them out in the ground, as they are, in the 
baskets, when the proper season arrives. 

15 Why are plants watered at dawn or at night or in the 15 
evening? Is it in order that the sun may not consume the 
water ? Or is it because, when the water is warm, it corrupts 
the plants which are watered with it ? 

Why is it that sweet-smelling seeds and plants promote 16 
the flow of urine ? 4 Is it because they contain heat and 
are easily concocted, and such things have this effect ? For 

20 the heat which is in them causes quick digestion, and their 
odour has no corporeal existence ; for evil-smelling plants, 
such as garlic, owing to their heat, promote the flow of 
urine, but their wasting effect is a more marked character 
istic. But sweet-smelling seeds contain heat, because odour 
is entirely engendered by the presence of some heat ; but 
evil-smelling things are unconcocted. Now anything which 

25 is to promote the flow of urine must be not only hot but 
also easily concocted, so that it may accompany the liquids 
in their downward course and effect their digestion. 

Why is it that vegetables which are produced from older iy 
seeds (for example, two or three years old) produce more 

1 Reading ea-ri with C a . 2 Reading OVTOL for avroi 

3 f v 77 is clearly corrupt, as it has no antecedent. It is clear, how 
ever, that the right reading is en de r/ Trepiam^is a\eav Troiei, oWe 
au&adai KOI darrov avievat fiXaarov, Cp. TheophraStUS, /. C., eri de f] 
7Tpiaais a\tav irape^ovora Barrov avievai TTOKI (BXaorTOv. 

4 This problem occurs also at xii. 12, and is partly identical with 
i. 48. * Cp. 865 a 2i and note. 

BOOK XX. 17 924 

stalk than those grown from fresh seeds ? l Is it because, 
just as in animals that which is at its prime produces 3 
semen most readily, so too very old seeds lose their vigour 
by evaporation, and those which are produced from fresh 
seeds are too weak because they still contain excrement 
which is alien to them, but those which are of moderate age 
are strongest, because the moisture has left them, and so 
they produce seed more readily ? And the production of 
seed is the same process as the production of stalk, since 
the seed comes from the stalk. 

18 Why does rue grow best and most abundantly if it is 35 
grafted on to a fig-tree ? 2 Now it is grafted inside the bark 
and plastered with clay. Is it because the roots of the rue 
require heat and warmth (and this is why they are benefited 
by being surrounded with ashes), and the fig-tree contains 
heat ? That this is so is shown by the fact that its sap is 925* 
the most pungent of all and by the amount of smoke which 

it produces when burnt/ 5 It therefore possesses the same 
kind of heat and moisture as ashes, so that if ashes benefit 
rue, it must necessarily flourish greatly when grafted on 
the fig-tree, since, whereas ashes give off no fluid, the 
flow of liquid from the fig-tree is continuous, its moisture 
being never exhausted. 5 

19 Why do some plants always produce empty stalks ? 
Are they among those plants which have to produce some 
thing other than stalk ? 4 

20 Why is it that in Attica, while all other fruits are very 
sweet, thyme is very bitter, yet thyme is a kind of fruit ? 

Is it because the soil there is thin and dry/ so that the 10 
plants which grow there do not contain much moisture ? 

1 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit. iv. 3, 5-6. 

2 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit. v. 6, 10. 

3 Cp. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, v. 9, 5. 

4 The Latin version of T. G. apparently translates a different text 
here, since it renders : l an illis quarum natura imbecillior est, has 
rarum inanemque emittere caulem necesse est ? 

5 There is clearly a lacuna here. The margin of X a notes iarws AeiVet 
TI on aypos fKflvos Xe-rrros re KGU f?pos eVri. The Latin version of T. G. 
also translates this reading, and it has been adopted in the above 


In plants, then, which are naturally sweet, owing to the 
moderate quantity of moisture which they contain, when 
the sun has absorbed the greater part of it the remainder is 
easily concocted ; for it is difficult for a large amount, but 
easy for a moderate amount, to be ripened. Fruits, there - 
15 fore, which are naturally sweet become more so; but in 
those which are naturally dry and not sweet, the natural 
moisture fails, because it is scanty, and is very far from 
being sweet. For the sun absorbs the sweetest and lightest 
part of it ; and these fruits have no superfluous moisture, 
as have other fruits. 

Why do pennyroyal and narcissi and onions bloom if 21 
20 hung up at the time of the summer solstice ? Is it because 
there is unconcocted nutriment in them, which l in winter 
does not become concocted owing to the cold, but at the 
summer solstice owing to the season becomes concocted, 
and so the growth takes place ? This growth, however, 
because there is no influx of moisture, quickly dies down ; 
for if they have not some source of nutriment or influx of 
25 moisture, they dry up. A similar phenomenon occurs in 
Scythia, where, owing to the presence of abundant snow, 
the corn remains a long time in the earth and then suddenly 
shoots up. 

Why does the onion alone make the eyes smart to such 22 
an excessive degree (hence it is said to derive its name 
because it makes one cover up the pupil), 2 whereas marjoram 
and other pungent plants do not have this effect ? For the 

30 nasturtium, though it is more stinging, does not cause 
tears to the same extent if placed near the eyes, whereas 
the onion has this effect both when so placed and when 
eaten. Is it because many differences attach to each of the 
pungent plants, which give each its peculiar property ? 
The nasturtium then, because it is hotter, is so dry that it 

35 prevails over the liquefaction which it causes ; for it causes 
tears when it is eaten, but it does not cause tears when 

1 Reading f/ for f) in 1. 21. 

2 i. e. Kpo/jifjivov is popularly derived from Koprj, the pupil, and 
to close. 

BOOK XX. 22 925 a 

placed near the eyes, because it does not give off any thin 
vapour, being- too dry and hot to do so. But marjoram 
and such warm plants are dry, though only slightly so ; and 9 2 5 b 
that which is to cause tears must be stinging and moist and 
viscous. This is why olive oil causes tears, though its sting 
is weak ; for it penetrates owing to its viscosity and tenuity 
and causes pain, and the pain causes melting. Now the 5 
onion has such properties that its moisture and the vapour 
which it gives off are hot and tenuous and viscous ; and so, 
when it is placed near the eye, it causes tears, because the 
vapour which it gives off is of such a character and carries 
with it a thin moisture ; and, when it is eaten, the exhalation 
penetrates and produces the same effect. 1 Garlic, on the 10 
other hand, is hot and pungent and contains moisture, but is 
not viscous ; and so does not cause tears. 

23 Why is it that myrtle- berries which have been compressed 
in the hand seem to us sweeter than those which have not 
been so compressed? Is it for the same reason as makes 15 
dried grapes sweeter than fresh clusters and undried grapes ? 
For dried grapes are, it appears, flavoured -by the juice, 
which is naturally sweet (for they are even externally satu 
rated by it), but the grapes which are still in the cluster 
are not so flavoured. So too myrtle-berries, which are 
naturally sweet and have their sweetness within, like grapes 20 
when they are compressed, become saturated by the 
sweetness which is within them and are clearly sweeter 

24 Why is it that, the smaller myrtle-berries are, the more 
they tend to have no stones, and the same is true also of 
dates and clusters of grapes, in which 2 the small grapes 
have no stones at all or only smaller stones ? Is it because, 25 
being less perfect, they have less distinctly formed stones ? 
For the purpose of the stone is to contain the seed. Now 
the berries are smaller, because they are mere offshoots and 
imperfect, and they are less sweet than those which have 

1 There is clearly a lacuna here. Sylb. supplies ravro 
from T. G. 

2 Omitting fi*. 


proper stones ; for they are less concocted, and concoction 
is a process which produces perfection. 

30 Why is it that in some fruits the parts which are near the 25 
root are more bitter (for example in the cucumber), but in 
others the parts towards the upper extremity (for example in 
acorns) ? Is it because in the former the nutriment in that 
part is unconcocted, because there is a continual influx 
along the root ; while the latter are naturally dry, and so, 
when the sweetness is drawn off from the extremity and 

35 has become concocted, they are henceforward dry and the 
bitterness is left behind like salt ? Now as anything becomes 
dry, it becomes more bitter, just as olives and acorns 
become bitter as they grow old. 

g26 a Why do some plants sprout when they are not in the 26 
earth, but either cut off or placed in store, lily-stalks, for 
example, and garlic and onions ? l Is it because they all 
have nutriment within themselves and not in any definite 
place outside the plant ? 2 [It is therefore their superabun- 
5 dance of nutriment which makes them sprout, as is clear 
from the fact that squills and purse-tassels do the same.] 
Now each of them grows not merely because it contains 
nutriment, but only when that nutriment is concocted and 
distributed ; it therefore contains nutriment before, but it 
only grows when the season comes at which this process 
takes place owing to the concoction caused by the season, 3 
as happens also to crocodiles eggs. The growth, however, 
10 is not continuous, -because there is no influx of more 

Why is it that garlic and onions grow better according 27 
as they are drier when planted, whilst other plants grow 
worse under such conditions? Is it because all plants of 
this kind are exceedingly full of moisture ? If, then, they 
are planted in this condition, they enjoy equable conditions. 

1 See below, chapter 28. 

2 ovdev ff)vrov is obviously corrupt. For the above translation ega>0v 
TOV (pvrov has been read. The two following sentences 77 TTfpiovcria . . . 
TTOLovatv, which occur again in chapter 28, are omitted by the best MSS. 

3 Reading Trerrouo-^s 1 (r^s) &pas. 

BOOK XX. 27 9 26 a 

A further reason is that they are less likely to rot if they 
are dried before being planted. 15 

28 Why is it that garlic and onions alone among plants 
sprout when they are stored away ? l Is it because they 
are full of moisture and nutriment ? It is abundance of 
nutriment, then, which makes them sprout, as is clear 
from the fact that squills and purse-tassels do the same. 
But they grow only when the proper season for each of 20 
them comes. 

29 Why is it that plants which are watered with cold water 
are sweeter than those watered with warm water ? Is it 
because the warm water when it becomes enclosed in the 
plant is saltier (just as that which is saltier is hotter, and 
that which is sweet is the opposite, that is, in a sense, cold) ? 
Now the nutriment of vegetables is liquid, and it is this 25 
which gives them their juices. 

30 Why is it that garlic has a stronger odour when it has 
run to stalk than when it is young ? Is it because, when it 
is young, there is still a large quantity of alien moisture in 
it which deprives it of its strength ? When, however, the 
plant has ripened, the alien moisture having been already 
excreted, it then has its own proper odour ; and this is 30 
naturally pungent. 2 Similarly, all other fruits when they 
are young are more watery. This is the reason why young 
onions are less pungent. 

31 Why is it that, if myrtle-branches are not embalmed, 3 the 
berries rather than the leaves drop off, whereas, if they are 
embalmed with seaweed, the leaves drop off but the berries 35 
do not ? Is it what naturally happens if the branches are 
not embalmed, for the berries naturally drop off when they 
become ripe ? This does not occur when the branches are 
stored away, but the moisture in the seaweed only prevents 
the moisture in the berries from undergoing change. The 
leaves, on the other hand, drop off as the branches become Q26 b 
dry, and the seaweed, which is salty, has a drying effect 

1 Cp. above, chapter 26. 

2 dpifjLela is omitted by a misprint after (frvcrci in Bekker s text. 

3 Apparently for use as chaplets. 

645-25 Q 


upon them. The leaves thus undergo different processes 
when they remain on the tree and when they are stored 

Why do melons l grow best in marshy plains which are 32 
5 humid, for example, round Orchomenus and in Egypt, 
which appears to be a well- watered country? Now 
marshy districts are full of water and melons themselves are 
somewhat moist ; and this is why those grown in gardens 
are poor. Is it because they have to be planted deep 

10 owing to the hardness of the ground? For clayey, flat 
ground becomes very hard, and plants grow best which are 
deeply planted. Or is it because the ground must be dry, 
because the plant itself is naturally moist ? For thus being 
pulled in opposite directions it will attain the mean. Now 
ground which is somewhat marshy but deep contains 
nutriment owing to the depth of the soil and the locality, 

15 but not in an excessive quantity, because the ground dries 
up again. 

Why is it that rue and certain unguents give the per- 33 
spiration an evil odour ? 2 Is it because things which have 
a heavy and pungent odour, mixing with the excretory 
fluids, make the odour of these still more unpleasant ? 

20 Why is rue said to be a remedy against the evil eye ? 3 34 
Is it because men think they are victims of the evil eye 
when they eat greedily or when they expect some enmity 
and are suspicious of the food set before them ? For 
instance, when they take anything for themselves from the 
same course, they offer some one else a portion, adding the 

25 words, so that you may not cast the evil eye upon me . 
All therefore will take with alarm of what is offered them, 
whether liquid or solid, of those foods, the constriction or 
vomiting forth of which causes the solids to be carried up 
wards and ejected or the flatulence from the liquid to give 

1 Reading 01 O-LKVOI (of) ne^ovcs (Richards). 

2 Repeated from ii. 13, where see note on 867 b 9. 

3 The belief in the evil eye was evidently as widespread in the 
Mediterranean lands in ancient times as it is to-day ; see Otto Jahn, 
Berichte d. Sdchsischen Gesellschaft, 1855, pp. 28 ff., and A. Michaelis, 

J.H.S., 1885, P . 312. 

BOOK XX. 34 9 26 b 

rise to pain and writhing". Rue, therefore, being eaten 
beforehand, since it is naturally warming*, rarefies the organ 
which receives the food and the whole body, with the result 30 
that it drives out l the flatulence 2 enclosed within it. 

35 Why is it that marjoram, being thrown into the must, 
makes the wine sweet, and two cupfuls are thrown into 
a jar of wine ? Is it because it takes away the elements 
which cause harshness by absorbing into itself by its dryness 35 
the watery and sedimentary parts ? That it is these which 
cause harshness is shown by the fact that wines are less soft 

if water is added or if they have been allowed to stand 
a long time on the lees. Also when they make raisin 
wine, 3 they expose the grapes for a long time to the sun, 
which draws out the watery element and concocts the 927* 
remainder. Now marjoram produces the same result, for 
it is dry and hot, and so naturally has a lasting effect. 

36 Why do black myrtle -trees have thicker foliage than 
white ? Is it because they are a wilder species ? That they 
are so is proved by the fact that they grow in the untilled 5 
ground 4 and undergo very little modification as a result of 
cultivation. Now wild plants invariably have denser foliage ; 
for, because their fruit is less concocted, the nutriment is 
diverted into the foliage. 

1 Reading c-gudtlv: all MSS. read cguBsv. 

2 The Teubner text misprints rrvevpn as ircvpa. 

3 Reading y\v<vv (sc. olvov) for y\vKv t see Bonitz, Index, I57 a 17. 

4 Reading apyols (Bussemaker) for dypols. 



WHY is it that barley-gruel and wheaten-flour become i 
whiter if oil is poured on to them, though oil is reddish in 
colour ? Is it because oil naturally foams w r hen it is mixed 
with liquid, and foaming causes whiteness ? Now mixing is 
carried out by pounding and motion, and is most complete 
15 in the case of corporeal substances. This process occurs in 
foods which are boiled, and so makes them whiter. 

Why is it that foods made from wheat suit our bodies 2 
best and are more nourishing than those made from barley ? l 
Is it because wheat contains a moderate amount of stickiness, 
and food ought to have this quality, since it ought to cling 
20 and adhere to the body, and its stickiness causes it to do 
so ? But barley 2 is less cohesive, and so cakes in which 
the barley is well kneaded are more nourishing than those 
in which it is not kneaded. 

Why is it that of wheaten-flour that which is ground first 3 
is whiter, but of barley-meal that which is ground last ? 3 
Is it because barley, being dry, breaks into pieces, whereas 
25 wheat is soft and crushes ? Now in both it is the inner part 
which is whitest. 

Why do loaves appear whiter when they are cold than 4 
when they are hot ? Is it somehow for the same reason 
that stale oil is whiter than fresh ? For the cause of the 
30 blackness is the water which in both cases is present in 

1 Cp. Hippocr., de Diaeta, ii. 40. 

2 Reading dXXa (17 Kpidrf) -^advp^repov. y\ia-\pos and tyadvpos are 
regularly contrasted (cp. 11. b 7 ff.), hence it is impossible for \/m#t;pco- 
repov to refer to f] CK TOV rrvpov rpofprj, which has already been stated to 
be yXicrxpov. The Latin version of T. G. renders hordeum vero 
rigidius est, and evidently read f] Kpdr], though ^advpcarepov is 
incorrectly translated. 

3 A longer version of this problem occurs in chapter 7. 

BOOK XXI. 4 927 

larger quantities when they are fresh ; but after a time, 
owing 1 to evaporation, the water remaining near the surface 
becomes less. Now it is either the passage of time or the 
heat of the sun which causes evaporation from the oil ; and 
from loaves the heat goes forth as they cool and has entirely 
departed when they are cold, whereas it is still present when 
they are warm. 

5 Why do loaves which contain no salt weigh heavier than 35 
those which are salted, the other ingredients being exactly 
the same ? The contrary would be expected, since salt is 
added, and salt is heavier than water. Is it because the 
salt causes drying to take place ? This is why things 
which are preserved with salt remain uncorrupted ; for the 
moisture in them is taken up and dried up by the salt, and 

it is the moisture in things that is corrupted by heat. 
So too in bread the moisture is taken up by the salt and 
evaporates outside. Stale bread therefore is lighter than 
hot bread, since it is colder. Now in loaves which do not 
contain salt this moisture is present in greater quantities 5 
and makes them heavier. 

6 Why is it that loaves which have become cold, if they are 
moistened and placed in contact with one another, do not 
cohere, whereas hot loaves do so ? Is it because the cold 
loaves give off with the vapour the sticky moisture which 
is in them, and, because this has gone forth, do not cohere 
(for the water with which they were wetted is too un- I 
cohesive) ; but the hot loaves contain a certain amount of 
stickiness, and so, when they are moistened and the vapour 
comes forth, the heat, owing to its rarity, is given off, but 
the sticky matter, which comes out with it and mingles with 
the moisture, causes the loaves to adhere together ? l 

7 Why is it that of wheaten-flour that which is ground first 2 T 
is whiter, but of barley-meal that which is ground last ? Is 
it because barley, being dry, breaks into pieces, and this 
happens most when it is ground for a very long time, but 

1 Reading Tj-poo-e xeo-tfm eavrois (so too Bussemaker). 

2 Reading ra Trpami for ra aX^tra, cp. chapter 3 ( a 23) which is a 
shorter version of the same problem. 


the flour which is inside the wheat is soft and fine and is 
20 crushed out at first ? Now in both cases it is the inner part 
which is whitest. 

Why is it that barley-cake becomes more indigestible the 8 
more it is kneaded, whereas wheaten-bread becomes easier 
to digest ? Is it because dough becomes less by being much 
kneaded (and this is the nature of that which is sticky), but 
the moisture has been expelled from every part of the loaf 

25 by the fire, so that, when the moisture has been entirely 
expelled, the loaf becomes more uncohesive the more it is 
kneaded, because in the kneading it is divided up into 
smaller particles ? Now that which is uncohesive is more 
easily concocted. Barley-cake, on the other hand, the more 
it is kneaded becomes more sticky, as the liquid mingles in 
it ; and that which is sticky is not easily divided up, and 

30 such foods are not easily concocted ; for that which is to be 
concocted must be split up into small parts. 

Why does barley-cake become less when it is kneaded, 9 
whereas dough becomes more ? Is it because barley- meal 
when moistened and kneaded unites owing to the binding 
quality of the moisture, because it is of even texture and 
35 granulated, but wheaten-flour rises, because it is very 
dense ? For that which is dense grows hot when kneaded 
and, when it is hot and inflated, it rises, as does the flesh. 

But why does dough increase more when it is heated than 10 
Q28 a barley-cake does ? l Is it because dough contains moisture 
which is not separated in such a way that it can escape 
when warmed, owing to the kneading? When therefore 
it is warmed, breath is engendered, and more breath is 
necessarily engendered from a greater amount of moisture. 

5 Why is it that although honey is more adhesive than n 
water, wheaten-flour is more uncohesive, when it is boiled 
or baked, if it is mixed with honey-water than with water ? 
Is it because water becomes stiff and solid under the influence 
of the heat, whereas the honey becomes solid but also has 

1 Cp. chapter 23. 

BOOK XXI. ii 928 

a drying effect, and so makes the food more uncohesive 
(for this quality is produced by dry ness) ? 10 

12 Why do twice-baked loaves, when they are cool, not 
become hard ? Is it because wheat has in it a certain sweet 
and sticky juice, which is as it were its soul ? This can 
be illustrated by the fact that when it is dried it becomes 
quite empty, but, when it is wetted, it expands. 1 This juice, 15 
therefore, being present also in wheaten-flour, especially in 
that of the purest quality, when the flour is made into dough 
and the dough is kneaded the same thing 2 happens, as is 
proved by the fact that when it is boiled it becomes more 
digestible. 3 When, therefore, the bread is baked for the 
first time, the thin and light part of the moisture 4 is 
evaporated from the bread, and the part of the flour which 20 
most resembles chaff is burnt out. But when the dough is 
taken out and kneaded again, the smoothest part of the 
flour and the 5 stickiest part of the moisture being left 
mingle more with one another, owing to the fact that they 
have become smoother and stickier, and owing to the effect 
of the heat ; for their mixing resembles the process of 25 
dyeing, so that the dough, when subsequently kneaded, is 
like boiled flour. For when this G dough is kneaded and 
the lightest flour and the stickiest moisture are left, the 
bread, when it has been exposed to the fire, becomes 
glutinous and does not dry up ; for that which is sticky 
cannot be separated, and that which is dense does not of 30 
itself give up any moisture. 7 Twice-baked bread then 
undergoes this same process for the reasons mentioned 
above, and, always containing moisture, does not become 

13 Why is it that we can go on partaking of some kinds 
both of solid and of liquid food for a long period for 

1 Reading cK^vaarai, since eKcpiWat does not offer any contrast to 



Reading ravro for avro. 

3 The point here is not clear, unless boiling, like kneading (cp. 
chapter 8), gets rid of TO -yXto-xpoV and causes tyaOvpoTrjs. 

4 Omitting 8e. 

5 Reading KOI (TO) TOU vypov. 6 Reading e/cctVov. 
7 Reading TrpoiVrm uypdV. TO.VTO ovv TOVTO Ka\ dirrvpos KT\. 


35 instance, food made from barley-meal and wheaten-flour, 
and dry wines, and water whereas we cannot partake 
continually of others, though they are pleasanter to the 
taste ? Is it because some of the foods which we take tend 
to float on the stomach and are highly nutritious, 1 so that 
when one has discharged them, 2 though their first nutri- 
Q28 b ment has been consumed, a considerable force still remains 
in the body, concocted for the first bodily process but 
unconcocted for its final purpose and for the succeeding 
process ? Now most of the pleasing foods belong to this 
class ; for the fatty and sweet and rich foods seem pleasantest 

5 to our taste, and these, however they differ from one another, 
are all foods which are nutritious, and not difficult of con 
coction, and apt to float on the stomach ; their force is 
therefore lasting, if one takes one s fill of them, and the 
perception of them does not quickly pass away ; 3 for the 
feeling of satiety does not only continue while they are in 
the stomach but also when their nutriment has been dis- 

io tributed to other parts of the body. Or is this not the 
only reason, and is there a further reason, namely, that 
some foods are naturally suited and akin to us ? For our 
bodies accept all such foods more readily because they are 
natural, while they accept less readily those which are 
unnatural. And different foods suit different tempera 
ments ; for example, honey is the natural food of bees, so 

15 that they take no other, though they are physically weak ; 
so that what they consume must be small in amount, but 
must be to their strength as what men eat is to theirs. And 
so any pleasing foods which are of this kind seem pleasing 
because they are present in small quantities in our nature, 

20 but they only appear so for a short time, and then soon 
cause a feeling of satiety. But we always need the natural 
foods, so that we feel less satiety from foods continually 
taken other than those which are most pleasing in themselves. 4 

1 Cp. de Sensu, 442* 10-12. 

2 *f i/co$axri is apparently an impersonal third person plural, which 
in this problem alternates with the first person plural. 

3 Reading eK.\nreli> (Bussemaker) for eK\nrrj, and placing a comma 


* <V avra ov T&V rjdia-Twv is apparently equivalent to ov T&V 81 


BOOK XXL 14 928* 

14 Why is it that the same things seem pleasant when we 
are becoming accustomed to them and not pleasant if we 
partake of them too continuously, though being accustomed 25 
to anything is doing it often and continuously ? Is it because 
custom engenders a receptive habit but does not bring 
satiety, whereas taking anything continuously fills up the 
desire, just as a vessel l is filled ; for desire is a kind of 
void ? 2 Now habits, when exercised, increase and grow, 
but vessels when they are filled full do not become any 
bigger. Hence custom, being an exercise, increases the 30 
receptive habit ; but that which is continuously taken fills 
up and satisfies the desire, and, when this is satisfied, we no 
longer receive any more, and nothing can increase the desire 
for the reasons already stated regarding the filling of vessels. 
Furthermore, custom is not pleasant through constantly 
giving pleasure (for such things too cause pain through 35 
continual practice), but because we enter upon the beginning 
of the process with pleasure and can continue doing the 
same thing longer than if we were unaccustomed to it. 
In the same way then as custom, which is pleasant, causes 
pain, so too do all other pleasant things ; for things which 
happen and foods which are taken continuously, both alike 
cause pain. The reason is that the powers of acceptance 929* 
and action which we possess in ourselves 3 are not unlimited 

but limited, and when they have reached their full capacity 
(and this is continually visible to an increasing extent) the 
receptive powers are satisfied, and the powers for action 
can no longer function. 5 

15 Why does dough become white when it is kneaded, while 
barley-cake becomes blacker? Is it because the surface of 
the barley-meal becomes drier, and it is the 4 heat in the 
moisture which causes the whiteness? Or is it because, 
through exposure to the heat, the surface of barley-meal 
attracts the moisture, since it consists of larger particles ? : 

1 Reading dyyelov for mnov (Bonitz). 

2 Reading KCVOV for xal (Bonitzj. 3 Reading avrols (Bonitz). 

4 Reading TO de ev vypa> Qeppov trout (Y a omits 6 before noiel). The 
Latin version of T. G. renders calor autem humori permistus can- 
dorem gignit . 


Why does barley-meal adhere better together when 16 
mixed with water than with oil, though oil is more viscous ? 
Yet that which is viscous is more binding, and oil is more 
viscous than water. Is it because water is thinner and so 
penetrates into everything and makes the barley-meal 
15 soft, and the grains adhere together better and are com 
pressed into one another, even though pressed together 
without any kneading ? 

Why does bread which is either not kneaded or very 17 
much kneaded break up ? Does the unkneaded bread do 
so because it is not sufficiently bound together ? Now it is 
the kneading that binds the bread ; so that unkneaded 
bread is already on the way to breaking up. Further, it 
20 contains much moisture not properly mixed in. T Bread 
which is very much kneaded is dry, because it has very 
little moisture ; for when it is heated, the moisture all 
escapes. So that in both cases the bread breaks up because 
much moisture goes forth ; for much moisture is actually 
present in the unkneaded bread, and in the over-kneaded 
bread much (escapes) 2 compared to what remains behind. 

25 Why is the admixture of barley-meal and liquid lighter 18 
than the two things together when unmixed ? Is it because, 
when they are mixed, air is enclosed in them ? Or is it 
because part of the water is evaporated by the heat in the 
barley-meal, and so the mixture becomes smaller in bulk? 
The air, however, if it were also mixed in, would not make 

30 the mixture any lighter ; for air enclosed in air possesses 

Why do milk and sweet wine appear sweeter it drunk 19 
with barley-meal? Do they appear sweeter in contrast 
with anything which is not sweet (for barley-meal is not 
sweet) ? Or is it because the barley-meal continues to hold 
35 sweetness, and so the perception of it is prolonged ? 

Why does the same potion seem less strong if it is drunk 20 
with barley-meal ? Is it because the barley unites what has 

1 Which therefore escapes when the baking takes place. 

2 The text as it stands contradicts diet TO o\lyoi> f^eii/ vypov (1. 21), 
and some such word as eet(ri appears to have dropped out. 

BOOK XXI. 20 929* 

one quality with what has another, or because the barley- 
meal interferes with the potion and destroys it, absorbing 
it into itself? 

21 Why does gruel take up more water than the wheat from 929 b 
which such gruel is made ? Is it because the gruel is a kind 
of flour, and flour takes up more water (for its bulk is 
greater than that of the wheat, for even the particles of the 
wheat are packed closely together) ? Now that which is 5 
more holds more both for this reason l and also because 
both flour and gruel contain heat, and heat both attracts 
the moisture more and expends it by evaporation. 

22 Why does wheaten-flour increase much more in propor 
tion than barley-meal when it is kneaded ? 2 Is it because 
flour admits a large quantity of water, but barley-meal only 

a little? (But why does it admit more, for barley- meal 10 
would naturally be expected to do so, because it has been 
exposed to heat, whereas the flour has not, and that which 
has been exposed to heat is drier ?) Or is it because flour 
admits of more kneading, the reason being that it is com 
posed of smaller particles ? As therefore it is potentially as 
it were more manifold by reason of the smallness of its 
parts, so much the more water does it take up. For it 15 
uses the water as a glue a metaphor employed by 
Empedocles in the Physics, when he says gluing barley 
with water and it consumes much water for this reason. 

23 Why does dough increase more when it has been heated 
than barley-cake does ? 4 Is it because it contains moisture 
which is not separated in such a way that it can escape 
when it is warmed, and this 5 moisture, becoming breath 20 
and not being able to escape (as it can in the barley-cake) 
owing to the density of the dough (for that which is made 
up of smaller particles is dense), makes the dough, therefore, 

1 Reading with Bonitz TrAcTou /cat (ia) TOVTO. 

2 Cp. chapter 9. 

5 Cp. Meteor. 382* I and Diels, Vorsokr? i, p. 239, 7, 

4 A longer version of chapter 10. 

5 Reading with Bonitz 6 nvevfj-a yevo^evov /ecu ov bvva^vov KT\. 


rise and causes the mass to be greater ? Furthermore, the 
moisture which it contains is more considerable, and it is 
from this, when it is heated, that the breath is engendered ; 
and from the greater amount of moisture more breath must 
25 necessarily be engendered. 

Why is it that, of persons engaged in the preparation of 24 
cereals, those who handle barley become pale and are subject 
to catarrh, while those who handle wheat are healthy ? l Is it 
because wheat is more easily concocted than barley, and 
therefore its emanations are also more easily concocted ? 

30 Why is it that bread, if one toasts it, becomes harder, 25 
whereas, if one warms it, it becomes moister up to a certain 
point ? Is it because, when it is toasted, the moisture goes 
out of it, and so it becomes harder, whereas, when it is 
warmed, the moisture having acquired consistency is 
liquefied again by the fire, and so the bread becomes 
moister ? 

35 Why does flour, as it cools, become less closely packed, 26 
but barley-meal more so ? Is it because things which are 
made up of small particles contain no vacant spaces, and 
heavy things, by the pressure which they exert, take up 
the same space whether they are more or less 2 numerically ? 
Barley- meal then is soft ; when it cools, therefore, it becomes 
less, so that the less is more compressed. 3 But wheaten- 
93<D a flour already consists of small particles, and so it does not 
cool in this way, 4 but in such a way as to become lighter 
and not so as to become more closely packed by com 
pression ; for wheaten-flour is naturally heavier than barley- 

1 This problem occurs again at xxxviii. 10; cp. also 863 a 35 ff. It 
is quoted as occurring in the QVO-IKU npo/SAiJ/uara of Aristotle by 
Apollonius, Hist. Mirab. 7. 

2 Reading ra TrXeuo ($) e Aorta). 

3 Reading a-u/zTrte Cerai nXcov. T. G. renders ut quod minus est . . . 
plus constipet in se . 

4 Reading 8ia TOVTOV. T. G. renders non ideo resiccatur . 



1 WHY is it that the volume of food necessary for repletion 
is not proportionate l in the same persons if they eat fruit 
at the beginning and at the end of a meal? Is it because 
fruit is much heavier than solid food ? This can be illus 
trated by the fact that figs, though eaten last, are vomited 10 
out last. If, therefore, they are eaten first, owing to their 
weight they sink downwards and leave ample space above, 
so that one can easily contain the volume of solid food. If, 
however, the converse takes place, the solid food when it 
enters in, because it does not sink downwards, quickly 
occupies the vacant upper space. 

2 Why is it that, although sweet foods are more akin to us 
than pungent, we are more quickly sated by the former? 2 15 
For the contrary might have been expected, since we might 
naturally be supposed to be less sated by foods which are 
akin to us. Is it because the organ whereby we receive 
nourishment 3 and the body, which is nourished, are not 
sated equally quickly, but sometimes the stomach is full, in 
those, for instance, who are thirsty, but the thirst is not less ? 
For we do not cease being thirsty because the stomach is 20 
full, but when each part of the body has drawn thence its 
own particular moisture ; and we cease being thirsty only 
when they have received this in sufficiency. The same 
thing also occurs when we are hungry. 

3 Why are we more quickly sated by sweet than by pungent 
foods ? 4 Is it because we cease desiring sweet things sooner ? 25 
Or, while it is not generally admitted 5 that we become 

1 Reading dvaXoyos with C a , AP, and according to Bekker Y a . 

2 Cp. chapter 3. 

3 Reading r/je$d/ie#a with Bonitz for 7rAvpou/ze#a. 

4 Cp. chapter 2. 

5 Putting a comma after y\vK.euv in 1. 27 ; it is obvious that the 
sentences introduced by /zeV and fie are parallel and that the general 
sense is the same as that of 11. 16-22 above. 


satiated as the stomach is filled by sweet foods, yet might it 
not be said that our desire is more quickly sated by them ? 
Or is it because desire is simply a want, which occurs when 

30 we no longer have any nutriment in us or very little ? 
Pungent foods then are not nourishing, but contain little 
nutriment and a considerable amount of excrement. We 
therefore naturally seek to eat them in large quantities, and 
yet do not satiate our desire with them, 1 because we still lack 
nutriment and they do not contain it. But all sweet foods 

35 are nutriment, and the body derives a large amount of nutri 
ment from a small quantity of them. When, therefore, it 
derives a large amount of nutriment, it can no longer eat, 
because it cannot tolerate more. We are therefore naturally 
more quickly satisfied by sweet foods. 

93O b Why is it that fruits and meat and the like remain 4 
uncorrupted if placed in skins, when these are tightly 
inflated, as also do substances placed in closely covered 
vessels ? 2 Is it because all things become corrupt through 
being in motion, and things which are full are without 
motion (for it is impossible for anything to be moved 
without there being a void), and these vessels are full ? 

5 Why does wine seem bitter when drunk after the eating 5 
of rotten fruits ? Is it because such rottenness contains 
bitterness ? That, then, which remains on the tongue, 
mingling with the draught and becoming diffused in it, 
makes the draught bitter. The fruit by itself, when eaten, 
10 seems less bitter, because juice of this kind takes effect at 
many different points and is divided up into small particles. 

Why should dried fruits be eaten ? Is it in order that we 6 
may drink sufficiently ? For we ought not only to drink to 
satisfy the thirst which is engendered by solid food, but also 
when the solid food is finished. 

J 5 Why do roasted nuts deteriorate when they become cool, 7 
and also bread and acorns and many such things, but 
improve when they are heated again ? Is it because, when 

1 Reading 

2 A shorter version of this problem occurs in xxv. 17. 

BOOK XXII. 7 9 3o b 

they become cold, the juice becomes hard, but, when they 
are warmed up, it becomes liquid again, and "it is the juice 
which is pleasing ? 

8 Why is it that, for the proper enjoyment of fruits such as 20 
figs and the like, one ought to drink with them either 
unmixed wine or water, which are the opposites of one 
another? Is it because fruit is both hot and moist owing 
to the manner of its growth ? For it contains much both 
of fire and of moisture ; and so, owing to the fire, the juice 
causes as it were a boiling within, such as must makes on 25 
the surface (though the others, the hard-shelled fruit, also 
have this force, but in a less degree), while the large 
quantity of moisture causes an unconcocted condition. 
Water then, owing to its coldness, extinguishes the boiling, 
as wine also usually does by its heat ; for it takes away its 
power, just as one fire extinguishes another if the latter be 3 
less. And wine by its heat is better able to concoct the 
moisture, and by its weight it prevails over the scum formed 
on the surface by the boiling. 

9 Why is it that those dried figs are sweetest which are slit 
twice, and not those which are slit either many times or not 
at all ? Is it because, if they are slit many times, most of 
the sweetness escapes and evaporates with the moisture, 35 
whereas in those which are entirely closed the watery 
element is considerable, because it has not been turned into 
vapour ? Those, however, which have been slit, but not 
many times, do not suffer from either of these dis 

IO Why is it that figs when they are dried l in an oven are 
harder if they are left to cool in the oven than if they are 
taken out to cool ? Is it because in the oven all the moisture 
is evaporated by the heat, whereas outside the surrounding 
air cools the moisture and prevents it from escaping and 
the moisture retains its consistency rather than evaporates ? 2 5 
Now what is dry is hard, and what is moist is soft. 

1 Reading with Sylburg ^r/paird/uejxj for \l/vx6(j.fva. 

2 Reading u o-iw orurat /uaAXoy f) eur/iu(ei. paXXov yap e ^ar/^fi does 
not give the required sense. 


Why is it that wine and water seem sweeter when taken II 
with something sour, if, for instance, one munches acorns 
or myrtle-berries or something- of the kind ? Is not this 
natural and does it not happen in other things too ? For 
everything seems to assert its identity more forcibly when 

10 compared with its opposite, and here the tastes of the two 
opposites are in a way set against one another. Or is it 
because, as in objects which are being dyed, the tongue has 
already been permeated by the sour matter and opens its 
pores, and so the sweetness can penetrate better? For 
objects which are being dyed are first of all moistened in 
sour liquid, because that which is thus permeated 1 takes 

15 the dye better. 

Why do sweet things seem to be less sweet when they 12 
are hot than when they are cold ? Is it because two sensa 
tions of the two qualities are present together, and so that 
of heat dispels the other ? Or is it because that which is 
sweet 2 is also hot, and it is therefore a case of fire upon 
fire , and thus the heat prevents the perception of the 
20 sweetness ? Or is it because fire takes away the power of 
everything, since it causes motion ? Things, then, which are 
hot are nearer to change, but when they cool they become 
stable again. 

Why is it that chaff concocts hard fruits and does not i< 
corrupt those which are already concocted ? Is it because 
25 chaff is both hot and absorbent ? It, therefore, by its heat 
causes concoction, while owing to its absorbent property it 
attracts the corrupted impurity, which therefore does not 
cause corruption. 

Why do figs, which are soft and sweet, destroy the teeth ? L 
Do they, owing to their stickiness, penetrate into the gums, 
and, because they are soft, insinuate themselves into the 
30 spaces between the teeth, and, being hot, quickly cause 
decay ? Perhaps also, owing to the hardness of the seeds, 
the teeth are quickly caused to ache in the process of 
chewing them up. 

1 Reading ro> (TO) 

2 Reading y\v<v for yXevnos, which is invariably used to mean must . 



1 WHY is it that the waves do not ripple in the deep open 35 
sea, but only where it is confined and shallow ? l Is it 
because a small amount of liquid, as it is carried along, is 
more divided up by the wind than a large amount ? 

2 Why do the waves sometimes begin to move before the 
winds reach them ? 2 Is it because the portion of the sea 
near the source of the wind being impelled along first has 93l b 
continually the same effect upon the adjoining part, and so, 
since the sea is continuous, the same effect is caused in 
every part of it, as though from one continuous impetus ? 
Now this occurs simultaneously, with the result that the 
first and the last parts of the sea are set in motion at 

the same time. This effect is not produced in the air, 
because it is not a single body (since many hindrances affect 5 
it from all sides, which often cut short the first and most 
vigorous movement) ; the sea, however, suffers from no such 
impediments, because it is heavier and less easily disturbed 
than the air. 

3 Why do ships seem to be more heavily loaded in harbour 
than out at sea, and why do they travel more quickly from I0 
the open sea towards the land than from the land towards 
the open sea ? Is it because the greater quantity of water 
offers more resistance than 3 the less, and the vessel sinks 
deeper into the latter, because it prevails more over it, for 

it pushes up the water from below ? Now in a harbour the 
sea is shallow, but deep out at sea; so that a vessel will 15 
seem to carry a heavier load in harbour and will move with 
greater difficulty, because it is sunk deeper into the water, 

1 Cp. below, chapter 24. 

2 Cp. below, chapters 12 and 28. 3 Omitting e /c. 



which offers less resistance. But in the open sea the contrary 

Why is it that if anything (for example an anchor) is 4 

30 thrown into the sea when it is rough, a calm ensues ? Is it 
because the sea is stopped by the descending object, with 
which a certain amount of air is carried down, and this air, 
carried in a direct course downwards and drawn thither, 
draws with it also the lateral force which is disturbing the 
sea ? Now a wave does not move downwards from above 
but along the surface, and, when it ceases, a calm ensues. 

2 5 Furthermore, the sea, as it closes in upon the space opened 
by the descending object, makes an eddy, and eddies move 
in a circle. Now since it is a case of a straight line touching 
a circle at a point (and waves travel obliquely in a straight 
line), the result would be that the waves touch the circum 
ference of the eddy only at a point, both for the reasons 

30 stated and because the eddy pushes the wave off as soon as 
it comes into contact with it. The place, then, where the 
eddy is, being without waves, the result is that there is 
a calm where the surface is broken, because the air, which 
descended with the object thrown in, subsequently ascending 
and thrusting the sea upwards, causes it as it were to bubble ; 

35 for a bubble consists of moisture thrust up by air from below. 
Now every bubble is smooth and still. A proof that the 
above process takes place is given by the fact that the sea 
at the point where the object is thrown in rises a moment 
later to a higher level than the surrounding sea. 

Why is it that sometimes vessels which are journeying g 

over the sea in fine weather are swallowed up and disappear 

932 a so completely that no wreckage even is washed up ? Is it 

because, when a cavernous space breaks open in the earth 

beneath the sea, the ship at the same time follows the 

rush of air l into the sea and into the cavern ? And in like 

manner the sea, being carried everywhere 2 round in a 

5 circle, is borne downwards ; and this constitutes a whirl- 

1 It appears unnecessary to read here pev^aros for nvevparos as 
suggested by Bonitz. 

2 Travra 0epou6i/a should perhaps be read. 

BOOK XXIII. 5 932 ? 

pool. And ships in the Straits of Messina suffer the same 
fate owing to the flow of water, which causes eddies, and 
are swallowed up into the abyss, for the reasons stated 
above and also because the sea is deep and the land 
cavernous to a great distance. The eddies, therefore, over 
power the ships and carry them thither, and so no wreckage 10 
is washed up. The flow occurs when, the former wind 
having stopped, a contrary wind blows over the sea when 
it is running under the impulse of the former wind, and 
especially when the contrary wind is the south wind. For 
the currents flowing against l one another try to thrust one 
another aside, as happens in rivers, and eddies are formed. 
And the original movement, which is strong, is borne 15 
whirling round and round from above. Since then the 
currents cannot travel laterally (for they are mutually 
repelled), they must be thrust down into the depths, and 
so whatever is caught by the eddy must necessarily be 
carried down too. Hence they build ships with slanting 
ends ; for cases have been recorded before now in which 
a ship with straight ends has been swallowed up. 20 

6 Why is the water whiter in the Black Sea than in the 
Aegean 1 Is it owing to the refraction of the vision from 
the sea into the air 1 For in the region of the Black Sea 
the air is thick and white, so that the surface of the sea 
appears to be similar, whereas in the Aegean it is blue, 25 
because it is clear to a great distance, and so the sea too 
reflecting the air appears to be similar. Or is it because 
all lakes are more whitish than the sea, and the Black Sea 
has the character of a lake because many rivers flow into it 1 
Now lakes are whiter than the sea, and than rivers ; for 30 
example, painters picture rivers as pale yellow and the sea 
as blue. Or is it because the sight cannot penetrate quickly 
through fresh water and is refracted into the air, 2 but is not 

1 Reading dvTippfovra for avrurvfovTa. This change gives better 
sense than Bonitz s change of nvev/j-ara for pevpsira. 

- The text as it stands gives no satisfactory sense, and we must 
read : r) on 8ia /zeV TOV iroTifiov (ou) $Lepx Tai Ta X^ "7 ^ ty > Kal ai>aK\arcu 
Trpof TOV ae pa, ano 5e rfjy daXdcrarj^ OVT tiva> di/a/cXcmu 8ta TO pr) \flov aval 
TO v8a>p, Kara> re KT\. This gives agreement with the doctrine of 11. 35- 
37 and b 8, and, except for the insertion of the first negative (which 

R 2 


perishes before it becomes perceptible ; and so the wave is 
not realty prior to the wind, but the former is noticeable, 
while the latter is not. Or do the winds not blow every 
where at the same time, but at first only in the quarter from 
which they arise ? Now as soon as they begin to blow, 
5 they set in motion the sea which is near them, and this sets 
in motion the adjoining sea ; and thus it would be possible 
for the wave to break forth before the wind reaches it. For 
the movement is due to the sea and not to wind, being 
a movement of the sea which travels more quickly than 
that of the air. 1 

Why is it easier to swim in the sea than in a river ? Is it 13 
10 because the swimmer always leans on the water as he swims, 
and we receive more support from that which is of a more 
corporeal nature, 2 and sea water is more corporeal than 
river water, for it is thicker and able to offer more resistance 
to pressure ? 

Why can one remain longer in the sea than in a river ? 14 
15 Is it because river water is rare and therefore penetrates 
more into the body and chokes one ? 

Why is sea water combustible, while fresh water is not ? 3 15 
Or does fresh water also burn, while the reason why sea 
water has less power to extinguish fire is because it is of a 
more fatty composition ? 4 (And that it is so is proved by 

20 the fact that an oil is given off from sea water. 5 ) Or are the 
interstices in sea water less able to adapt themselves to 
fire because they are too wide, and all the more so owing 
to the presence also of salt ? As, therefore, that which is 
dry has less power to quench than that which is moist, so 
that which is drier is proportionately more capable of being 

25 burnt, one thing being more so than another, since the drier 

1 Reading with Bonitz f) Kivrja-is, fj ddrrcav rov aepoy, 77 rrjs 0aAarrf/f, 
which is equivalent to f} Kivrjcns f] TTJS 0a\aTTrjs } r) Bdrrcov ovara tj f/ TOV 
aepos Kivrjcris. 

2 Cp. Plut. Quaest. Conmv. i. 9, which appears to be a direct 
reference to this passage. 

3 Cp. chapter 32. 4 Cp. above, 932 b 4- 

BOOK XXIII. 15 933 a 

a thing" is the more closely allied is it to heat ; l and sea 
water possesses both these qualities of dryness and heat to 
a greater extent than fresh water. 

16 Why is it that the wind blows cold in early morning from 
rivers, but not from the sea ? 2 Is it because the sea extends 
over open spaces, but rivers are in narrow places ? The 
breeze, therefore, from the sea is dispersed over a wide area 30 
and is consequently weak ; whereas the breeze from a river 

is carried along in a mass and is stronger and therefore 
naturally seems colder. Or is the reason other than this, 
namely, that the rivers are cold, but the sea is neither hot 
nor cold ? Now a breeze or an exhalation is due to the 35 
heating or cooling of liquids ; for whichever of these two 
processes they undergo, evaporation takes place, and, when 
water evaporates, the resultant air is set in motion, and this 
is a breeze. That which is produced from cold liquids 
naturally blows cold, while that which blows from very hot 4 
liquids cools and becomes cold. One would, therefore, find 933 b 
that all the rivers are cold, but that the sea is neither very 
hot nor very cold. That which blows from it, therefore, is 
not cold, because it is not itself cold, nor does it cool quickly, 
because it is not very hot. 

17 Why do waves calm down more slowly in the wider open 5 
sea than in shallow waters ? Is it because everything calms 
down more slowly after much motion than after little ? Now 
in the wide open sea the ebb and flow is greater than in 
shallow waters ; there is, therefore, nothing strange if that 
which is greater is more slow in calming down. 10 

18 Why is it that salt water when it is cold is not drinkable, 
but becomes more drinkable when it is heated, and when it 
is heated and then cooled ? Is it because a thing naturally 
changes from one opposite into the other ? Now drinkable 5 
water is the opposite of salt water ; and, when salt water 

is heated, the salt is boiled out, and, when it cools, is 

1 Reading with Bonitz rcw eyyvrepv TOV despoil elvai TO grjporepov. rfj 


2 This problem occurs again in Book xxvi. chapter 30. 


Why is it that waters near the sea are usually fresh and ig 
not salty ? Is it because water which is allowed to percolate 
becomes more drinkable, and the nearer water is to the sea 
20 the more it percolates ? 

Why does salt water not flow readily ? Is it because that 2( 
which is heavy is stationary, and salt water is heavy ? Hence 
only warm salt waters flow readily, for they have lightness 
in them which prevails over the heaviness which is in their 

25 saltness ; for that which is hot is lighter. Furthermore, 
water which flows readily can percolate through the earth ; 
and if water can percolate, the thickest and heaviest part of 
it is always carried to the bottom, while the light and clean 
element becomes separated. For salt water is heavy and 

30 fresh water is light. And so flowing water is fresh. It is 
for the same reason that salt water, when it is set in motion 
and undergoes change, becomes fresher ; for it becomes 
lighter and weaker owing to the motion. 

Why is it that in Libya, if one digs a hole near the sea, 21 
the water that first comes is drinkable, but afterwards 

35 quickly becomes salty, but this happens less elsewhere ? l 
Is it because the water which comes first is the water which 
was already there and has been concocted by the earth, but 
after a time the sea also percolates through 2 and, because it 
has had no time to undergo any change, makes the water 
more salty ? [Elsewhere, however, there is 3 either no water 

4 o or abundant water, because the ground is not dried up.] 

934 a Why does salt water melt salt more quickly than drinking 2! 
water ? Is it because the process of melting anything is its 
dissolution by moisture or heat penetrating into it so that it 
becomes liquid ? Now those things do not cause melting 
which either cannot penetrate at all or penetrate in such 
a way as not to touch the substance. Those things which 
5 pass through easily scarcely cause any melting, but those 

1 Cp. chapter 37. 2 Reading Trpoo-Sujflov/iewj. 

3 The Latin version of T. G. renders * aqua vel nulla est vel plurima , 
but e x can hardly be used thus intransitively by itself, and we must 
either read OVK eon or else 6 ro-rros for TOV TOKOV. The sentence, how 
ever, is quite out of place here and appears to have come in from 
some other problem. 

BOOK XXIII. 22 934 

which enter in with violence dissolve substances very 
quickly. Now those liquids which are composed of very 
large particles do not penetrate, for they are too large for 
the pores ; while those which are composed of small particles 
pass through without touching. Now drinking water is 
rare, while salt water is thicker ; and so the former, passing 
through easily owing to its rarity, scarcely causes any 10 
melting, whereas the latter penetrates, but percolates 
through l to a less extent, because it is composed of larger 
particles, and forces its way in more quickly. 

23 Why does water appear less white when it is in motion, 
for instance when there is a ripple ? Whence Homer says 
that, when the wind begins to blow, 

the sea grows blacker beneath it. 2 15 

Are there two reasons ? Firstly, because, when the sight is 
near to it, it can penetrate farther through the water when 
it is still, but when it is in motion the sight cannot pass 
directly through it. (And that which is transparent appears 
white, for that through which the sight cannot pass is what 
Homer calls black ; therefore the air appears black from 
a distance but white near at hand, and the part of the sea 20 
which is near is white, while that which is distant is blue 
or black.) And, secondly, because, 3 when the sight is at 
a distance and is subject in any way to disturbance, it is 
refracted back in a mass towards the light, if the water is 
still, 4 but cannot be refracted when it is in motion. 

4 Why is it that the waves do not ripple in the deep, open 25 
sea, but only on small expanses ? 5 Is it because a small 
amount of water, as it is carried along, is more divided by 
the air than a large amount ? Hence it beats more and is 
broken up. Now in deep water the quantity which is set 
in motion is great, but in shallow water it is small. 

1 Reading Smppel for Staipet, which contradicts the doctrine of 11. 5, 6. 

2 Iliad vii. 64. 

3 Reading 6Vi TO for *m rw (C a , Y a , and AP read TO) to correspond 
to the 6m TO duevai in 1. 16. 

4 Placing a comma after ^pe/x/j. 

5 A longer version of chapter I. 


30 Why are the waters saltier in regions facing the south 25 
wind ? Do they become mixed because the sea is driven 
under the earth by the south wind ? 

Why does the salty element in water come to the 26 
surface more in sweet than in dry wine ? Is it because 
35 sweet wine, like raisin wine, has more earth in it ? Or is it 
because sweet wine is heavier and stickier and so mixes 
less, and, as the wine does not mix 1 with the water, the salty 
element comes to the surface ? 

Why does the salty element, being earthy, float on the 27 
surface at all (for its natural tendency is to sink) ? Is it 2 
934 b owing to its heat, as happens with salt (for it resembles 
an efflorescence) ? Or is there some other reason ? For if 
it is for no other reason, 3 it is not unreasonable that it 
should be for this reason that it floats specially on the 
surface of sweet wine ; for that is the hottest of wines. 

Why do the waves sometimes begin to move before the 28 
5 winds reach them ? 4 Is it because they also cease to move 
later ? For the first breath of wind as it were dies down 
before the wave which has been impelled by it into motion ; 
and it is not the wave which is first set in motion that 
arrives, but there is a 5 successive impetus given to the 
adjoining water. 

Why is it that the ground where the waves break more 29 
violently becomes solid, often to such an extent as to appear 

! to have been artificially levelled, and why is the ground 
where the waves break solid, whereas further from the sea 
it is loose ? Is it because the fine sand is not cast up from 
a long way off by the waves, but rather the coarser sand, 
just as it is not possible to throw a very small object far 
with the hand ? Then, many objects being mingled in 

1 5 confusion, the smallest particles fall out 6 and form into 
a mass, and the motion of the wave, as it recedes, levels 

1 Reading fjuyvvpevov (W. D. R.). 

2 Omitting on pa\\ov e^ei yrjv 6 y\vKvs ; J? with the best MSS. These 
words obviously came in from the previous chapter. 

s Placing a comma after ov and omitting that after /xaXXoi/. 

4 Cp. chapters 2 and 12 above. 5 Omitting f] before 2><ns. 

6 Reading eKTrinTovra ; the Latin version renders interlapsa. 

BOOK XXIII. 29 934 1 

them and no longer disturbs them. Since, then, the smallest 
particles cannot leap far, a mass is formed of very small 
objects ; and since it is in frequent motion, it becomes con 
tinuous, the sand falling- in amongst it until it unites it 
together ; it is then levelled by the last waves, and the 30 
slight moisture causes it to adhere together. But the 
ground farther from the sea, being dry, becomes disinte 
grated, and is formed of larger pebbles and is unlevelled. 

30 Why is it that the upper parts of the sea are saltier and 
hotter than the depths ? So, too, in wells of drinking water 25 
the upper water is saltier than that at the bottom ; yet 
salty water, being heavier, ought to stand at a lower level. 
Is it because the sun and the air always attract the lightest 
part of liquid ? Now water which is suitable for drinking 
is always lighter, and the sun can more easily attract it from 
the part of the water nearest to it. And so that which is 
left on the surface both of the sea and of drinking water is 30 
saltier (since the fresh element has been extracted) than 
that from which little or nothing has been withdrawn. For 
this reason the upper part is also hotter ; for salt water is 
hotter than drinking water. Therefore some of the followers 
of Heraclitus declare that stones and earth are formed 
from the drying and solidifying of fresh water 1 and that 35 
the sun draws up vapours from the sea. 2 

31 Why are the waters of the sea fresher which are nearer 
the land ? Is it because they are more continuously in 
motion ? Now salt water becomes fresher through motion. 
Or is it because the w r ater is saltier in its depths, 3 and the 935 
part of the sea near the land is less deep ? Wherefore also 
water which shelves deeply near the shore is less fresh. 
The reason of this is that the salty element being heavy is 
carried down more into deep water. 

2 Why is sea water the only kind of water that is com- 5 
bustible, 4 whereas drinking water and river water are not ? 
Is it because it has much earth in it, as is proved by the 

1 Diels, Vorsokr. i. 3 p. 434, 5. 2 Cp. xxiv. n. 

3 This directly contradicts the doctrine of chapter 30. 

4 Cp. above, chapter 15. 



presence of the salt in it ? Or is it because it is of a fatty 
composition, as is proved by the oil which forms on the 
surface l of salt water ? 

Why does sand not form in lakes, or at any rate less 33 

10 than in the sea and in rivers ? Is it because rocks form in 

the sea and the earth has been to a great extent burnt out 

of them ? Now sand is rock which has been broken up into 

small and minute particles, and it is broken up by the impetus 

of the waves. But in lakes rocks free of earth are not 

formed to the same extent, nor are they broken to the 

15 same extent, because there are not waves to the same extent. 

But sand is formed more in rivers, because they carry down 

the earth and break up the rocks with their impetus. 

Why is it that, when a lake either falls or dries up, the 34 
corn in the adjoining 1 plain is more likely to be cut off 
by frost ? Is it because the moisture in the lake evaporates 

20 and warms the air with its vapour, and so makes the frosts 
slighter and weaker than in hollow and marshy districts ? 
Or is it from the earth, as men say, that the cold begins 
and penetrates unnoticed ? If then the lake becomes dry, 
owing to the larger space of earth greater cold attacks the 

2 5 crops and freezes them and cuts them off to a greater 
extent ; and on such ground the cold comes from below, 
as is the popular belief. And yet the earth is warm in 
winter ; but the surface heat which is in the earth, owing to 
the fact that it is moist, becomes cooled, for the moisture is 
neither so far in as not to be affected by cold, owing to the 

3 heat which is present in liquids, nor so slight as to have no 
force, since the earth is permeated with water. For instance, 
owing to its becoming cold, one walks and lives upon ice. 

35 Why is the sea salty and bitter ? Is it because the juices 3* 
in the sea are numerous? For saltness and bitterness 
appear at the same time. 

Why do shells and stones which are in the sea become 3! 
round ? Is it because the breaking off of their extremities 

1 Reading e<j>iaTanevov with Y a and AP. 

BOOK XXIII. 36 935 1 

equally on every side causes them to assume a round form? 
For this is the only shape in which the outer surface is the 935 
same on all sides, and the sea by moving objects in every 
direction breaks off their extremities equally. 

37 Why is it that sometimes, if one digs a hole near the sea, 
the first water which enters is drinkable but afterwards it 
becomes salty ? l Is it because the water comes from the 5 
sea itself which percolates under the earth ? The water 
which first comes is, therefore, naturally fresh ; for fresh 
water is lighter than salt water, and the sea has some fresh 
ness in it, which mingling with the earth tends to come to 
the surface. But the salt water, owing to its weight and to the 
fact that it has power to penetrate, is carried downwards. 
Whether this is so or whether the fresh water flows from ro 
the mainland into the sea through the earth s veins, it 
would naturally float on the surface of the sea which 
mingles with it ; 2 but, the passages being opened, the salt 
water, owing to its greater volume, subsequently prevails and 
makes the whole sea salty. For if the passages are blocked 
the result is that the inflowing salt water finds another way 15 
higher up ; :j but when they are opened, it is all carried 
there, just as happens in the veins in the body. 

8 Why is it that the sea, which is heavier than fresh water, 
is more transparent ? 4 Is it because of its fattier composi 
tion ? Now oil poured on the surface of water makes it 
more transparent, and the sea, having fat in it, is naturally 20 
more transparent. Or is that which is lighter not always 
more transparent also ? For oil itself is lighter than water 
but not more transparent. Or is the sea not really more 
transparent, but only apparently so ? For fresh water comes 
from the earth or from streams, and its source sends forth 
earth also with the water, so that the streams, not being 25 
pure, bring down with them the earth and sediment. This 
then is the reason why fresh water is less transparent. 

1 Cp. above, chapter 21. 

2 Reading avrw (W. D. R.) for avrfj. 

s Reading with the MS. AP TO>I> rropwv avco. 
4 Cp. above, chapter 8. 


Why do the bowels of those who swim in the sea open 3< 
readily ? For if it is because they take violent exercise, 
those who run also take very violent exercise, yet their 
30 bowels do not open. Or does not every form of exertion 
cause the bowels to open, but only such exercise as does 
not cause wasting ? Now staying in the sea seems to make 
men, generally speaking, hungrier and opens the bowels ; 
for the vapour given off by it is both hot and dry. 

Why does the Lake of Paesus, 1 of which the water is 4 
35 drinkable, wash and also remove the stains from garments ? 
For water which is fresh washes, but that which is bitter 
removes stains, and water cannot have both these qualities 
at the same time. Are stains removed not because the 
water is bitter, but by the quality of stickiness which has 
this power ? Hence animals hoofs have this effect, and any 
thing which contains gelatinous matter ; and so also any 
936 a bitter substances .which partake of this character do the 
same. Now in this lake it so happens that the bitter 
element of the quality of soda has been burnt out, but the 
fatty and sticky element remains. It is by virtue of this 
that it removes stains, and it washes because it is fresh. 

5 Why does the part of the sea which is calm appear white, j 
while that which is agitated appears black ? Is it because 
that which is less visible appears blacker, and water which 
is in motion is less seen than that which is still ? Or is it 
because that which is transparent is white, while that 
which is not so is black, and that which is in motion is less 
10 transparent ? 

1 T. G. renders Traaa \invrj (which is omitted by Bonitz from his 
Index) by Lacus Paesa, and we should probably read Ualcra XL/JLTT] here 
with Sylburg. The reference then will be to a lake at Paesus on the 
left bank of the Hellespont near Lampsacns. See Strabo, p. 589. 



1 WHY is it that, if one is anointed with oil, hot water 
poured over one seems less hot, in spite of the fact that oil 
contains heat ? Is it because owing to the smoothness 
caused by the oil the water glides off and sinks in less ? 75 

2 Why is it that in the summer the water in wells becomes 
warm after midday ? Is it because by that hour the heat 
has mastered the air, whereas before midday the heat is 
dissolving and putting an end to the cold ; but the one does 
not prevail as soon as the other has ceased, but only after 2 o 
time has elapsed ? 

3 Why is it that water, which sometimes becomes hotter 
than a flame, does not burn wood, whereas the flame does 
so ? l Is it because the flame, and the breath which conies 
from it, consist of small particles, whereas water is made 
up of large particles and so does not penetrate? Now 
flame and the heat from coals owing to their rarity can 35 
penetrate and destroy. 

4 Why is it that boiling water has not the power to melt, 
while the stomach possesses this power ? 2 Is it because the 
heat which is in the stomach penetrates owing to its rarity, 
whereas water cannot penetrate because of its density ? Or 
is it because liquid prevents other things also from melting 
(for nothing melts in liquid) ? In the stomach, however, the 30 
liquid flows down into the bladder and so does not prevent 
the process of melting. 3 

5 Why is it that the bottom of a vessel containing boiling 
water does not burn, but one can carry it holding it by the 
bottom, whereas if the water be removed it burns ? Is it 

1 Cp. Theophrastus, de Igne, 40. 2 Ib. t 45. 

Reading ov KaXva for ouro> Auei. 


because the heat as it is engendered in the bottom of the 
35 vessel is extinguished by the water ? Wherefore also sub 
stances which can be melted do not melt if any liquid is 
added to them. 1 

Why is it that water does not boil over so much in 6 
winter as in summer, although heated not only up to the 
same temperature but even higher, and although equally 
936 b hot or even hotter ? 2 Is it because boiling over is due to 
the rising of bubbles? The water then itself becomes just 
as hot in winter as in summer, 3 but the bubbles cannot rise 
to the same extent, because the surrounding air is cold, but 
5 they rise smaller in size, being compressed by the cold, and 
soon burst, being broken by the air. They are, therefore, 
smaller in bulk and fewer in number in the winter, and the 
contrary in summer. Now boiling over is due to the 
number and size of the bubbles forming the froth. 

10 Why does hot water cause wrinkles, but fire, though it is 7 
hot, not do so ? Is it because fire produces breath and so 
causes swelling (for it distends the skin), whereas it is the 
curving of the skin which makes wrinkles ? 

Why is it that the bottoms of vessels in which water is 8 
being heated are hotter while the water is still cold ? 4 Is 

J 5 it because, while the water is still cool, the heat is enclosed 
and driven inwards, 5 being prevented from making its way 
out, but, when the water in the vessel becomes thoroughly 
heated, since the fire no longer holds the heat but expends 
itself and becomes less, the bottom of the vessel becomes 
cooler, just as a bath does ? For a bath is hotter in winter 

20 than in summer, because the heat is more enclosed in 
winter than in summer by the surrounding air which is 

1 The words w \| $o? appear hopelessly corrupt, but the right sense 
is given by T. G., who renders si quid humoris admittatur. 

2 Punctuating, with Bonitz, ou \LOVQV 6fj.oi<os 6epfj.aiv6fj.evov dXXa KOI 
/.taXXoj , Kai O/JLOLCOS 6fpfj.ov ov KCU en juaAXoi/. The source of this problem 
is Theophrastus, de Igne, 16. 

Readin with Bonitz Oepovs for 

4 Cp. above, chapter 5. 

5 For the doctrine of avTinepia-Tao-ts of heat and cold see note on 
86; b 32. 

BOOK XXIV. 9 936 1 

9 Why is it that water when it boils does not form a 
scum, as do pea-soup and lentil-soup ? And yet water is 
lighter than these, and light substances ought to be able to 
project themselves more easily to a distance. The same 25 
thing 1 happens in the case of silver when it is being 
purified ; for those who clean out the mint make gains by 
appropriating the remnants, sweeping up the silver which 
is scattered about. Is it because the heat causes the scum 
by vaporizing and subjecting to force anything which 
opposes its own natural impetus ? Water, therefore, owing 30 
to its lightness and rarity is not subjected to force, and so 
no great heat is collected in it, but the heat which con 
tinually passes into it cuts its way through before it can 
become massed together. But substances which have body 
in them, like thick soups and silver, since, owing to their 
weight, they contain much corporeal matter and offer resis- 35 
tance, 2 because they are subjected to violent force as the 
heat tries to make its way out, form bubbles wherever the 
heat prevails ; for, owing to their density, the heat cannot 
pass through them, but the density prevails until it is 
thrown off by the heat which flows into it. The result is 
a sudden impact, and not a continuous pressure, owing to the 
heat passing up quickly from below. 

:o Why, if substances are moistened in hot water for a 937 s 
short time, do they swell, but, if for a long time, collapse 
and become wrinkled ? Is it because the heat makes a 
thing liquid instead of solid and produces breath from 
liquid and rarefies what is dense ? At first, therefore, it 
heats things which are solid and makes them moister, 5 
and producing breath from the moisture distends and 
swells them ; but when it heats them still more, it rarefies 
their outer part; 5 so that the vapour is given off, and the 
drying up of moisture causes their bulk to collapse. Now, 
as anything collapses, its outer skin shrivels up, and where 10 
it shrivels up unevenly, wrinkles are formed. 
I Why are stones formed by hot water rather than by 

1 Deleting the comma after TCIVTO. 

2 Placing a comma after avraTr^Oovvra instead of after /3/a. 

3 Putting the comma after dep^aivrj instead of after TO 


cold ? Is it because a stone is produced from the failure of 
moisture, and moisture fails more through the operation of 
heat than of cold, in other words petrifaction is the result 
15 of heat, as Empedocles says both rocks and stones come 
into being through the action of 1 hot waters ? 2 Or, while 
it is true that heat petrifies, can petrifaction also take place 
through cold, because an extremely hard frost consumes 
the moisture and causes hardening ? That cold, pure and 
simple, 3 produces this effect is clear from the fact that its 
excess does so. 

20 Why is it that if one has one s foot in hot water, if the I 
foot is kept still the water appears to be less hot, but hotter 
if it is moved? Does the same thing happen as in the body, 
viz. that, when one runs in the wind, the opposing air 
becomes increasingly colder, and the farther one continues 
to go 4 the more one notices it ? 

25 Why do hot things cool off more in the sun than in the 1 
shade ? Is it because the lesser heat is destroyed by the 
greater ? 5 Or is it because in the shade the surrounding 
cold represses the interior heat and does not allow it to 
make its way out, producing the same effect as the pouring 
of cold water produces upon those who are fainting 6 (for it 

30 encloses the heat and prevents it from escaping) ; and 
speaking generally the interior parts of anything are 
warmer in the winter ? But in the sun, since there is 
nothing which intercepts it, the heat is free to move and 
vanishes more quickly. 

Why is it that water heated by the sun is not more , 
35 wholesome for washing purposes ? 7 Is it because, owing to 
the fact that it is cooling, it causes shivering while it is still 

1 Reading Sta for KCU. 2 Diels, Vorsokr. i, 3 p. 211, 31. 

3 For this use of ro drr\S)s cp. Top. v. I35 a 2, where it is opposed to 

TO nd\l(TT(I. 

4 Reading with Bonitz net lav for elaiwv. 

5 This is the doctrine of nvp eVt n-Cp which occurs so often in the 


6 Cp. Theophrastus, de Igne, 15, where the word X 
shows that we must read cKOvrjo-Kovtri, with Bussemaker, here for 

Cp. below, chapter 15. 

BOOK XXIV. 14 937 a 

upon the body ? l Or, while it has this effect, is it unhealthy if 
used often for washing? For hot water, generally speaking, 
produces concoction and has a drying effect, whereas cold 
water has an astringent effect, and so both do good. 
Therefore cold water and water heated over a fire are both 937 b 
beneficial to those who wash in them ; but water heated by 
the sun owing to the weakness of its heat produces the 
effect of neither of these, but merely has the effect of 
moistening like the light of the moon. 2 

15 Why is water which has been heated in the sun not 5 
wholesome ? 3 Is it because that which is cooling causes 
shivering ? 

16 Why are the hot waters at Magnesia 4 and at Atarneus 5 
drinkable ? Is it because more water pours into the hot 
water as it flows out, and so its saltness disappears, but its 
heat remains ? 10 

17 Why is it that in Magnesia the hot waters ceased to be 
hot but the water remained salty ? G Is it because more 
cold water from elsewhere was poured at the same time 
into the springs and extinguished the heat ? Now the 
earth was salty, 7 but not hot owing to the abundance of 15 
water flowing into it. (A similar process occurs in water 

1 which is strained through hot ashes ; for the water being 
e strained through the hot ashes cools the ashes and itself be- 
: comes cold, but 8 is salty and bitter owing to the ashes.) But 
c when the water which was added had become transformed, 
the heat in the earth for a different reason prevailed over 20 
the coldness of the water owing to its small volume, and 
hot waters flowed again. 

1 Reading dui TO ^/v^crQai KGU en eVi TOO (rco/^an 6V. The Latin 
version of T. G. renders corpori adhuc insidens. 

2 The light of the moon does not heat us because it is not hot 
H enough. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 14. 

4 i.e. Magnesia on the Maeander ; cp. Strabo, p. 579. 

5 On the west coast of Asia Minor opposite Lesbos. The fact that 
Aristotle resided for a time at or near Atarneus makes it possible that 
this problem is Aristotelian (cp. Frag. 625, 1583^0, 30). 

The sense given by this problem as it stands is not clear and is 

opposed to that of the preceding chapter. 
7 Cp. Strabo, /. c. 8 Reading 8e w: 

with C a (according to Bekker). 
S 2 


Why are waters from hot springs all salty ? Is it because 18 
they usually percolate through earth which contains alum l 
(as is shown by the smell of the water) and has been burnt ? 
Now the ashes of anything are salty and smell of sulphur. 
-5 The earth therefore burns the water like a thunderbolt. 
Many hot springs therefore are due to strokes of thunder 

Why are hot bathing-places sacred ? Is it because they m 
are due to two very sacred things, sulphur and the thunder 
bolt ? 

1 Or, perhaps, vitriol . 

937 b 



1 WHY is it that pain is caused if the limbs are enclosed in 
inflated skins ? Is it due to the pressure of the air ? For 
just as the air does not yield to pressure applied to the 
skin from outside but repels it, so the air also presses upon 
the limbs enclosed within. Or is it because the air is held 35 
within by force and is compressed, and so, having naturally 
an outward impetus in every direction, it presses against the 
body enclosed within ? 

2 Why is it that in marshes near rivers the so-called 
1 bellowings take place, which according to the fable are 
uttered : by the sacred bulls of the god ? That which is 938* 
produced is certainly a noise which resembles the roaring 

of a bull, so much so that it has the same effect on cows 
when they hear it as the bellowing of a bull. Is it due to 
the fact that this phenomenon always occurs wherever rivers 
stagnate into marshes, 2 or are driven back by the sea, or 5 
give forth wind in unusually large quantities ? The reason 
is that hollows in the earth form, and the water making its 
way in (for there is always a flow of water in marshy ground 
of this kind) thrusts the air also through a narrow entrance 
into a wider hollow, just as a noise like roaring is produced 
if one makes a sound through the aperture into an empty 10 
jar; for it is by a similarly shaped organ that a bull s 
roaring is produced. Now, if the hollows have irregular 
forms, a variety of strange noises is produced ; for if one 
takes off the base 3 of a vessel and rubs it against the 

1 Reading itvm (W. D. R.) for elvai. With the whole passage com 
pare Meteor. 36 8 a 23 ff. 

2 Omitting r) oaa e Ar; Xi/mifovrae, in which the plural verb with a 
neuter plural subject and the change to the middle voice are suspicious, 
and which is probably due to dittography of the preceding clause. 

3 7rvvd<i{;, which by derivation is connected with TTV^/X^, TTU/LUITO? and 
the Latin fundus can hardly mean lid (L. and S.), and must mean 
base . 


15 bottom, drawing it in and out, 1 it makes enough noise to 
frighten away wild animals when orchard-watchers employ 
this device. 

Why does the air not become moist when it comes into 3 
contact with water ? 2 For all other things become moist 
when they touch water. Is it because the extremities of 
the air and water meet, but the surface of each remains 
20 distinct ? <<J All other things then are heavier, but the air 
does not sink below the outer extremity of the water. 
It therefore touches it, because there is nothing between 
them ; but it does not become wet, because it always 
remains above the water. 

Why does calm weather occur most often at midnight 4 
and at midday ? Is it because calm is immobility of the air, 
and the air is most at rest when it either has the mastery or 

2 5 is overmastered, and it is in movement when it is struggling ? 
Now it has the mastery most at midnight and is over 
mastered at midday ; for at the former time the sun is 
farthest away and at the latter nearest at hand. Again, 
the winds begin to blow either about dawn or about sunset ; 
and the w r ind which blows at dawn dies down w r hen it is 
overpowered, and that which blows at sunset dies down 

30 when it ceases to have the mastery. Consequently the 
former dies down at midday, the latter at midnight. 

Why is it colder when dawn is breaking and it is already 5 
early morning than at night, although the sun is nearer to 
us ? 4 Is it because towards daybreak dew and hoar-frost 
35 fall, and both of these are cold ? The whole ground then 
being as it were sprinkled with cold moisture, a process ot 
cooling takes place. 

Why is it that in Pontus both intense cold and stifling g 
heat occur ? Is it because of the thickness of the air ? 5 

fl Tpi\l/ei Sta rov KaradrjfjictTos has been omitted as a gloss. The 
word KaTaftrjfjia is otherwise unknown and is probably a corruption of 
KardyfjiaTos (the break). 
2 Cp. below, chapter 10. 

Omitting ofy with Richards, op. /., p. 143, where see note. 
* This problem is treated at greater length in Book viii, chapter 17. 
5 Cp. above, Book xiv, chapter 13. 

BOOK XXV. 6 93 8 

For in the winter it cannot be thoroughly warmed, and in 
the summer, when it is heated, it burns because it is thick. 
It is for the same reason also that marshy regions are cold 
in winter and hot in summer. Or is it because of the course 
of the sun ? For in the winter it is far away, and in the 
summer near at hand. 

7 Why is the sky finer at night than by day ? Is the sun 5 
the cause of wind and disturbance ? For these occur when 
some movement takes place ; the cause therefore is the heat. 
So, when the heat is not present, everything is at rest, and 
there is more rest when the sun is rising than when it is 
sinking. And the saying, 

Have no fear of a cloud from the land, 1 10 

means that, where there is most movement, there must be 
least permanence and consistency, that which is trying to 
hold together being inequable and unable to gain the 
mastery. And this is what happens on the sea in winter 
and on land in summer. 

8 Why is it that when liquid which fills a jar is poured into 
skins the jar not only holds the liquid and the skins as well 15 
but also has room for more liquid ? Is it because there is 
air present in the liquid ? This then, when it is in the 
jar, cannot be given off owing to the size of the jar ; for 
the larger anything is the more difficult it is to press any 
moisture or air out of it, as can be seen in sponges. But 
when it is divided up into small portions, it is pressed out 20 
of the skin together with the air already there, 2 so that the 
space occupied by the air becomes empty ; and so the jar 
can hold the skins and additional liquid as well. This is 
more especially the case with wine, because there is more 
air in wine than in water. Similarly the same vessel can 25 
hold the same quantities of ashes and water together as it 
can hold of each poured in separately. For there are 
apparently many empty spaces in ashes, and so the water, 

1 The whole proverb is given at 947 a 7-9. 

2 i. e. as the air in the skin is displaced by the liquid which is being 
poured in, it makes its way out, taking with it any air that there may 
be in the liquid. 


being- thinner, 1 sinks in more and saturates the ashes, so 
that they become dense, 2 because the saturation takes place 
in one part after another (for a thing- always becomes more 

30 thoroughly saturated if the process takes place little by little 
than all at once), and, as this takes place, the ashes gradually 
sink, at the same time absorbing the liquid because they 
contain hollows. (But ashes thrown into water while still 
hot cleave the water and cause it to evaporate.) And the 
same thing happens if the water is poured in first and the 

35 ashes put in afterwards, so that the water also would seem 
to contain hollows and empty spaces. Or do the ashes take 
up the water, and not the water the ashes ? For it is only 
natural that that which is composed of smaller particles 
should be that which finds its way into something else. 
(Further, this can be illustrated by an experiment ; for 
939 a when ashes are sprinkled water 3 is attracted to any spot 
where they are sprinkled ; whereas the contrary would 
have taken place if it were the water which takes up the 
ashes.) Or does this process not occur if the water be 
poured in first and fill the vessel to the brim, but, if any 
thing then be added, does it overflow ? 4 But if the water 
5 once overflows and the ashes settle down, 5 then it does occur ; 
for it was the ashes which took up the water. There is 
a parallel to this in the fact that trenches do not hold all 
the earth which has been dug out of them ; for apparently 
some air occupies the space excavated, and for this reason it 
does not hold all the earth. 

TO Why is it that, though air is denser than light, it can pass 9 
through solids ? c Is it because light travels in a straight 

1 Reading Xenrorfpov (oz/). 2 Omitting Kal after 

3 Omitting AAo with AP. 

4 The argument here is not very clear, but the meaning is apparently 
something like the following : the fact that when ashes are dropped in 
an absolutely full vessel the water overflows is no argument against 
the theory that a vessel can hold the same quantity of water and ashes 
together as it holds of each separately ; for the ashes when first put in 
naturally cause an overflow, but, when they become saturated and 
settle down, there is room left for the amount of water which has over 
flowed, just as if earth is dug out of a trench and then replaced it takes 
some time to settle down to its original level. 

5 Reading vTronear) for fimrea-rj. The Latin version renders descen- 

6 Cp. above, Bk. xi. 49 and 58. 

BOOK XXV. 9 939 

line only, and so the sight cannot see through porous sub 
stances like pumice-stone, in which the pores are irregular, 
whereas they are not so in glass ? The air, on the other 
hand, is not obstructed, because it does not travel directly T 5 
through anything through which it passes. 

10 Why is it that the air becomes cold by touching water 
but not moist, even though one blows so hard upon water 
as to cause waves ? l That it becomes cold is clear from 
the change which it undergoes ; for the air from water 2 
causes cold. Is it because it is the nature of air to be cold 
or hot, and it changes by touching anything with which it 20 
comes into contact ; but it does not also become moist, 
because it is too light and so never penetrates below the 
level of the water, but always remains in contact only with 
the surface, even though it be forced downwards, and the 
water then recedes still lower, so that the air can never 
penetrate into its depth ? 

11 Why is the air from bubbles and the air which comes up 25 
from beneath the water never wet ? Is it because the 
moisture is not retained, but the water drops off? The 
water on the surface of a bubble is also too little to moisten 

12 Why is it that air cannot saturate anything, but water 
can ? For water even when it is transformed into air is 
moist. Is it for the same reason as that for which stone 30 
cannot do so ? For everything has not this faculty of 
saturating other things, but only that which is viscous or 

13 (Why is it that an inflated skin floats ?} :>> Is it because 
the air in it is carried upwards ? For when the skin is 
empty it sinks ; but when it is inflated, it remains on the 
surface, because the air supports it. But if the air makes 35 
it lighter and prevents it from sinking, why does a skin 
become heavier when it is inflated ? And how is it that 

1 Cp. above, chapter 3. 

2 Reading (6) OTTO rcov v8uTa>v (Bonitz). 

3 The statement of the problem has fallen out and must be supplied 
from the Latin version of T. G. which reads : Cur utres inflati valeant 
fluitare ? 


when it is heavier it floats, and when it is lighter 1 it 
sinks ? 

Why is it that the air does not rise upwards ? 2 For if 14 
939 b the winds are the result of air being moved by heat and it 
is the nature of fire to rise upwards, the wind ought to 
travel upwards, since that which sets it in motion .rushes 
upwards and that which is set in motion has a natural 
tendency to travel in the same direction. As a matter 
of fact, however, the air obviously travels in an oblique 
direction. 3 

5 Why is the hour of dawn colder than the evening ? 4 15 
Is it because the former is nearer to midnight and the 
latter to midday ? Now midday is the hottest time, because 
it is nearest to the sun, and midnight the coldest 5 for the 
opposite reason. 

Why is it that in hot weather the nights are more stifling 16 
10 than the days ? Is it owing to the absence of wind ? For 
the periodical winds and the forerunners blow less at 

Why is it that substances enclosed in inflated skins and 17 
closely covered vessels remain uncorrupted ? 7 Is it because 
things which are in motion become corrupt, and all things 
that are full are without motion, and such skins and vessels 
are full ? 

r 5 Why is it that it is colder when the sky is clear than 18 
when it is overcast, though the stars and the heaven are 
warm ? 8 Is it because in clear weather there is nothing to 
hold the vapour, but it is diffused everywhere, whereas in 
cloudy weather it is contained ? 9 For the same reason it is 
colder when the wind is in the North than when it is in the 
South ; for the South wind attracts cloud, whereas the North 

1 i. e. empty. 

2 It is unnecessary to suppose with Klek that there is a lacuna in 
the statement of this problem. 

3 The explanation of this is given in Book xxvi, chapter 48, ad Jin. 

4 Cp. above, chapter 5 and Book viii, 17. 5 Reading i/^pdrarai. 
6 Cp. 946-15. 

A shorter version of the problem already dealt with in xxii. 4. 
8 Cp. below, chapter 21. 9 i. e. in the clouds. 

BOOK XXV. 18 939 b 

wind dispels it, and more evaporation appears to take place 20 
when the wind is in the North than when it is in the South, 
and in winter than in summer. Or is it because of dis 
similarity ? Or because vapour is formed when that which 
is hot cools ? 

ig Why is it that a smaller amount of air is warmer than 
a larger quantity (for confined spaces are always warmer) ? 
Is it because a larger quantity is subjected to more motion, 25 
and motion makes a thing cold ? This can be seen from 
the fact that hot things become cold if set in motion. 

20 Why is it that water and earth become corrupt, but air 
and fire do not ? Is it because anything which is corrupted 
must become hotter, 1 but there is nothing hotter than fire ? 2 
Or is it because a thing must be chilled before it can be 
corrupted, but fire is always hot and the air is full of fire ? 3 
So nothing becomes corrupted when it is hot, but only 
when it is chilled. Now earth and water 3 can become hot 
and cold. 

21 \Vhy is cloudy weather hotter than clear weather ? 4 
Is it because, as the men of old said, the stars are cold ? 
Or is this too absurd a doctrine, 5 and is the real reason that 
in clear weather vaporization takes place ? That this is so 35 
can be inferred from the fact that, when there is no wind, 
dew and hoar-frost are formed. When , therefore, the weather 

is clear, the hot substance, by which the moisture is taken 
up, is blown about, and so the air becomes cold ; for which 
reason also the moisture which the hot substance lets fall 
forms dew. But when the weather is cloudy the moisture 
is contained ; and therefore there is no dew or hoar-frost in 
cloudy weather. The heat, therefore, remaining in the 94O a 
neighbourhood of the earth makes the weather warm. 

22 Why is it that in lofty rooms the air constantly ebbs and 
flows, especially in calm weather ? Is it because the air 

1 Reading dep^orepov for depfjunarov with Bonitz. 

2 And since fire cannot become hotter, therefore it cannot become 

3 Omitting KQ\ drjp with AP. 4 Cp. above, chapter 18. 

5 The contrary doctrine, that the stars are hot, is assumed in 1. 16 


5 contains much void in its composition ? When, therefore, 
it begins to flow in, the air inside the room gives way and 
contracts; and when in course of time this air becomes 
massed together, the air outside becomes more full of voids 
and contains much vacant space. Into this space then the 
air from the room rushes, since it is near at hand, and 

10 passes into it, because it is in suspense and the nature of the 
void cannot resist. So when this happens in many parts of 
it, the adjoining air follows it owing to the forward impetus j 1 
and then, since a large quantity of air rushes out, 2 the space 
within becomes full of voids, while the air outside is denser 
and so rushes in again from outside. Thus these two 

15 currents continually interchange. 

1 Reading npoKo\lnv (W. D. R.) for 

2 Reading eo> for 




I WHY does the North-East wind (Caecias) l alone of the 
winds attract the clouds to itself ? 2 Is it because it blows 
from higher regions ? For the parts towards the East are 
higher than those towards the West, 3 as is shown by the 

1 Caecias does not strictly speaking correspond with our NE. wind, 
since the quadrants of the Greek compass were divided into three and 





c.ur\j*s W 


Chart of the winds to illustrate Problems^ Bk. xxvi. 
[The names in square brackets are supplied from other treatises.] 

not four sections as in a modern compass ; Caecias is, therefore, 30 and 
not 45 north of the East wind. The chart of the Greek winds has 
been dealt with by Professor D Arcy Thompson in C. R., xxxii, p. 49 
(1918), who has independently come to the same conclusion as I had 
previously formed in translating the de Mundo : he proves conclusively 
that Kaibel and Capelle s wind-rose , which I had adopted when 
translating the de Ventorum Sitibus, is wrong, but he was apparently 
unaware that I had changed my view when translating the de Mundo. 

2 Cp. chapter 29. The source of both problems is Theophrastus, 
de Ventis, 37, 39 ; cp. also Meteor. 364 b 12. 

3 i. e. the earth is conceived of as sloping gradually from E. to W. 


extent and depth of the sea towards the West. Now the 
North-East wind (Caecias), blowing from above to a contrary 
direction, describes in its course a line which follows an 
upward curve in relation to the earth ; l and falling, as has 
been said, 2 upon the western regions of the earth and 
massing the clouds together as a result of the form of line 

25 which it follows, on its return back it thrusts the clouds 
before it towards itself. 3 It is the only one of all the winds 
which does this, because for some the opposing regions 
are higher, 4 towards which their course, either starting from 5 
a lower level or proceeding in a straight line, as a result 
travels in a downward curve 6 towards the earth, 7 so that 

30 there can be no return of the wind to its source because it 
ends its course round the earth, where, besides, there are 
no clouds. 8 The East wind and the other winds which 
follow a less curving course do not form clouds because 
they have no moisture. Since, then, it forms no clouds, 
the effect produced by the East wind is less obvious than 
that produced by the North-East wind. 

35 Why do the North winds occur at a fixed period of the 2 
year, whereas the South winds do not ? 9 Or do South winds 
occur annually but are they not continuous, because the 
source of the South wind is far away from us, and we live 

1 Reading Kvpra (T. G. has convexum) for <ol\a in order to give the 
required sense and to agree with the doctrine of 943 b I . KoIXa and Kvpra 
appear to have changed places here and in 1. 28. The meaning here is 
that the NE. wind, descending from above, sweeps in a circular course 
up into the sky and thence returns to the point from which it started. 

2 Nothing has yet been said on this point. 

3 i. e. to the point from which it started, e $ avrbv must be read for 

6771 aVTOV. 

4 Reading rots ptv v^Xorepovs TOVS evavTiovs elvat TOTTOVS (W. D. R.). 

5 Inserting eV, omitted by error in the Teubner text, before rou 

" Reading KoIAa (T. G. has devexus} for Kvpra ; see note on 1. 22. 

7 Reading e^ovarav for CXOIHTJIS and deleting the comma after o-v^aivei. 
T. G. renders quae versus, ut aut de imo aut e directo flatus feratur 
devexus, t err am versus necessum sit. 

8 Reading rco ?repi TTJV yr]v (cp. 943 a 37) *X flv T *l v TeXevr^i/ rrjs (popas, 
fv w ovde vftprj eori (W. D. R.). The fact that the wind blows below 
the cloud level gives an additional reason why it cannot form clouds. 
TTfpl Tr)v y^ v appears to have been displaced from 1. 30 by an emblema 
from 1. 29 and to have found its way into 1. 31. 

9 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. ctt. t II. 

BOOK XXVI. 2 94o a 

close to the North wind ? Further, the annual North winds 
blow when the air is still (for they blow in summer) ; 94O b 
whereas the South winds occur in the spring, when the 
region of the air is less stable. Again, the South wind is 
moist, and the upper region of the atmosphere is unfavour 
able to moisture ; so any moisture which is formed in it l is 
quickly dissolved. Also moisture is erratic ; and so the 
South wind, because it does not remain in the same place, 5 
helps to set up changes in the movement of the air. And 
since the air does not remain in the same place when it 
moves, other winds are consequently set up ; for a wind is 
a movement of air. 

3 Why does the South wind blow after a hoar-frost ? 2 Is it 
because hoar-frost occurs when concoction takes place, 
and after concoction and cleansing a change to the opposite 10 
condition takes place ? Now the South wind is the opposite 
of the North wind. For the same reason also the South 
wind blows after snow. In a word, both snow and hail 
and rain and all such processes of cleansing are a sign of 
concoction ; therefore after rain and similar storms the 15 
winds fall. 

4 Why do the alternating winds blow ? a Is it for the 
same reason as causes the change of current in straits ? 
For both sea and air are carried along until they flow ; 
then, when the land-winds encounter opposition and can 
no longer advance, because the source of their motion and 20 
impetus is not strong, they retire in a contrary direction. 

5 Why do the alternating winds come from the sea ? Is it 
because the sea is close at hand? Or is it because the 
alternating wind is the opposite of the land-wind and as it 
were the reverse of it ? Now the land-wind is the breeze 
which blows from the land towards the sea, and the 
alternating wind is the reflux of the land-wind, so that it 25 
must necessarily come from the sea. Or is it because 4 the 

1 Reading with Bekker avru> for avrw. 

2 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. ciL, 50. 

3 This and the following problem are derived from Theophrastus, 
op. cit., 26. 

4 Reading r\ 5ia KrA., omitting 77 ^aXarra eVn. 


air which has been set in motion collects out at sea ? The 
reason of its not collecting on land and of its being 
thrown back l is the fact that the sea is in a hollow, and 
air, like water, flows always into the deepest hollow it can 

30 Why do cloud- winds 2 stop sooner when rain falls ? Is it 6 
because, when it rains, the hollows of the cloud, in which 
the source of the wind is formed, collapse ? 

Why are not the same winds everywhere rainy ? :} Is it 7 
because the same winds do not everywhere blow against 
35 mountains, but different winds are opposed to different 
mountains ? For example, when the winds blow laboriously 
against steep mountains, the clouds are more likely to form 
there, since the wind cannot push them farther forward ; 
and when the clouds form and are compressed, they burst. 

94i a Why are sunsets, if they are clear, a sign of fine weather ; 8 
if they are disturbed, a sign of stormy weather ? Is it 
because a storm occurs when the air is dense and thick ? 
When, therefore, the sun prevails, it breaks up and clears 
the air; but, if it is itself overpowered, an overcast sky 
5 results. If, therefore, the density is excessive, a storm 
occurs as soon as the day dawns ; whereas if it is weaker 
but not completely overpowered, the denseness which 
forms is driven towards the setting sun and remains there, 
because the air round the earth is thicker 4 than the 
storm. And the rest of the air quickly densifies, because 
a beginning of the process has already been made and 
there is a rallying point to receive and collect anything 
which comes to it, 5 the same thing occurring in the 
air as happens in a rout, where, if one man makes a 
stand, the rest also remain firm. Hence the sky some 
times becomes quickly and suddenly overcast. When, 


1 Omitting dmov as a dittography of 

2 Cp. de Mundo 394 b 17. 

Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit., 5. This problem is more fully treated 
in chapter 56. 

* Reading Tra^urepoi/ for Tra^vTarov, the comparative and superlative 
being frequently confused in the MSS. 

5 Omitting the meaningless Kaddnep opdpos. 

BOOK XXVI. 8 941 

therefore, there is a disturbed sunset, it is a strong indica 
tion that the sun has not got the mastery over the density, 15 
though it has struggled long against it, so that probably l 
further condensation has taken place. This is a less alarm 
ing symptom when it occurs after a storm than in calm 
weather ; for in the former circumstances it is probably the 
remnant of a storm, but in the latter the beginning of 

9 What is the origin of the saying, 20 

Boreas blows not at night when once the third sun 

hath arisen ? 2 

Is it because the breezes which come from the north are 
weak when they blow at night ? A proof that the amount 
of air which is set in motion is not great is the fact that 
they blow at a time when there was a small amount of 
heat ; and a small amount of heat was moving a small 
amount of air. Now all things terminate in multiples of 
three, 3 and things which are very small terminate at the 25 
end of the first triad ; and that is what this wind does. 

IO Why does the North wind blow more frequently than the 
South wind ? 4 Is it because the North wind, being near the 
inhabited portion of the world, attracts our notice in spite 
of its short duration (for it is with us as soon as it begins to 
blow), whereas the South wind does not reach us, because it 3 
blows from a distance ? 

II Why does the South wind blow as much 5 on winter 
nights as on winter days ? Is it because during the night 
the sun is near the southern region, and the nights there are 
warmer than are the days in the north ? Much air, there 
fore, is set in motion and not less than by day ; but the 35 

1 Reading eiKos for 

2 Cp. below, chapter 14. The source of both chapters is Theo- 
phrastus, op. cit., 49. 

3 Cp. tffe Caelo 268 a IO Kaddnep yap (pacri Kal ol Hvdayopeioi, TO Trav 
KCI\ ra iravra rot? rpicr\v (Spiorai. 

4 Cp. below, chapter 15, and Theophrastus, op. cit., 9. 

5 Reading (ofy) rjrroz/, which is demanded by the logic of the 
problem. Whereas North winds blow less at night than by day 
(chapter 9), South winds blow at least as much by night as by day. 


warmer days prevent the wind from blowing more strongly 
by drying up the moisture. 1 

Why does the South wind blow at the time of the Dog- 12 
star, and why does this happen regularly like any other 
natural phenomenon ? 2 Is it because the southern regions 
are warm, since the sun is not far 3 away, and so the evapora 
tion is considerable ? The South winds would 4 blow fre- 
94l b quently if it were not for the annual winds ; as it is, these 
prevent their blowing. 5 Or is it because a sign occurs 6 at 
the setting and rising of any star, and especially of the 
Dog-star ? It is clear that winds blow most at the time of 
and after its rising, and since it causes stifling heat, it is 
5 only natural that the hottest winds should be set in motion 
when it rises ; and the South wind is hot. And since things 
are most accustomed to pass from contraries into contraries, 
and the forerunners , 7 which are northern winds, blow 
before the rising of the Dog-star, the South wind naturally 
blows after the Dog-star appears, since a sign then occurs, 

10 and the occurrence of a sign 8 at the time when stars rise 
means a change in the air. Now all winds change either 
into their contraries or into those on their right ; but since 
the North wind cannot 9 change into the winds on its right, 
the only thing left for it to do would be to change into 
a South wind. Now on the fifteenth day after the winter 

15 solstice the wind is in the south, because the solstice marks 
as it were a fresh start and the sun sets in motion air which 

1 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit., 49, ad Jin. 

2 The source of the first explanation offered is Theophrastus, op, cit., < 
48. The problem is repeated in chapter 32. 

3 Reading TOV rjXiov (ou) Trdppco OVTOS, cp. Theophrastus, /. <;., ainov 
on depict TO. KUTOO, TOV f)\lov ndpovTos, oocrre -ytVerat TroAX?) arp-is. 

4 Reading TroXXoi av eV^eov. 

5 There should be a full stop in place of a comma after K.U>\VOVO-I. 
The rest of this chapter occurs in the MSS. under chapter 32, whence 
the editors have transferred it to this chapter as dealing with the same 

6 o-rjpaivfi and eVto-^aiW (1. 9) are used impersonally as equivalent 
to 0-rjp.flov e cm. The Latin signtficat has the same force, cp. Columella, 
ix. 2 Siderum occasus tempestates facit, interdum tantum significat. 

7 So called because they precede the Etesian winds (946 a 15). 

8 Reading eVetS/} eVicr^/uaiVet p.V, eVtre AAoucn 8e rots ciarpois TO eVicr^- 
ftaiveiv ecrri KT\. 

9 Reading eViSe^iouy (ov) juera/SaAXei (Bonitz) ; the Latin version of 
T. G. inserts the negative. 

BOOK XXVI. 12 94 i b 

is nearest to it 1 and at this solstice it is near the south. 
Just as, therefore, when it sets the region of the east in 
motion it stirs up the East winds, so when it sets in motion 
the southern region it stirs up the South winds. It does 
not do this immediately after the solstice, because the 20 
changes which it sets up extend at first over a very small area, 
but only on the fifteenth day, because this date corresponds 
to the first sensible impression made by the change ; for the 
said date is simply the most significant part of a whole. 

13 Why are the days most changeable during the period 
of Orion, and why is there then such variability in the 25 
wind ? 2 Is it because during a period of change all things 
are always most indeterminate, and Orion rises at the 
beginning of autumn and sets in the winter, so that, since 
there is not yet one settled season, but one is coming on 
and the other coming to an end, the winds must therefore 
necessarily be unsettled, because those of each season are 30 
passing into one another ? And Orion is said to be 
dangerous both in his setting and in his rising owing to 
the uncertainty of the season ; for it must needs be full of 
confusion and inconsistency. 

14 Why does the North wind which blows at night cease on 
the third day ? Is it because it comes from a small and 35 
weak source and the third day marks the crisis ? or is it 
because it expends itself all at once like the cloud-winds , 4 
and therefore quickly dies down again ? 

15 Why do the North winds blow more than the other 
winds ? 5 Is it owing to the fact that the inhabited portion 

of the earth is near the region of the north, which is high 942** 
and outside the tropics and full of snow, which never 
leaves some of the mountains ? As, therefore, frozen 
matter is usually melting there, a wind often arises, and 
this wind is the North wind which comes from the region 
of the pole. 

1 Reading <nd avrov for /car CLVTIJV (cp. 944 a 22). 

2 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit,, 55. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 9. 

4 See above, 940" 30, and de Mundo, 394 b 17. 

5 Cp. above, chapter 10. 

T 2 


5 Why do the South winds blow during winter and at the 16 
beginning 1 of spring and the end of the autumn, 1 and why 
are they boisterous and whirling in their course, and why 
are they cold to the inhabitants of Libya in like manner as 
the North winds are to us ? 2 Is it because, the sun being 
near, the winds must necessarily be set in motion ? Now 

10 during the winter the sun travels towards the south, and at 
the beginning of the spring and at the end of autumn it is 
giving forth heat ; whereas during the summer the sun 
travels towards the north and leaves those other regions. 
The South wind is hot, because it mingles its breath with 
the air in the region of Libya, which is hot ; and so it is 

1 5 boisterous 3 and makes the summer rainy, sweeping down 
on the sea. 

Why does the South wind cause evil odours ? Is it 17 
because it makes bodies moist and hot, and they are then 
most liable to corruption ? South winds, however, which 
come from the sea are good for plants for the South wind 
reaches the Thriasian Plain in Attica from the sea 4 and 
so the reason is that it is cooled before it arrives. Now 
mildew is caused by moisture which is hot and comes from 

Why does wind usually occur before eclipses, at nightfall 18 
before midnight eclipses and at midnight before those 
which occur at dawn ? Is it because the heat which comes 
25 from the moon becomes faint, because its course is already 
getting near the earth, and when it is quite near the eclipse 
will take place ? Now when the heat, by which the air is 
held back and kept still, is set free, the air begins to move 
again and a wind springs up later in time according as the 
eclipse is later. 5 

1 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit.^ 10. 

2 This is dealt with in chapter 49. 

3 Reading MeyaAoKi^toov (a^) (Platt). 

4 Reading ex QaXarrrjs yap 6 IOTOS (forauroTs 1 ) TTpoo-TTtTrret Kal Trjs ATTiKrjs 
r<w Gpiao-iw TTfdiV aiTiov 6 ort (for Sion) KT\. Unless 6 VOTOS is read for 
airol? there is no subject for irpoo-niirrei ; cp. the Latin version, nam 
et Thriasio campo terrae Attic tie auster de mart occurrit. 

5 The sense (cp. above, 11. 23, 24 a.K.p6wxov . . , ru>v e coojy) demands 
some such reading as o^nairepov, TTJS cKXcfyeas 6\lsiaiT(pov 

BOOK XXVI. 19 942 a 

19 Why is the South wind rainy not when it is beginning 
but when it is ending ? l Is it because it collects the air 3 
from a distance ? For the rain comes when the South wind 
masses the air together, and it masses the air together only 
after it begins to blow. Or is it because, when the South 
wind begins to blow, the air is still hot, because it comes 
from a hot region, but in course of time it becomes cool, 
and then tends to become massed into rain ? 

20 Why is it that the South wind, when it is less strong, 
brings clear weather, but, when it is strong, brings clouds 35 
and lasts longer ? 2 Is it, as some say, owing to the source 
from which it comes ? For if it comes from a weaker 
source it brings clear weather, but if it starts from a 
stronger source it brings clouds. Or is it because it is 
weaker when it begins, so that it does not propel much 

air, but in the end it usually becomes strong ? Hence 942 b 
comes the proverb, 

W r hen the South wind begins and when Boreas ceases 
his blowing." 

21 Why is it that in the winter the winds come forth from the 
east, but in the summer also from the west ? 4 Is it because, 
when the sun no longer prevails, the air flows freely ? 5 
When, therefore, the sun sinks, it leaves clouds behind it, 
which cause the West winds, and anything which it carries 
with it to the inhabitants of the southern hemisphere 
becomes an East wind. And, contrariwise, when it sinks 
in the southern region of the earth, it will cause West winds 
for the inhabitants of that region and East winds in our 
part of the world from the air which accompanies it. For 10 
this reason too, if it finds another wind blowing, that wind 
becomes stronger when the sun rises, because it adds some 
thing to it. 

1 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit., 7. 

2 Cp. below, chapter 38, and Theophrastus, op. tit., 6, 7. 

3 The complete proverb is ev nXelv ap^op-evov, &c. ; cp. below, 
945 a 29- 

4 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. tit., 47. The 
subject is treated more fully in chapter 54 below. 


Why are hounds least able to find the scent when a West 22 
wind is blowing ? Is it because it disperses the scent most 
owing to the fact that of all the winds it blows most 
15 continuously and down on to the earth ? 

Why, when there are shooting stars, is it a sign of 23 
wind ? l Is it because they are carried along by the wind, 
and the wind occurs where they are, before it reaches us ? 
For this reason also the wind rises in that quarter from 
which the stars are set in motion. 

20 Why is it that of all the winds the West wind drives the 24 
largest clouds ? 2 Is it because it blows from the open sea 
and over the deep, so that it collects clouds from a large 
area ? 

Why are the winds strongest which are at their ending ? 3 25 
Is it because when they expend themselves all at once, what 
remains is very little ? 4 

25 Why is it that, if the South- West wind (Lips) 5 blows 26 
about the time of the equinox, rain results ? Is it because 
the sun sets the winds in motion from any part of the 
universe in which it is ? Hence the succession of the winds 
corresponds to the course of the sun. Now since the 
equinox is the boundary between winter and summer, 

30 when it happens that the sun, according to the equinox as 
it appears to us, has passed the exact boundary or falls 
short of it and is rather in the wintry region, the result is 
that the winds from that region blow, of which the first is 
the South- West wind (Lips), which is naturally moist. Now 
when the sun is rather in the wintry region of the universe 

35 and stirs up the winds there, the result is that the functions of 
winter come into operation ; one of which is wet weather. 
Again, since the equinox is as it were winter and summer 

1 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit., 36. 

2 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit., 42. 

3 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit., 36. 

4 And therefore they come to an end. \onv6v should be read for the 
icaningless 6epfj.6v from Theophrastus, /. c., orav yap aOpooi enTrvfva-aat, 


p.iKpov ylyverat TO AOITTOJ/. 

5 Lips does not correspond exactly to our SW. wind, being 30 and 
not 45 south of the West wind. See note on 94o a 18. 

BOOK XXVI. 26 942 1 

equally balanced, if anything is added to either one of 
them it causes a distinct inclination in one direction, just 
as happens in the case of equally balanced scales. But, 
since the South-West wind (Lips) is of the wintry order 943 
and naturally moist, its addition at the equinox causes an 
inclination towards winter and rainy weather ; for rain is 
the wintry weather most akin to the wind that has begun to 

27 Why are the South wind and the South-East wind (Eu- 5 
rus), 1 which are warmer than their respective contraries, the 
North wind and the West wind, more rainy, although water 
is engendered from the air by cold ? For it is not true 
that the clouds form because the North wind thrusts them 
away from our part of the world ; for the West and South- 
East winds both alike for they are similarly at the sides of 
the world 2 drive away clouds from the quarter from 
which they blow, as also do all the other winds. Is it 10 
because the more the heat exists outside, the more the cold 
is driven within ? Or is it due in some degree to the 
quarter from which they blow that certain winds bring 
clear weather ? For the South-East wind rises from the 
dawn (and the region is warm), while the West wind is 
situated towards the evening. 15 But is there not a further 
reason, namely, that air, like water, 4 cools most quickly and 15 
thoroughly when it is previously heated ? The air then 
brought by the South-East wind arrives warm from the 
rising sun, as does that brought by the South wind from 
the midday sun ; when, therefore, they reach the colder 
region, they quickly condense and become massed into 
rain. And the South-East wind has a greater tendency to 

1 Eurus does not correspond exactly with our SE. wind, being only 
30 south of the East wind (see note on 94o a 18). 

2 TrAd-yioi is contrasted with tivaQev and Kara)dfv (north and south). 
Cp. Meteor. 377 b 29. 

3 Reading drr r]ovs e crnV rySe 8e 77 x^P a {^ e PP?)" 7rp s (^) eviTfpav 
Kemu ^(pvpos. ?;<5e 77 x^P a can only refer to drr 7)01)9 ; it is therefore 
impossible to take it with npos ecnrepav, which must belong to (e(pvpos. 
We must therefore suppose that something has fallen out after fj8e Se 
77 x&>p, apparently Ofppfi, cp. below, 1. 17. Something may similarly 
have fallen out between KCU and e(pvpos. The Latin version of T. G. 
simply renders, eurns nainque ex ortu^favonius ex occasu advent at. 

4 Cp. Meteor. 348 b 30 ff. 


so form rain, because it brings the air more directly from the 
sun and equally hot ; but the South wind is rainy as it 
ceases to blow, because the first air that is brought comes 
cold from the sea, whereas the last air, which is very warm, 
is brought 1 from the land. Or is there not a further 
reason, namely, that the South wind is stronger as it ceases 

25 to blow (hence the proverb applied to it, * When the South 
wind begins . . . 2 ), and stronger winds are colder, and so 
the South wind masses the clouds together at the end of its 
duration? 3 Is not this why it is more rainy then than 
when it first begins to blow ? 

Why do the winds, though they are cold, cause dryness ? 28 
Is it because the colder winds cause evaporation ? But 
why should they do so more than the sun ? Is it because 
30 they carry off the vapour, whereas the sun leaves it where 
it is and consequently causes more moisture and less 
dryness ? 

Why does the North-East wind (Caecias) 4 alone of all the 29 
winds attract the clouds towards itself, 5 as the proverb has 
it, Drawing it to himself, as Caecias draws clouds 6 ? For 
the other winds simply drive forward the clouds from 
the quarter from which they blow. Is this phenomenon to 
35 be attributed to the fact that the contrary wind blows at 
the same time ? But would not this have been obvious, 
and is it not more likely that the North-East wind naturally 
follows a circular course ? The other winds therefore 
943 b blow round the earth, but the North-East wind (Caecias) 7 
has the concave side of its course towards the heavens and 
not towards the earth, and so, blowing towards its source, 
it attracts the clouds to itself. 

Why is it that the wind blows cold in the early morn- 30 
5 ing from rivers but not from the sea ? 8 Is it because the 

1 Reading Ko//i ercu for K0juiei. 

2 The complete hexameter is given at 945 a 29. 

3 Cp. chapters 20 and 38. 

4 See note on 94<D a 18. 5 Cp. above, chapter I. 

6 Reading wore for the sake of the metre instead of&crnep, cp. Meteor. 
364 b 13 (Nauck, Frag. Trag. Adesp. 50). 

7 Reading TOVTW (W. D. R.) for TOVTO. 

5 This problem also occurs in Book xxiii, chapter 16. 

BOOK XXVI. 30 943 

sea extends over open spaces, but rivers are in narrow 
places ? The breeze, therefore, from the sea is dispersed 
over a wide area and is consequently weak ; whereas the 
breeze from a river is carried along in a mass and is 
stronger and therefore naturally appears colder. Or is the 
reason other than this, namely, that the rivers are cold, 10 
but the sea is neither hot nor cold ? Now a breeze or 
exhalation is due to the heating or cooling of liquids ; l 
for whichever of these two processes they undergo, 
evaporation takes place, and, when water evaporates, the 
resultant air is set in motion, and this is a breeze. That 
which is produced from cold liquids naturally blows cold, 15 
while that which blows from very hot liquids cools and 
becomes cold. 2 One would therefore find that all the rivers 
are cold, but the sea is neither very hot nor very cold. 
That which blows from it therefore is not cold, because the 
sea is not itself very cold, nor does it cool quickly because 20 
the sea is not very hot. 

Why is the West wind always considered to bring fair 
weather and to be the pleasantest of the winds ? 3 So, for 
instance, Homer says that in the Elysian Plains 

Ever the breezes blow of the Zephyr. 4 
Is it because in the first place it has an equable tempera 
ture ? For it is neither hot like the winds from the south 
and east, nor cold like that from the north, but is 5 on the 25 
boundary between the cold and the hot winds ; and, being 
near to them both, it partakes of their qualities, and is 
consequently temperate and breathes most of spring. 
Furthermore, the winds change either into their contraries 
or into those on their right ; G blowing therefore after the 
North wind (for the west is on the right of the north 7 ), it 30 
enjoys a good reputation, as being mild as compared with 

1 Reading ^vx^p-evatv (rcov {rypcoy), cp. 933 a 36. 

2 Cp. 943 a 15 and note. 

3 The same problem is dealt with in chapter 55 below. 

4 Horn. Od. iv. 567, where, however, the textus receptus reads 

dXX alfl Ze(pvpoLO \iyv nveiovras drjTas 
Q,Kfavos dvirjo iv. 

5 Reading eWi for eVi, cp. 946 b 22. G Cp. 94i b 10. 

7 This contradicts the doctrine of 94i b 12 as emended by Bonitz 


an inclement wind. Also as soon as wintry weather ceases, 
fine weather usually follows ; and the North wind is a 
wintry wind. [The East wind, 1 though it lies between the 
warm and the cold winds, partakes less of them ; for, when 
35 it blows, it sets in motion the winds towards the south (for 
when it changes it does so in that direction), but though it 
sets them in motion it does not mingle with them. The 
West wind is set in motion by the South winds, and when it 
944 a blows it sets the North winds in motion ; for there the suc 
cession of the winds ceases. Hence the West wind, consti 
tuting as it does the end of some winds and the starting-point 
of others, justly is and is considered to be a pleasant wind.] 

Why does the South wind blow at the time of the Dog- 3 2 
5 star ? 2 Is it because a sign occurs 3 at the setting or rising 
of any star, and especially of the Dog-star ? It is clear then 
that the wind blows most at the time of and after its rising. 
And since it causes stifling heat, it is only natural that the 
hottest winds should be set in motion when it rises ; and 
the South wind is hot. And since, &c. (as 94i b 6-23). 

10 Why does the West wind blow towards evening and not 33 
in the early morning ? 4 Is the sun at its rising and setting 
usually the cause of breezes ? For when it concocts and 
dissolves the air, which is moist, by thoroughly heating it, 
it dissolves it into breath ; and if the air is full of breath, it 
becomes still more evaporated by the sun. When, there- 

15 fore, the sun is in the east, it is far away from the West 
wind, for the latter blows from the setting sun ; but when 
the sun is already near its setting, the breath is then 
thoroughly dissolved, and from midday onwards and 
towards evening the sun is most suitably situated for 
heating and dissolving the air. It is for this reason also 

20 that the East wind begins to blow in the early morning ; 
for since the air above the earth becomes charged with 

1 The remainder of the chapter does not occur in the best MSS. 
It certainly contradicts the doctrine just stated that winds change into 
those on their right, and in general it does not give satisfactory sense. 
The passage occurs again in chapter 55, where it is more relevant 

2 Cp. above, chapter 12 and note. 3 See note on 94i b 2. 
4 The same problem is treated in the first part of chapter 35 below. 

BOOK XXVI. 33 944* 

moisture during the night and owing to its weight 
approaches the earth, the sun from dawn onwards dis 
solves it and sets in motion first the air which is nearest to 
itself. Now the East wind get its name Apeliotes because 
it is the wind which blows from the rising sun. 1 

34 Why is it that when the sun rises the winds both rise 25 
and fall ? Is it because a wind is the movement either of 
the air or of moisture carried up ? Now this movement, 
when it is only slight, is quickly absorbed by the sun, so 
that no wind occurs ; but when it is greater, the movement 

is increased when the sun rises, for the sun is a source of 
movement. 30 

35 Why does the West wind blow in the evening ? 2 Is it 
because all the winds blow when the sun disperses the 
moisture ? For the moisture being already in a mass, the 
power of heat, when it approaches it, concocts it. 3 Now the 
West wind blows from the setting sun ; it is only natural 
then that it should rise in the evening, for then the sun 35 
reaches the quarter proper to that wind. 

The North and the South winds are the most frequent of 
winds, 4 because, when one contrary is overcome by its 
direct contrary, it is least able to continue, 5 whereas it is 
better able to resist a wind blowing against it from an 
angle. Now the South and the North winds blow from 944 b 
regions on either side of the sun s course, while the other 
winds blow rather in a straight line with it. 

36 Does the wind come from a source, as water does, and is 
it unable to rise to a higher level than that source, or is this 5 

1 i. e. the name Apeliotes is derived from dyro r]\iov. 

2 Cp. above, chapter 33. 

3 Reading eWeVrfi (cp. above, u, 12, 13) for the meaningless 

4 The latter part of the chapter deals with quite a different subject 
from the former portion. It is, indeed, quite possible that the Latin 
version of T. G., which renders, C^lr aquilo et auster saepissime 
spirant ? An quia, &c.. translates a better reading, and that a new 
problem should begin here : Why are the North and the South winds 
the most frequent of all the winds ? Is it because, c. 

5 And passes into its contrary, e. g. the North wind becomes the 
South wind and vice versa (cp. above, 94i b 10 ff.). 

G Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit.> 2. 



not so ? And does it come from a single point or from 
a wider area ? There are indeed in the wind certain 
similarities to that which seems to occur in water ; for 
water flows faster when it travels downhill, whereas it 
stagnates on flat and level 1 ground, and the winds act 

10 similarly, for on promontories and high ground the air is 
always in motion, whereas in hollows it is often at rest and 
there is a calm. Moreover on exceedingly high mountains 
there is no wind at all on Mount Athos, for example, 
amongst others, as is proved by the fact that offerings 
which persons sacrificing leave there one year are, so it is 

15 said, found there still in the following year. It is clear then 
that the course of the wind starts as it were from a source of 
some kind. 2 It cannot, therefore, rise any higher. Hence 
the above phenomenon occurs on high mountains, to which 
what happens to water would be a close parallel ; for 
apparently neither a strong flow of water nor a violent 

20 wind is found in high mountains. 

Why is it that when the South wind blows the sea 37 
becomes blue, but when the North wind blows it becomes 
dark ? 3 Is it because the North wind disturbs the sea less, 
and that which is less disturbed appears to be all black ? 

25 Why do the South winds when they blow gently cause 38 
no overclouding, but when they become strong overcloud 
the sky ? 4 Is it because, when they blow gently, they 
cannot thrust many clouds along ? 5 They therefore cover 
only a small area with cloud ; but, when they blow strongly, 
they thrust along many clouds, and therefore seem to cause 
more overclouding. 

30 Why is the North wind strong when it begins to blow, QQ 
but weak as it ceases, whereas the South wind is weak when 
it begins, but strong as it ceases ? Is it because the North 
wind is near to us and the South wind distant ? The former 
then, when it begins, blows immediately in one part of the 

1 Reading 6/zaXw with X a , AP. 2 Cp. Meteor. 360* 27. 

3 This problem is translated word for word by Aulus Gellius, ii. 30, 
as from Aristotle s Books of Problems. 4 Cp. above, chapter 20. 

5 Reading awQiw (W. D. R.) for Tromv ; cp. 1. 29. 

6 Cp. below, chapters 41 and 45, and Theophrastus, op. cit., 5. 

BOOK XXVI. 39 944 

world, whereas the beginning of the latter becomes dispersed 
owing to the long time it takes to travel, and little of its 35 
first breath reaches us ; and we feel the end of the North 
wind, but that of the South wind not at all. It is, therefore, 
only natural that the North wind should be weak as it ceases 
(for the end of all things is weak), while the South wind is 
not weak at its close, since we do not feel its ending at all. 

40 Why do alternating winds blow where there are bays, 945* 
but not where there is a \vide expanse of open sea ? Is it 
because the wind, when it pours into the bays, is less broken 

up and travels practically in a collected mass, whereas over 
open expanses of sea the land-winds tend to be broken up 5 
as they begin to flow, and when they move the same thing 
happens to them, because they are free to travel in many 
directions? For an alternating wind is the reflux of a 
land-wind. 1 

41 What is the origin of the saying, 

When the South wind begins and when Boreas ceases 

his blowing ? 2 

Is it because the North wind, owing to the fact that we live 
near it and our habitation is towards the pole, immediately 10 
blows strongly, for it is with us as soon as it begins ? Hence, 
as it ceases, it blows pleasantly ; for it then blows weakly. 
The South wind, on the other hand, because it is far away, 
reaches us later in greater strength. 

4 2 Why is it that men feel heavier and weaker when the 
wind is in the south ? :! Is it because moisture becomes 
abundant instead of scanty, being melted by the heat, and 15 
moisture, which is heavy, takes the place of breath, which 

is light, and under these conditions men s strength becomes 
languid ? 

43 Why are men hungrier when the wind is in the north 
than when it is in the south ? Is it because the North 
winds are colder ? 

1 Reading airoyias (W. D. R.). 

2 Cp. chapters 39 and 45. The complete proverb is eu TrXel 
&c. (cp. 1. 29). 

3 A longer version of this problem occurs in Book i. 24. 


Why does the South wind not blow in Egypt itself in 44 

20 the regions towards the sea nor for the distance of a day 

and a night s journey inland, 1 while in the regions beyond 

Memphis and for the distance of a day and a night s journey 

it blows freshly ; and does not blow to the west for the 

distance of two days and two nights journey, while to the 

east the South-West wind (Lips) 2 blows ? Is it because 

Egypt in its lower regions is hollow, so the South wind 

25 passes over above it, but to the south and farther away the 

regions are loftier ? 

Why is it that the South wind is weak when it begins 45 
to blow, but becomes stronger as it ceases, while with the 
North wind the contrary is the case , hence the proverb, 

Sail when the South wind begins and when Boreas 
ceases his blowing ? 3 

30 Is it because we dwell rather towards the pole than towards 
the midday sun, and the North wind blows from the pole, 
while the South wind blows from the midday sun ? It is 
only natural, therefore, that the North wind, when it 
begins, immediately attacks with violence the regions 
nearer to it, and afterwards transfers its violence to the 
dwellers farther south. The South wind, on the contrary, 

35 when it begins, presses upon those who dwell towards the 
midday sun, and, when it has passed them by, blows freshly 
upon those who dwell towards the pole. 

What is the origin of the saying, -g 

Straightway the winter comes, if the South wind call 
to the North wind ? 4 

Is it because it is the nature of the South wind to collect 5 

clouds and much rain ? \Vhen therefore the North wind 

945 b blows under these conditions, since there is abundant 

1 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit., 8. 

2 Lips is strictly speaking slightly to the north of the SW. wind, 
being only 30 south of the West wind, see note on 940* 18. 

3 Cf. above, chapters 39 and 41. There should be a question mark 
after /3opeao in place of a comma. 

4 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit., 46. 

6 Reading o-vvaipelv ; T. G. renders colligat. 

BOOK XXVI. 46 945 

material, the North wind freezes it and brings on the 
winter. Hence the saying 1 , 

When Boreas fmdeth the mire, soon cometh the season 
of winter. 

Now mud and rain in general are usually, if not invariably, 
due to the South wind. 

47 Why does the North wind follow quickly upon the South 5 
wind, but not the South wind upon the North wind ? l Is it 
because the North wind arrives from near at hand, but the 
South wind from a distance, since our habitation is towards 
the pole ? 

48 Why is it that the winds are cold, although they are due 
to movement caused by heat ? 2 Is movement caused by 
heat not invariably hot, but only when it occurs in a certain 10 
manner ? If it comes forth 3 in a mass, it burns with its heat 
the very thing which emits it ; but if it passes out gradually 
through a narrow space, it is itself hot, but the air which is 
set in motion by this process completes the movement in 
accordance with whatever was its original nature. 4 This 
can be seen in the mouth ; 5 for there is a saying that from 15 
the same organ we breathe both hot and cold, 6 but this is 
untrue, since all that proceeds from the mouth is hot, as is 
shown by the fact that it appears hot if the hand is placed 
close to the mouth. It is the manner in which it comes 
forth which makes the difference. For if in yawning we 
emit breath from a wide opening, it appears hot because 
we can feel it ; but if it be emitted through a narrow 
opening, being more violent, it impels the air in its imme- 2 o 
diate neighbourhood, which in its turn impels the adjoining 
air. If the air is cold, its movement is also cold. May not 
the same thing happen also in the winds, and their first 
movement be through a narrow channel and then set in 

1 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. /., 9. 

2 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit., 19-20. 

3 Reading, with Theophrastus, e /cTrtVr/; for e^ 71 " 71 " 7 "//- 

4 i. e. temperature. 

5 Reading O-TO AI^TO? for o-co^aros- (cp. Theoph. 20). 

6 Cp. Aesop, Fab. 64 (ed. Halm). 


motion 1 the adjoining air, and then other air begin to rush 
onwards ? So in the summer the winds are hot, in winter 

35 they are cold, because in each case this is the temperature 
of the air which is already there ; for that the air does not 
follow this course because it is either set in motion by itself 
or overpowered by the heat, is clear not only from the fact 
that it heats the winds when there is more heat in it, but 
also because it was originally being carried upwards. For 

30 fire is of this nature ; whereas cold naturally travels down 
wards. The winds move horizontally and for good reason ; 
for since the heat presses upwards and the cold downwards 
and neither prevails, and the air cannot remain still, it is 
only natural 2 that its motion should be sideways. 

35 Why are the South winds cold in Libya as the North winds 49 
are with us ? 3 Is it primarily because the sources of these 
winds are respectively nearer to us and to them ? For if, 
as we have already said, 4 the winds pass through a narrow 
channel, they will be colder to those who are nearer to 
them owing to the violence of their movement; for when 
their movement proceeds farther, they become dispersed. 
Hence the North winds are cold in our part of the world, 
because we are nearer to them and dwell quite near the 

Why is it that those South winds which are dry and do 50 
5 not bring rain cause fever ? 5 Is it because they engender 
unnatural moist heat in the body ? For they are by nature 
moist and hot, and this causes fever, which is due to a 
combined excess of these two things. When, therefore, the 
South winds blow under the influence of the sun without 
bringing rain, they engender this condition in us ; c whereas, 
when they bring rain with them, the rain cools us. 

1 For this meaning of Siafapa) cp. Soph. Track. 323. 

2 Reading tiKos for eiKorwr, cp. 941 a 1 6 and note. 

I Cp. 942*7. * inn. 22 ff. above. 

5 This chapter (the source of which is Theophrastus, op. cit., 7) is 
partly identical with i. 23, 

^ Reading raurqi/ r^u Siddea-iv TTOLOVOL (from 862 a 2i) for the corrupt 


BOOK XXVI. 51 946* 

51 Why do the periodical winds always blow at the season TO 
at which they do blow l and with the force with which they 
blow ? 2 And why do they cease at close of day and not 
blow during the night ? Is this due to the fact that the 
melting of snow by the sun ceases towards evening and at 
night ? Now these winds blow in general when the sun 
begins to prevail and melt the northern ice. When the ice 15 
begins to melt, the forerunners blow ; when it is already 
melting, the periodic winds blow. 

52 Why is the West wind at once the gentlest of winds and 
also cold, and why does it blow mainly at two seasons, 
namely, spring and autumn, and towards evening, and 
usually in the direction of the land ? 3 Is it cold because it 20 
blows from the sea and from extended areas ? It is less 
cold indeed than the North wind, because it blows from 
evaporated water and not from snow ; but it is cold, because 
it blows either after the winter, when the sun is only just 
beginning to prevail, or in the autumn, when the sun no 
longer has power. For it does not have to wait for its 
proper matter, 4 as it would if it were a land-wind, but 25 
wanders freely, because it has travelled over water. 5 For 
the same reason it blows evenly ; for it does not blow from 
mountains or from forcibly melted matter, but flowing 
gently as through a channel. For the regions towards the 
north and south are mountainous ; but towards the west 
there is neither mountain nor land but the Atlantic Sea, 
so that it travels in the direction of the land. Further, it 3 
blows towards evening owing to the quarter from which 
it comes ; for the sun then approaches that quarter. It 
ceases at night because the movement set up by the sun 
dies down. 

1 The form ravr^v, which Ruelle reads, does not exist ; the MSS. 
read ra^r^v. 

2 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit., n. 

8 The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. cit., 38, 40, 41. 

4 Reading uA^, cp. 947 a 2, 3. The lacuna in Theophrastus, op. ctt., 
40 ad fin. (ed. Wimmer), can be filled from this passage, viz. ou yap 
cotTTrep v yfj (inrop-evei rrjv vXr)^ dAAa KT\, 

5 i. e. where there is evaporation everywhere going on, and therefore 
matter for wind. 

645-25 TJ 


Why do all things appear larger when the South-East 53 
wind (Eurus) 1 blows? 2 Is it because it makes the air 
gloomier ? 3 

35 Why is it that during the winter the winds blow early 54 
and from the east, but in summer in the evening and from 
the setting sun ? 4 Is it because what happens in our part 
of the world during the summer occurs during the winter 
among those who inhabit the opposite hemisphere of the 
earth, and with us in the winter the winds blow early and 
from the east, because the air, which during the night is 
Q46 b full of moisture, 5 is dissolved and set in motion by the sun 
in the early morning, the air nearest the sun being the first 
to be affected ? The sun begins to produce this effect even 
before it rises ; therefore the breezes blow just as much 
before sunrise. Since then the sun attracts the moisture to 
5 itself and in the winter before its rising sets in motion in 
our part of the earth the air which is moist, it is clear that 
it would also attract the moisture when it is in the southern 
hemisphere, and it would be evening there when it is early 
morning with us. The result would be that the air, which 
the sun attracts to itself before its rising in our part of the 
world, would become a West wind to the dwellers in the 

I0 south and would blow in the evening. Now what happens 
during our winter at dawn happens to them in the evening, 
and what happens in the summer to them at dawn happens 
to us in the evening ; 6 for when it is summer here, it is 
winter there, and our evening is their early morning, at 
which time they have breezes from the east, 7 while we have 

15 West winds for the same reasons as are mentioned above. 
In the summer breezes do not blow from the east, because 
the sun, when it rises, finds the air in our part of the earth 
still too dry, owing to the short period of its absence ; and 

1 See note on 943* 5. 2 Reading TTV^ for irvcl. 

8 Reading o<t><adforepov (Platt). 4 Cp. above, chapter 21. 

6 Reading ndtivypov (6Wa) (Richards). 

6 The sentence as it stands in the text is clearly incomplete, and 
something like the following must be read : 6 de lv ro> Trap fjn&v 

TTJS ceo, eKeivots \Trjs SeiA?/?} arunfiaivti o 8e ev r<w Bepci (TIJS eo> C 
TJJS 8ei\t)s rjfJiiv. 

7 Reading ca> for e co 

BOOK XXVI. 54 946 1 

West winds do not blow in the evening during the 
winter, because East winds do not blow in the southern 
hemisphere either at that time for the aforesaid reasons, in 
virtue of which the sun attracts the moisture to itself and 2 o 
produces l the West wind in our part of the earth. 

55 Why is the West wind always considered to bring fair 
weather and to be the pleasantest of the winds? 2 Is it 
because it is on the boundary between the hot and the cold 
winds, and being near to them both it partakes of their 
qualities, and is therefore temperate ? The East wind, 
though it also lies between the hot and the cold winds, 25 
partakes less of them ; for when it blows it sets in motion 
the winds towards the south (for, when it changes, it does 
so in that direction), but, though it sets them in motion, it 
does not mingle with them. The West wind is set in motion 
by the South winds and, when it blows, it sets the North 
winds in motion ; for there the succession of the winds 
ceases. Hence the West wind, constituting as it does the 30 
end of some winds and the starting-point of others, justly is 
and is considered to be a pleasant wind. 

56 Why are different winds rainy in different places ; 3 for 
example. Hellespontias 4 (the East wind) in Attica and the 
islands, the North wind on the Hellespont and in Cyrene, 
and the South wind round Lesbos ? Is it because rain 
occurs wherever there is a collection of clouds, since density 35 
collects wherever it can settle ? It is for this reason that 
there is more rain among the mountains than where the 
mass of clouds can find a free passage, for that which is 
confined becomes dense as a necessary consequence ; also 
it rains more in calm weather. In the Hellespont the North 
wind, blowing from its upper end, masses together many 947** 
clouds, which Hellespontias (the East wind) drives towards 
Attica and the islands, being thus provided with ample 
material ; for most clouds come round from the north. 

should perhaps be read here for noiel, for the sun to attract 
the moisture to itself and cause , &c. 

2 This chapter is a shorter version of chapter 31 above. 

3 A longer version of chapter 7. 

4 Another name for Apeliotes, cp. Vent. Sit. 973* 22. 

U 2 


Round Lesbos the South- East (Eurus) l and South winds 
5 bring much cloud from the open sea and drive 2 it against 
the land. Similar instances might be quoted for the other 

What is the origin of the saying, 57 

Have no fear of a cloud from the land in the season of 

Bu if it come from over the deep have a care ; and in 

Ever distrust the cloud that sweeps from the gloom of 

the mainland ? y 

Is it because in the winter the sea is warmer, so that, if any 
10 cloud has formed, it must have done so from some powerful 
cause, otherwise it would have been dissolved, because the 
region in which it forms is warm ? Now in the summer 
the sea is cold, as also are the sea breezes, but the land is 
hot, so that if any cloud comes from the land, it must have 
been formed from some considerable cause ; for it would 
have been dissolved if it had been weak. 

15 Why is it that in Arcadia, which is high, the winds are 58 
no colder than elsewhere, but when there is no w r ind and it 
is cloudy, it is cold, just as it is in flat, marshy districts ? 
Is it because Arcadia resembles a marshy district, since it 
has no outlet for its waters to the sea, for which reason also 

20 there are many chasms there ? When, therefore, there is 
a wind, it winnows away the exhalations from the earth, 
which are cold, but the winds themselves are not cold, 
because they arrive from the sea ; but when there is no 
wind the vapour which rises from the stagnant water 
causes the cold. 

35 Why is it that the wind lasts a long time when it begins 59 
to blow at dawn ? Is it because, when the sun rises, the 
impetus given to the wind is very violent and can therefore 
maintain its character? That this is so is shown by the 
fact that it forms a strong mass. 

1 See note on 946* 33. 2 Reading with Sylburg Trpocr/SaXXovtri. 

3 ^The ^source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. tit., 60, where 
us arrb novrov should be emended a\\ anb TTOVTOV. Cp. 938^ IO. 

BOOK XXVI. 60 947 a 

60 Why is it that the North wind is keen during the day 
but falls at night ? Is it because it is generated from frozen 
rain when this is evaporated by the sun ? It falls at night, 30 
because the process does not go on as before, but is re 
versed ; for at night the North wind expends itself, 1 but it 
is less apt to do so during the day. 

61 Why is it that when many spiders webs 2 are borne 
through the air, they are a sign of wind ? Is it because 
the spider works in fine weather, but the webs are set in 35 
motion because the air, as it cools, collects on the ground, 
and this cooling process is the beginning of winter, so that 
the movement of the webs is a sign ? Or is it because 
after rain and storms the spiders ! are borne through the 
air in large numbers, since they work in fine weather (for 
they do not appear at all in the winter, the spider being 

an animal 4 which cannot support the cold), and as they are 947 
borne along by the wind they unwind a quantity of web ? 
Now after rain winds usually blow. 

62 Why is it that the strong North winds r< in winter cause 
clouds in the cold regions, but outside them bring a clear 5 
sky ? fi Is it because they are at the same time cold and 
strong, and in the regions near the north they are colder 
and so congeal the clouds before they can drive them along, 
and the clouds, when they are congealed, remain where 
they are owing to their weight ? Elsewhere, however, it 
is their strength rather than their coldness which takes 

1 For this meaning of e /c7iWo> cp. 942** 24, and the similar use of 
94 1 b 36. 

2 . e. gossamers. 

3 Reading apo^wi/ for apaxviuv. Though apa^/oy is frequently used 
in the sense of a small spider , in this passage it seems always 
to mean spider s web , and apa\vu>v must be read to agree with 
fpyao[jievo)v and to provide a masculine plural to which (pepo/jeyoi may 

4 Reading TO drjptov for roSe (Bonitz). 

5 Reading 01 /3operu (ot) /MfyaXot. 

J The source of this problem is Theophrastus, op. tit., 6, 7. 

947 b 



WHY do those who are afraid tremble P 1 Is it due to the I 
process of chilling ? For the heat fails and contracts ; that 
is also why the bowels usually are loosened. 2 

15 Why do men become thirsty under certain conditions, 2 
those, for example, who are about to be punished? 3 For 
this ought not to be so, since they are chilled. Is it because 
the chilling and heating do not occur in the same region, 
but the former takes place on the surface of the body, from 
which the heat departs, but the heating takes place in the 
interior, so that it warms it, as is proved by the fact that 
the bowels become loosened ? For thirst occurs when 

20 the sovereign region 4 of the body becomes dry. The same 
thing seems to happen as occurs in those suffering from 
ague, 5 who are thirsty and cold at the same time ; for in 
their case too the same part of the body is not hot and cold. 

Why is it that under the influence of anger men become 3 
heated and bold (the heat collecting in the interior of the 
body), whereas in a state of fear they are in a contrary 
25 condition ? Is it because they are not affected in the same 
region, but in those who are angry the heat collects in the 
region of the heart hence they become courageous and 
red in the face and full of breath the course of the heat 
being upwards, whereas in those w r ho are afraid the blood 
and heat both retreat in a downward direction hence the 
bowels become loosened. For the beating of the heart is 

1 This problem is dealt with more fully in chapters 6 and 7. 

See below, chapter 10. 3 Cp. below, chapter 8. 

* The region in which the most important organs are situated ; cp. 
Kvpia nopta, Gen. An. 744 b 31. 

B The exact nature of this disease is doubtful; see W. H. S. Jones, 
Malaria, a Neglected Factor in the History of Greece and Rome, 
PP- 25, 36, 37. 

BOOK XXVII. 3 947 b 

different, since in those who are frightened it is frequent and 3 
strongly punctuated, as would naturally occur from the 
failure of heat, while in those who are angry it has the 
character which one would expect when a greater quantity 
of heat collects. Hence the expressions about anger boil 
ing up and rising and being stirred up and the like 
are apt and fitting. Is the thirst also due to this cause, 
since dry-spitting and the parching of the tongue and the 35 
like are due to the simultaneous upward rush of breath 
and heat? Thirst, moreover, is clearly due to the body 
becoming heated. How then can the same region, namely, 
that in which we feel thirst, become dried up both in one 
who is afraid and in one who is angry ? That fear tends 
to produce thirst is clearly shown in the case of routed 948* 
soldiers ; for under no other condition is such thirst ex 
perienced. The same is true of those suffering from great 
anxiety ; therefore they wash out their mouths and swallow 
liquid, as did Parmenon the actor. Or is it in such cases 
not thirst but dryness due to the flight of blood (whence 
also they become pale) ? This is indicated by the fact that 5 
they do not drink much but simply take a gulp ; routed 
soldiers on the other hand are undergoing violent exer 
tion. 1 So those who are about to be punished feel thirst, 
and in this there is nothing strange. In war some brave 
men even, when they are drawn up in battle array, actually 
tremble when they are not distraught but confident; and 
they often beat their bodies with a flat cane or, failing 10 
that, with the hand, in order that they may be warmed. 2 
It seems probable that owing to the violence and impetus 
of the heat a disturbing inequality of the temperature is set 
up in the body. 

4 Why are brave men generally fond of wine ? Is it 
because the brave are full of heat, and the heat is in the 
region of the chest ? (For it is there also that fear shows 15 
itself, acting as a process of cooling ; with the result that 3 

1 Which gives a reason for their excessive thirst in addition to the 
effect of fear. 

2 Reading with Richards x f P^ lv ( tl O avn^eppavd^. 

3 Omitting rot? /neV, inserted by Ruelle without MS. authority. 


less 1 heat remains in the region of the heart, and in some 
men the heart beats violently as it is cooled.) Those 
then who have an abundance of blood in their lungs have 
hot lungs, as though they were drunk, and so the presenti 
ment of danger does not chill them. Such men are fond of 
drinking ; for the desire for drink is due to the heat of this 

20 region, as has been stated elsewhere, 2 and the desire is for 
that which has power to stop the heat. Now wine is 
naturally hot and satisfies the thirst better than water, 
particularly in those whom we are now considering ; 3 the 
reason for this has been stated elsewhere. 4 Hence those 
who are suffering from inflammation of the lungs and those 

25 who are mad both desire wine, though the lungs of the 
former are hot owing to the fever, and those of the latter 
owing to their state of disturbance. Since, then, the same 
people are usually of a thirsty and of a brave kind, and 
those who are thirsty desire wine and are therefore fond of 
drinking, it necessarily follows that the two characteristics 
of bravery and fondness for wine usually go together. 

30 Hence those who are drunk are braver than those who 
are not. 

Why do states honour courage more than anything else, 5 
though it is not the highest of the virtues ? Is it because 
they are continually either making war or having war made 
against them, and courage is most useful in both these 
circumstances ? They, therefore, honour not that which is 
ideally best, but that which is best for themselves. 

35 Why do those w r ho are afraid tremble most in the voice, 6 
the hands, and the lower lip ? 5 Is it because this affection 
is due to the departure of heat from the upper parts of the 
body ? If so, their pallor is due to the same cause. The 
voice, then, trembles owing to the departure of heat from 
the chest, the region in which the voice is set in motion 

Reading fJTTuv (Bussemaker) and omitting p.ev t which is due to 
* Cp. 8;2 a 4ff. 

Reading rwi/ TOIOVTWV (sc. TCOI> di/SpaW) for rS>v avTaw which gives 
no sense : T. G. renders maximeque id genus hominum. 
4 The reference cannot be identified. 
6 Cp. chapters I and 7, and xi. 31. 

BOOK XXVII. 6 948 a 

thus becoming cooled. So too with the hands ; for they 
are attached to the chest. The lower lip trembles, and not 948 b 
the upper, because the upper lip hangs downwards l in the 
direction of its natural tendency ; but the upward direction 
of the lower lip is contrary to nature and it is held steady 
in that position by the heat. When, therefore, the heat is 
withdrawn as the process of cooling takes place, it trembles. 
For the same reason the lip hangs down when a man is 
angry, as can be seen clearly in children ; for the heat 5 
rushes together into the heart. 

7 Why do those who are afraid tremble, especially in the 
voice, the hands, and the lower lip ? 2 Is it because the heat 
fails in the region of the body in which the voice is situated, 
while the trembling of the lip and hands is due to the fact 
that they are very easily set in motion and contain very 
little blood ? Those who are afraid also emit bile and their 10 
sexual organs contract, the emission of bile being due to 
the heat which descends and causes liquefaction, while the 
contraction of the sexual organs is due to the fact that fear 
comes from outside, and therefore the rush of heat is in the 
contrary direction. 3 

8 Why do those who are afraid feel both thirst and cold, 
these being contrary affections ? 4 Do they feel cold because 
they are chilled, and thirst because they are heated, since [5 
under the influence of fear the heat and the moisture leave 
the upper parts of the body ? That this happens is shown 
by the change of colour and by the effect on the bowels ; 
for the face becomes pale and the bowels are sometimes 
loosened. The cold, therefore, is caused by the departure 
of the heat, and the thirst by the departure of the moisture, 5 
from the upper parts of the body. 

9 Why is it that, although both fear and pain are a kind of 20 
grief, those who are in pain cry out, but those who are 

1 Reading TO 8e KUTCO ^eiXo? nXX ov TO avwdev 
Kara) /cpe/narot /crX. 

2 Another version of the problem of chapter 6. 
Cp. 949 a 15 " r6 T v fltpp-ov eKKKpifj,evov. 

4 This question has already been touched upon in chapter 3. 

5 Reading 8u\ TO (TO) vypbv (sc. fnXcinftv) with Bonitz and Richards. 


afraid keep silence ? Is it because those who are in pain 
hold their breath (and so it is emitted all at once and comes 
forth with a loud cry), whereas the body of those who are 
afraid is chilled and the heat is carried downwards and 

25 creates breath ? It creates breath in the particular region 
to which it is carried ; hence those who are frightened 
break wind. Now the voice is a rush of breath upwards 
in a particular manner and through certain channels ; and 
the reason why those who are in pain hold the breath is 
that when we suffer anything (just as the other animals use 
their horns or teeth or claws in self-defence) we invariably 

3 o make use straightway and without thought of the resources 
which we have in ourselves by nature, and against all or 
most forms of pain heat is helpful. This is what occurs 
when a man holds his breath ; for he applies heat and con 
coction to the pain by collecting heat within him by means 
of the breath. 

35 Why is it that in those who are afraid the bowels are 10 
loosened and they desire to pass urine ? 1 Is it because the 
heat in us is as it were alive ? It therefore flees \vhenever it 
is afraid of anything. Since, then, the fears due to nervous 
ness and the like come from without and pass from the upper 
to the lower parts of the body and from the surface to the 
94 g a interior, the regions round the bowels and bladder becom 
ing heated are loosened 2 and make these organs ready to 
function. For anise and wormwood and all substances 
which promote the flow of urine have heating properties. 
Similarly the drugs which affect the bowels are those 

1 This problem is quoted as Aristotelian by Aulus Gellius (xix. 4) : 
A ristotelis libri simt qui problemata physica inscribuntur, lepidissimi 
et elegantiarum omne genus referti. In his quaerit quam ob causam 
evcniat, ut quibus invasit repentinus rei magnae timor plerumque alvo 
statim cita fiant . . . ac de alvo quidem inter timendum prona atque 
praecipiti causam esse dicit quod timor omnibus sit algijicus, qiiem ille 
appellat ^U^POTTOITJTIKOV, quae iris frigoris sanguinem caldoremque 

omnem de su)nma corporis cute cogat penitus etdepellat^fadatque simul 
uti qui timent, sanguine ex ore decedente, pallescant. Is autem, inquit, 
san^uis et caldor in iiltima coactus movet plerumque alvum et incitat. 
While Aulus Gellius gives in the main the substance of this problem, 
it is noticeable that the word ^VXP^OL^TIKOV does not occur in the text 
as we have it, nor indeed elsewhere in the Aristotelian Corpus. 
Reading d) for 8(, as suggested by Richards. 

BOOK XXVII. 10 949 

which cause heat in the lower parts of the body, 1 and some 
of those which are applied merely 2 have a loosening effect, 
while others set up a further process of liquefaction, like 5 
garlic, which passes into the urine/ 5 Now heat coming 
from the surfaces of the body and meeting in these regions 
has the same effect as such drugs. 

II Why do the sexual organs contract in those who are 
afraid ? For one would expect the contrary to happen, 
namely, that they should become relaxed, since the heat 10 
collects in this region in those who are afraid. Is it because 
those who are afraid are almost always as it were chilled ? 
Their sexual organs therefore contract, because the heat 
has left the surface of the body ; hence also those who are 
greatly frightened have internal rumblings. The surface 
of the body and the skin of those who are cold seems to 
contract, because the heat is driven out ; and it is for this 15 
reason too that they shiver. Now the scrotum too contracts 
upwards and the testicles also are lifted up with it as it 
is drawn in. 4 This is more readily seen in the effect on 
the sexual organs ; for fear causes excretion, and an emis 
sion of semen often occurs 5 in those who are nervous or 20 
greatly alarmed. 

1 Reading TU>V Kara). 2 Reading pwov with X a , Y a , AP. 

3 Cp. above, 9o8 a 28 ff. 

4 Reading avrr/ crvcrre^Xo^vrj for avrols crucrreAAo/ueVa)i> (cp. the Latin 
version of T. G. atqite eo (sc. scrotd) contracto ima testiculi contra- 
huntur}. There is nothing for nvrot? to refer to, and the view of 
Bonitz (Index, sub -voce o-imreAAoo) that rruoTeXAdjueyoi is equivalent to 
0o/3ou/nei/oi can hardly be right. aureo-ruA^eVoi might conceivably mean 
downcast (cp. Eurip. H. F. 1417 (nWaraA^ni Kaicois), but this is 
scarcely the sense required here, and the present participle could not 
possibly bear this meaning. 

5 Reading o-u/x/ScuW* (Platt) for avyKivel f]. 






WHY is it that some men become ill when, after having i 
been accustomed to live intemperately, they adopt a tem- 
25 perate mode of life? For example, Dionysius the tyrant, 
when during the siege 1 he ceased drinking for a short 
time, immediately became consumptive, until he changed 
his manner of life and began to drink again. Is it because 
in every one habit is a matter of importance, since it soon 
becomes a second nature ? Just, then,^ as a fish would 
fare ill if it continued long in the air or a man if he con- 
so tinued long in the water, so those who alter their manner 
of life suffer from the change, and a resumption of their 
accustomed mode of life is just as much their salvation as if 
they were returning to a natural condition. Furthermore, 
men waste away if they have been accustomed to large quan 
tities of a particular diet ; for if they do not receive their 
usual food, they are reduced to the condition in which they 
35 would be if they had no nourishment at all. Moreover, 
the excretions, when mixed with a large quantity of food, 
disappear, but by themselves they rise to the surface and are 
carried to the eyes or lungs ; whereas, if one takes nourish 
ment, they mix with it and become diluted and harmless. 
949 But in those who live an intemperate life the excretions 
become superabundant up to a certain point, when they 
cease from their accustomed mode of life, owing to the fact 
that much undigested matter is still present in them from 
their former manner of living; and, when this is melted, 
like a mass of snow, by the natural heat, the result is that 
5 violent fluxes take place. 

i. e. the siege of Syracuse by the Carthaginians in 397 B. C. 
Reading ovv for av (Richards). 


2 Why is it that we speak of men as incontinent in con 
nexion with two only of the senses, namely, touch and 
taste P 1 Is it because of the pleasures that result from these 
in us and in the other animals ? Being then shared by the 
animals, they are held in least honour and so are regarded 
as the only pleasures deserving of reproach, or at any rate 
more so than any others. So we blame a man who is a 
slave to them and call him incontinent and intemperate, 10 
because he is a slave to the worst pleasures. 

3 Why are men called incontinent in respect only of their 
desires, although incontinence is possible also in anger? 
Is it because an incontinent man is one who acts in some 
way contrary to reason, and incontinence is a mode of life r 5 
which is contrary to reason, and the desires are, generally 
speaking, contrary to reason ? Feelings of anger, on the 
other hand, are in consonance with reason, not in the sense 
that reason prompts them, but in the sense that reason 
informs us of the insult or of the charge made against us. 

4 Why is it that we approve most of continence and 2 o 
temperance in the young and wealthy, and of justice in the 
poor ? Is it because we feel most admiration if a man 
abstains from what he most desires, rather than from the 
contrary ? Now a poor man desires easy circumstances, 
while a rich young man wants enjoyment. 25 

5 Why can men tolerate thirst less easily than hunger? 2 
Is it because thirst is more painful ? A proof that it is 
so is the fact that there is more pleasure in drinking when 
one is thirsty than in eating when one is hungry. Now 
the contrary of what is more pleasant 3 is more painful. Or 
is it because the heat whereby we live 4 requires moisture 
more? 5 Or is it because thirst is a desire of two things, 30 
namely, drink and food, but hunger is a desire of only one, 
namely, food ? 

1 Cp. below, chapter 7. The doctrine is that of E. N. 1148* 8-10. 

2 Cp. chapter 6. 

3 Reading T fjftiovt, since the comparative is demanded by the 
sense. 4 Heat being rj ^vxn<n px*l (G- A. 75i b 6). 

5 Reading 5emu TOU vypov TO Sep/jiov co Coo/xej (W. D. R.). r) TO rjpov 

appears to be a gloss which has replaced TO 6epp,6v, and TO Bcppov has 
been afterwards inserted in the wrong place. 


Why can we endure thirst less than hunger? 1 Is it 6 
because the former causes us more pain ? A proof of the 
pain it causes is the fact that the pleasure it gives is more 
intense. 2 Further, he who is thirsty needs two things, 
35 nourishment and cooling, and drink provides both of these ; 
but he who is hungry needs one of them only. 

Why are men called incontinent if they indulge to excess 7 
in the pleasures connected with touch and taste ? 3 (For 
95O a those who are intemperate in sexual intercourse and the 
enjoyments of eating and drinking are called incontinent ; 
and in the joys of eating- and drinking the pleasure is partly 
in the tongue and partly in the throat ; hence Philoxenus 4 
longed for the throat of a crane.) And why is the term incon 
tinent never extended to the pleasures of sight and hearing? 
5 Is it because the pleasures of touch and taste are common 
to us and the other animals ? Being, then, shared by the 
animals they are held in least honour and so are regarded as 
the only pleasures deserving of reproach, or at any rate more 
so than any others. So we blame a man who is a slave to 
them and call him incontinent and intemperate, because he 
is a slave to the worst pleasures. Now the senses being 
I0 five in number, the other animals find pleasure only in the 
two already mentioned ; in the others they find no pleasure, 
or, if they do, it is only incidentally. For the lion 5 rejoices 
when he sees or scents his prey, because he is going to 
enjoy it ; 6 and when he has satisfied his hunger, such 
things do not please him, just as the smell of dried fish 
15 gives us no pleasure when we have eaten our fill of it, 
though, when we wanted to partake of it, it was pleasant. 7 

1 Cp. chapter 5. 2 Reading f] rjdovij ()?) o-(/>oporepa. 

3 Cp. above, chapter 2. This problem is quoted in Greek by Aulus 
Gellius (xix. 2) as Aristotelian. 
\ Cp. E. E. i23i a 17. 

5 The repetition of 6pS>v . . . opfov here is unsatisfactory, and in any 
case we should expect a neuter to agree with woi/ understood. In 
E. N. in8 a i8ff., where the same subject is discussed, the example 
taken of an animal is the lion. We ought certainly, therefore, to read 
here 6p&v /iei/ yap 6 XeW. [Richards (pp. /., p. 144) makes the same 

6 Reading arroXavo-fi (Bonitz). 

7 Reading ^daa (Sylburg) for q& a. 


The scent of the rose, on the other hand, is always 

8 Why are men less able to restrain their laughter in the 
presence of friends ? Is it because, when anything is espe 
cially elated, it is easily set in motion ? Now benevolence 
causes elation, 1 so that laughter more readily moves us. 

is clearly corrupt. The point of the solution of the problem 
appears to depend on the metaphorical use of eru peii> ; and something 
like the following seems to be required : f) d* (Cvoia eaipei, wore 
juaXAoz; ro ye\oiov. 

950 a 



WHY is it that, although injustice is greater according as I 
the good which is injured is greater, and honour is a greater 
good, yet injustice in the matter of money seems to be 
more serious and those who are unjust as regards money 
25 are considered more unjust ? Is it because men prefer 
money to honour, and money is common to all, whereas 
honour comes only to a few and its enjoyment is a rare 
occurrence ? 

Why is it a more terrible thing to rob a man of a deposit 2 
than of a loan ? 1 Is it because it is disgraceful to wrong 
a friend ? Now he who robs another of a deposit does 

30 wrong to a friend ; for no one places a deposit with another 
unless he trusts him. A creditor, on the other hand, is not 
a friend ; for, if a man is a friend, he gives and does not 
lend. Or is it because the injustice is greater, since, in 
addition to the loss inflicted, he also violates his plighted 
word, for the sake of which, if for no other reason, he 
ought to abstain from doing the wrong ? Further, it is 

35 base not to requite like with like ; for the one party in 
making the deposit regarded the other as his friend, but 
the latter in robbing him treated him as an enemy ; but 
a lender does not lend in the spirit of friendship. Again, 
a deposit is handed over to be guarded and returned, 
whereas the lender lends for his own advantage as well. 
Now we are less angry at losing if we are in pursuit of 
95o b gain, like fishermen when they lose their bait ; for the 
risk is obvious. Again, those who make deposits are 
generally the victims of plots or misfortune, but it is the 
rich who lend money ; and it is more terrible to wrong the 
unfortunate than the fortunate. 

J Cp. below, chapter 6. 

BOOK XXIX. 3 950 

3 Why is it that in some law courts the jury give their 5 
verdict 1 in accordance with the birth of the litigants rather 
than the provisions of the will ? Is it because about birth it is 
impossible to lie, but the truth must be declared, whereas 
before now many wills have been proved to be forged ? 

4 Why is it that poverty is more commonly found amongst 
the good than amongst the bad? 2 Is it because, being 10 
universally hated and despised, she takes refuge with the 
good, thinking that with them she is most likely to find 
safety and a place of habitation ; whereas she thinks that if 
she goes to the wicked, they would never remain content 
with the same condition but would steal or plunder, in 
which case she could no longer remain with them ? Or 15 
is it because she thinks that the good will treat her better 
than any one else and that she is least likely to be in 
sulted by them ? So, just as we place deposits 3 of money 
with good men, so she of her own accord 4 ranges herself 
with them. Or is it because, being of the female sex, she 

is more helpless, so that she needs the assistance of the 20 
good ? Or is it because, being herself an evil, she will not 
betake herself to that which is evil, since if she were to 
choose the evil, her position would be quite irremediable ? 

5 Why is it that wrongs in other matters are not so liable 
to be committed on a large scale 5 as those in respect of 
money ? G For example, a man who has spoken a light 
word would not therefore necessarily divulge a secret, nor 7 
would one who has betrayed an individual also betray 25 
a city, as a man who has stolen an obol would steal a talent 

1 Reading ^(pi^ovrnt for ^(piovvTui, as suggested by Bekker. 

2 Cp. below, chapter 8. 

3 In the Teubner Text nOe^va is a misprint for Tidep.fQa. 

4 Reading avrrjs for avrri$. 

5 Reading at ddiKtm (ni) p.eiovs (Richards). 

6 Reading xpr)pir. Most MSS. read p^ara, but Y a (which not in 
frequently preserves the correct reading) reads xp^P ara ) an d the Latin 
version renders iniuriae in pecuniis. The origin of the change to 
prj^ara may be found in the fact that etVcbz . . . eiVoi occur below. If 
pq/zara is read, no sense can be found for the concluding sentence of 
the chapter ; whereas, if xp^ara is read, the argument is clear and 
resembles that of chapter I. 

7 Reading ov6e for u/\Xd ; the Latin version renders neque qui ununi 
prodiderit, &c. 

645-25 X 


also. Is it because, though there are forms of unjust dis 
position which are worse, 1 the acts resulting from them are 
less serious owing to lack of power ? 

Why is it more disgraceful 2 to rob a man of a small 6 
deposit than of a large loan ? 3 Is it because he who robs 
30 another of a deposit is deceiving a man who thought him 
to be honest ? Or is it because he who commits the one 
crime would commit the other also? 

Why is it that man, who of all animals has the advantage 7 
of most education, is yet the most unjust of all ? Is it 
because he possesses the power of reasoning to the greatest 
degree, and has therefore most carefully estimated the 
35 pleasures and happiness, and these are impossible of attain 
ment without injustice ? 

Why is it that wealth is more often found in the hands 8 
of the wicked than in those of the good ? Is it because, 
being blind, 4 it cannot read men s hearts and choose the 


95l a Why is it considered more just to defend the dead than 9 
the living ? Is it because those who are alive can look 
after themselves, but a dead man can no longer do so ? 

Why is it that a man who associates with one who is 10 
healthy does not himself become any healthier, 5 nor does 
intercourse with the strong or beautiful improve a man s 

5 condition, whereas association with the just and temperate 
and good does have this effect ? Is it because some quali 
ties can, and others cannot, be imitated by the soul, good 
ness being a quality of the soul and health of the body ? 
A man can, therefore, accustom himself to feel pleasure 
and pain under the proper circumstances ; but his associa 
tion with the healthy does not produce this result, for 
health does not consist in taking pleasure or not in certain 

10 things, since none of these things can produce health. 

Sc. than that involved in stealing a talent. 

Reading mcrxwv for alar\pov with Bonitz (Aristot. Stud., p. 418). 

Cp. above, chapter 2. 

Cp. above, chapter 4. where poverty is personified. 

Cp. 886 b 5. 

BOOK XXIX. ii 951 

11 Why is it more terrible to kill a woman than a man, 
although the male is naturally superior to the female ? Is 
it because she is weaker and so he commits a greater l 
injustice ? Or is it because it is not a manly act to use one s 
strength against that which is greatly inferior ? 

12 Why is the defendant given the position on the right 15 
hand in a law court ? Is it from a desire to equalize matters ? 
Since, then, the plaintiff possesses other advantages, the 
defendant is given the advantage of position. Further, 
as a rule defendants are under guard ; and, if the defendant 
has the right-hand position, the guard is on his right. 2 

13 Why is it that, when the votes for the plaintiff and for 20 
the defendant are shown to be equal, the defendant wins the 
case ? Is it because the defendant has heard only in court, 
during the course of the trial itself, 3 the charges against 
which he has to make his defence and produce the witnesses 
to refute the accusations, 4 if any advantage is to be obtained 
from them?" Now it is not easy for a man to foresee of 25 
what he ought to provide witnesses or some other kind of 
evidence to prove his innocence. The plaintiff, on the other 
hand, can act as he pleases, and can begin to take action before 
having the summons issued ; and even after he has summoned 
his opponent he can invent and bring against him any 
plausible accusation he likes. The lawgiver then, recogniz 
ing that the defendant has the disadvantage in all these 30 
respects, has given him any advantage which may accrue 
from the disagreement of the jury. And, indeed, that 
defendants are at a disadvantage is shown by the fact that 
when men are in a state of alarm they omit much of what 
they ought to have said or done, and defendants are, 
generally speaking, always in greater danger ; and so, if 

1 Reading pclfa (W. D. R.) for eAarrco, cp. 952* I. 

2 The meaning perhaps is that the accused is placed on the right 
hand of the judge and has on his own right hand the guard which has 
charge of him ; he is, therefore, protected on both sides. 

3 Reading with Richards, aiVw for avroO. 

4 Omitting (TO) and e^eo-^u, which is probably due to the preceding 

Reading with Y a d-xpc XydfjaeaQai and taking /xe XAoucri as a careless 
plural for singular. 

X 2 


35 they omit necessary parts of their defence, when they are 
put on a level with their opponents in respect of their 
claims, they would clearly have been victorious if they had 
not omitted anything 1 . 

Further, any one of us would prefer to pass a sentence 
95i b acquitting a wrong-doer rather than condemn as guilty one 
who is innocent, in the case, for example, of a man being 
accused of enslavement or murder. For we should prefer 
to acquit either of such persons, though the charges brought 
against them by their accuser were true, 1 rather than con- 
5 demn them if they were untrue ; for, when any doubt is 
entertained, the less grave error ought to be preferred ; 
it is a serious matter to decide that a slave is free, yet 
it is much more serious to convict a freeman of being a 

Further, if one man brings a charge and another disputes 
his claim to any piece of property, we do not consider that 

10 we ought to award the disputed property immediately to 
the plaintiff, but that the man in possession ought to enjoy 
it until the matter is decided. Similarly, when a number of 
persons are involved in a case and the numbers of those 
who declare that a wrong has been committed and of those 
who deny it are equal just as in the case cited above 
when one man brought an accusation, while another denied 
the truth of it we consider that the lawgiver is right in 

15 not handing over the disputed property 2 to the accuser 
but allowing the defendant to remain in possession until 
the plaintiff 3 has established some superiority. Similarly, 
when the votes of the jury are equal and so neither side 
has the superiority, 4 the lawgiver has allowed matters to be 
left as they are. 

Again, in serious crimes the punishments are also heavy, 

20 so that, if the jury pass an unjust sentence and then change 
their mind, 5 it is impossible to take the opportunity of 

1 Punctuating TOUTCOV -yap eKaorou, OVTOOV a Karrjyopel alruiv, fj.a\\ov KrA. 

2 We should perhaps read Trpna-Tidea-OaL (cp. 95l a 3l) for Trpoori 
The Latin version of T. G. renders favere. 

3 Reading <$ICOKCOI> for dSiK<aj> with Bonitz, Aristot. Stud.> p. 418. 

4 Reading ov8ffj,ia vnepoxn with Bonitz, loc* cit. 

5 Reading peTayvovviv (Richards). 

BOOK XXIX. 13 95i b 

remedying the mistake ; if, on the other hand, they acquit 
the accused when they ought not to do so, if he lives 1 so 
circumspectly as never to commit any crime again, how can 
the jury have made a serious mistake in failing to condemn 
such a man to death ? If, however, he subsequently com 
mits a crime, the law 2 would consider 3 that he ought to be 25 
punished for both crimes. 

Or is it because it is an act of greater injustice to bring 
an unjust accusation than to commit an offence which may 
easily be made the subject of an unjust accusation ? 4 For 
wrong-doing may be due to anger or fear or desire and to 
many other causes, and not only to design, but an unjust 
accusation is generally due to design. So when the votes 3 
have proved equal, indicating both r> that the accuser has 
brought an unjust charge and that the defendant is in the 
wrong, the unjust accuser being judged the greater offender, 6 
the lawgiver has awarded the legal victory to the defen 

Again, we ourselves adopt the attitude towards our 
servants that, when we suspect that they have committed 35 
a crime and have no certain knowledge, but nevertheless 
think that they have done the deed, we do not immediately 
proceed to punish them ; and when we cannot pursue our 
inquiries any further, we acquit them of blame. 952 a 

Further, he who designedly commits a crime does a 
greater wrong than he who does not act designedly. Now 
the man who brings a vexatious charge against another 
always does wrong designedly, whereas he who commits 
any other crime may happen to do so either under com 
pulsion or through ignorance or by some other chance. But 5 
when the votes are equal, the prosecutor has been judged 
by half the jury to be committing a wrong wilfully, while 

1 Reading el /zeV ourcos- fv\aj3a)s (t^ 7 ?) or some similar verb. 

2 The subject is 6 vofj.o8frr)s supplied. 

3 Reading d&mr) (W. D. R.). 

4 The text as it stands gives no sense either in itself or in view of 
the rest of the argument, which seems to require something like the 
following I rj on dSiKouTfpou p.ev ecmv dvdpbs (ddiKws (yKa\elv rj^ ravra 

a [^rrof] CIKOS f&Tiv d8iKO)S cyKaXelcrdai. 

5 Reading TO f for TO 8e [so also Bussemaker]. 
8 Reading (jbauAorepou for $ca>Aoi; (Richards). 


the defendant is considered by the remainder to be in the 
wrong, but not wilfully ; and so, since the prosecutor is 
judged guilty of a more serious wrong than the defendant, 
the lawgiver has rightly decided that he who has committed 

10 the less serious wrong wins the case. 

Further, a man is always more unjust who does not 
expect to escape the observation of the man whom he 
wrongs and nevertheless commits the wrong, than he who 
expects to remain undiscovered. Now 1 he who brings a 
vexatious charge against another does not expect to escape 
the observation of the man whom he falsely accuses, 
whereas those who commit any other crime usually try to 
commit an injustice with the expectation of doing so with- 

15 out the knowledge of their victims, so that plaintiffs ought 
to be regarded as more unjust than defendants. 

Why is it that, if a man steals from the baths or the 14 
wrestling-school or the market or any similar place, he is 
punished with death, whereas, if he steals from a house, he 
merely pays back double 2 the value of what he has stolen ? 

20 Is it because in houses it is possible in some way or other 
to safeguard one s property ? For the wall is strong and 
there is a key, and it is the business of all the slaves in the 
house to see that the contents of the house are kept safe. 
At the baths, however, and in places which are similarly 
public, it is easy for any one who wishes to commit a crime ; 

25 for those who place their property there have no sure 
means of guarding it except their own eyes, so that, if one 
takes one s eye off it for a moment, it is immediately placed 
at the mercy of the thief. Hence the lawgiver, considering 
that bathers are not able to guard their property, has set 
the law to guard against thieves by threatening that they 

30 shall lose their lives if they appropriate the possessions of 

Further, the owner of a house is responsible for admitting 
into it whom he wishes and for introducing 3 into it any one 
whom he does not trust ; but the man who deposits any 

Reading with Richards ovv for yap. 
2 The Teubner Text misprints 8m\ovs for dnr\ovv. 
8 Reading elatypecrOai (Richards). 

BOOK XXIX. 14 95 2 a 

property in a bath cannot prevent any one irom coming 1 
in, nor can he prevent him, when he has entered, from 
placing his garments next to his own 1 when he has stripped 
himself; 2 but, contrary to his wishes, the clothing of the 
thief and of the man who is about to be robbed lie together 35 
in a confused heap. Therefore the lawgiver has prescribed 
not very heavy penalties to help the man who of his own 
free will and by his own mistake has admitted the thief to 
his house, but has clearly fixed heavy penalties for theft to 
aid those who are obliged to share with others the right of 
entrance and the promiscuity of the baths. 

Further, it is obvious that all those who commit theft in 
places the entrance to which is open to any one who wishes 5 
to come are bad men, 3 and so, if they are allowed to live, 
do not desire to have the semblance of honest men even for 
the future advantage which they can gain from it, regarding 
it as useless to pretend to be honest in the eyes of those who 
know their real character ; they therefore continue hence 
forward to be openly wicked Those, on the other hand, 
whose wickedness is known to one person only, try to per- 10 
suade that person by bribery not to make known their real 
character to the rest of the world ; they are not likely 
therefore to be completely wicked for ever, and so the 
penalty which the lawgiver has fixed for them is less 

Further, of all crimes those which are committed in the 
most crowded meetings and assemblies bring most disgrace 
upon the city, just as public orderliness brings the greatest 15 
credit ; for it is at public gatherings that the citizens are 
most conspicuous to each other and the rest of the world. 
The result, therefore, of such thefts is that not only is the 
man who loses his property personally injured, but also 
abuse is heaped upon the city. This is why the lawgiver 
has fixed heavier penalties for such thieves than for those 20 
who abstract property from a private house. 

1 Reading TO avrov <(TO) Ip-driov KT\,, and omitting KXetrTrjv as a 

2 Omitting av. 

3 Reading novrjpoi for 


Again, the man who loses anything from a private house 
is in a place where l it is easy for him to bear his misfor 
tune, since he is in his own home and neither suffers 
anything nor is jeered at by others. But the man who is 
robbed at the baths finds it difficult to leave without his 

25 clothing, and, in addition, is usually jeered at by others ; 
and this is harder to bear than the actual loss. Therefore 
the lawgiver has prescribed heavier penalties to assist such 

Again, many legislative parallels can be found for these 
penalties. For example, if any one speaks evil of a magis 
trate the punishment is severe, but there is no penalty for 
speaking evil of an ordinary individual ; and rightly so, for 

30 the legislator considers that the slanderer not only commits 
an offence against the magistrate but also insults the city. 
Similarly, a man who commits a theft at the harbour is 
considered not only to harm the individual whom he robs, 
but also to bring disgrace upon the city. And the same is 

35 true of any crime committed in a place of public meeting. 

Why is it that in law courts, if equal votes are given for 15 
the two adversaries, the defendant wins the case ? 2 Is it 
953 because the defendant has remained unaffected by the 
action of the plaintiff, and in a position of equality with 
him he would probably have won ? 

Why is it that for theft the punishment is death, whereas 16 
for assault, which is a more serious crime, the penalty or 
fine is assessable in court ? Is it because to commit an 
5 assault is an act of human weakness, of which all more or 
less partake, whereas there is no force which compels us to 
theft ? A further reason is the fact that a man who tries 
to commit theft would think nothing of committing assault 

1 oBev can hardly be right and 061 should probably be read. 

2 This chapter gives an additional suggestion for the solution of the 
problem of chapter 13. 




I WHY is it that all those who have become eminent in 10 
philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts are clearly of 
an atrabilious temperament, and some of them to such an 
extent as to be affected by diseases caused by black bile, as 
is said to have happened to Heracles among the heroes ? l 
For he appears to have been of this nature, wherefore 15 
epileptic afflictions were called by the ancients the sacred 
disease after him. 2 That his temperament was atrabilious is 
shown by the fury which he displayed towards his children 3 
and the eruption of sores which took place before his dis 
appearance on Mount Oeta ; for this often occurs as the 
result of black bile. Lysander the Lacedaemonian also 
suffered from similar sores before his death. 4 There are 20 
also the stories of Ajax and Bellerophon, of whom the 
former became insane, while the latter sought out habita 
tions in desert places ; wherefore Homer writes, 

And since of all the gods he was hated, 
Verily o er 5 the Alei an plain f) alone he would wander, 
Eating his own heart out, avoiding the pathway of 25 
mortals. 7 

1 This problem is cited as Aristotelian by Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i. 33 
Aristoteles quidem ait omnes ingeniosos melancholicos esse; ut ego 
me tardiorem esse non moleste feram. Enumerat multos, idqiie quasi 
constet, ratione7)i, cur ita fiat, adfert. It is also quoted by Plutarch ; 
see below, note 4. 

2 Called by Hippocrates and Galen voo-ns H/m/cXftn. 

:t i. e. his murder of the children borne to him by Megara. 

4 This passage is quoted as Aristotelian by Plutarch, Vit. Lysandri 2 
ApicrToreX^s 1 de TUS p.eyd\as (pvtrfis d-rro(j)(ni>Q)v /MeXfryxoXiKa?, o>? TTJV 
ScoK/JurofS" fat TlXdrwvos Kai HpaxXeou?, laropei KOL AvaavSpov OVK evdvs 
aXX 7rp(r(3vTepov ovra rj] /zeXay^o/ua nepiTreael.! . 

5 Reading KCITT Trediov for KamrfSiov. 

6 Cp. Herodot. vi. 95 ; Arrian, Anab. ii. 5 ; Strabo xiv, p. 963. It 
was situated near the city of Mallus in Cilicia, between the rivers 
Pyramus and Sinarus. 

7 Iliad vi. 200-2. 


And many others of the heroes seem to have been similarly 
afflicted, and among men of recent times Empedocles, Plato, 
and Socrates, and numerous other well-known men, and also 
most of the poets. For many such persons have bodily 

30 afflictions as the result of this kind of temperament, while 
some of them obviously possess a natural inclination to 
affections of this kind ; in a word, they all, as has been 
said, are naturally atrabilious. The cause of this may be 
understood if we first take an example from the effect of 
wine, which if taken in large quantities appears to produce 

35 such qualities as we attribute to the atrabilious, inducing, 
as it is drunk, many different characteristics, making men 
for instance irritable, benevolent, compassionate, or reckless ; 
whereas no such results are produced by honey or milk or 
water or anything similar. One can easily see that wine 
has a variety of effects by observing how it gradually 
953 b changes those who drink it ; for, finding them chilled and 
taciturn as the result of abstinence, a small quantity makes 
them more talkative, while a larger quantity makes them 
eloquent and bold, and, when they proceed to action, 
reckless, and a still larger quantity makes them insolent 
and afterwards frenzied, while outrageous excess enfeebles 
5 them and makes them stupid like those who have been 
epileptic from childhood, 1 and very similar to. those who 
are exceedingly atrabilious. As, therefore, an individual 
as he drinks and takes wine in different quantities changes 
his character, so there are men who embody each character. 
For the temporary condition of one man when he is drunk 
is the permanent character of another, and one man is 

10 loquacious, another emotional, another easily moved to 
tears ; for wine has this effect also on some people 2 and 
therefore Homer writes, 

He says that I swim in tears, like a man that is heavy 
with drinking. 3 

Others become compassionate or savage or taciturn ; for 

1 Placing a comma after eVtX^Trrovy. 

2 Cp. above, 8;4 b 8-10. 

3 Od. xix. 122, where the received text has $# 8e SaKpvrr\u>eiv /3e/3ap/?dra 
pe (ppevas oiVa>. 

BOOK XXX. i 953 b 

some maintain a complete silence, especially those atrabilious 
subjects who are out of their minds. Wine also makes men 
amorous ; as is shown by the fact that a man who is drinking 15 
is induced to kiss those whom, owing to their appearance or 
age, no sober person would kiss. Wine then gives a man 
extraordinary characteristics, but for a short time only, while 
nature gives them permanently for the period of a lifetime ; 
for some men are bold, others taciturn, others compassionate, 20 
and others cowardly by nature. It is therefore clear that 
each l characteristic is produced by wine and by nature by 
the same means ; 2 for the whole body functions under the 
control of heat. Now both the juice 3 and the atrabilious 
temperament are full of wind ; wherefore the physicians say 
that flatulence and disorders of the stomach are due to black 2 5 
bile. Now wine has the quality of containing air; so wine 
and the atrabilious temperament are similar in nature. The 
froth which forms on wine shows that it contains air ; for 
oil does not produce froth, although it is hot, but wine 
produces it in large quantities and dark wine more than 
white because it contains more heat and substance. It is 3 
for this reason that wine excites sexual desire, and Dionysus 
and Aphrodite are rightly coupled together, and atrabilious 
persons are generally lustful. 4 For sexual desire is due to 
the presence of breath, as is shown by the fact that the virile 
organ quickly increases from a small to a large size by 35 
inflation ; also 5 boys before they are capable of emitting 
semen find a certain pleasure in rubbing their sexual 
organs through lust when they are approaching the age 
of puberty, and the swelling of the organ becomes mani 
fest because breath passes through the passages through 
which the semen subsequently passes ; also the effusion 954 & 
and impetus of the semen in sexual intercourse is clearly 
due to propulsion by the breath. So those foods and 
liquids which fill the region of the sexual organs with 
breath are rightly regarded as aphrodisiac. Thus dark wine 

1 Reading ocao-roy (Richards) as in 1. 8. 

2 Reading dia rov avrov (Richards). 3 i. e. wine. 

4 Cp. 88o a 30-33. c Omitting en with Burnet. 

6 Cp. H.A.\\\. 7. 586 a 16. It seems necessary to read with Richards 
(pavtpbv OTI ylverai. 



5 more than anything else produces the condition found in 
atrabilious persons. 1 This condition is obvious in some 
individuals; for most atrabilious persons are thin 2 and 
their veins stand out, the reason being the abundance not 
of blood but of breath. The reason why all atrabilious 

10 persons are not thin 3 or dark, 4 but only those who contain 
particularly unhealthy humours, is stated elsewhere. 5 

But to return to our previous subject of discussion, this 
humour, namely, the atrabilious, is originally mingled in 
the bodily nature, for it is a mixture of heat and cold, ot 
which two things the bodily nature consists. Black bile, 

15 therefore, becomes both very hot and very cold, for the 
same thing naturally admits both heat and cold, like water, 
which, though cold, yet when it is sufficiently heated (for 
example, when it boils) is hotter than the actual flame which 
heats it, and similarly a stone or a piece of iron when 
thoroughly heated becomes hotter than charcoal, though 

20 they are naturally cold. (This subject has been dealt with 
more clearly in dealing with Fire. 6 ) Now black bile, which 
is naturally cold and not on the surface, 7 being in the con 
dition mentioned above, if it abounds in the body, produces 
apoplexy or torpor or despondency or fear ; but when it is 
overheated, it produces cheerfulness accompanied by song, 

25 and frenzy, and the breaking forth of sores, and the like. 
In most people then black bile engendered from their daily 
nutriment does not change their character, but merely 
produces an atrabilious disease. But those who naturally 
possess an atrabilious temperament immediately develop 

3 diverse characters in accordance with their various tempera 
ments ; for example, those who are originally full of cold 
black bile become dull and stupid, whereas those who 

1 Omitting TrvevpaTtoSeis as a gloss on TOIOVTOVS. 

2 Reading with Bussemaker o-K\rj(f)poi. 

3 Reading o-*X7?0poi with AP. 

4 Omitting oi before peXaves with Bekker. 

5 This reference cannot be identified in the Aristotelian Corpus. 

Camotius at the end of Book 24 states that according to some 
authorities books on Fire and Light formerly found a place at that 
point, but are now lost. The reference here is possibly to a lost book 
on Fire. 

7 Reading rmr6\aios for eVirroXcuW with Sylburg and Platt. 

BOOK XXX. i 954 a 

possess a large quantity of hot black bile become frenzied 
or clever or erotic or easily moved to anger and desire, 
while some become more loquacious. Many too, if this 
heat approaches the region of the intellect, are affected by 35 
diseases of frenzy and possession ; and this is the origin of 
Sibyls and soothsayers and all inspired persons, when they 
are affected not by disease but by natural temperament. 
Maracus, the Syracusan, was actually a better poet when 
he was out of his mind. Those in whom the excessive 
heat dies down l to a mean temperature are atrabilious, but 954 b 
they are cleverer and less eccentric and in many respects 
superior to others either in mental accomplishments or in 
the arts or in public life. In respect too of facing dangers 
an atrabilious state causes great variation, in that 2 many of 5 
those who are in this condition are inconsistent under the 
influence of 3 fears ; for they vary from time to time according 
to the state in which their bodies happen to be in respect 
to the atrabilious temperament. Now this temperament is 
itself also inconsistent, just as it produces inconsistency in 
those suffering from the diseases which it causes ; for, like 10 
water, it is sometimes cold and sometimes hot. And so the 
announcement of something alarming, if it occurs at a time 
when the temperament is rather cold, makes a man cowardly; 
for it has already prepared a way for the entrance of fear, 
and fear has a chilling effect (as is shown by the fact that 
those who are greatly alarmed tremble). If, however, the 
temperament is inclined to be hot, fear reduces it to a mode 
rate temperature and causes a man to be in his senses and J 5 
unexcited. So too with the despondency which occurs in 
everyday life (for we are often in the condition of feeling 
grief without being able to ascribe any cause for it, while at 
other times we feel cheerful without knowing why), such 
feelings and those usually called superficial 4 feelings occur 
to a slight degree in every one, for something of the force 

1 Reading cuaixQf) rj tiyav depfjLOTrjs with Bywater. The Latin version 
of T. G. has ab quibus minus (a misprint for nlmius) ille calor 
remissus ad mediocritatem sit. 2 Reading rw for rou. 

3 Reading eV for ^v. [So. too, Richards and Klek.] 

4 Reading fViTrdAata (which is suggested by the contrast with oaois 
& els jBddos) instead of the meaningless TraXaid ; T. G. renders 


20 which produces them is mingled in every one ; but those 
who are thoroughly penetrated by them acquire them as 
a permanent part of their nature. For as men differ in 
appearance not because they possess faces but because they 
possess certain kinds of faces, some handsome, others ugly, 
others with nothing remarkable about them (those, that is, 
who are naturally ordinary) ; so those who possess an atra- 

25 bilious temperament in a slight degree are ordinary, but 
those who have much of it are quite unlike the majority of 
people. For, if their condition is quite complete, they are 
very atrabilious ; but, if they possess a mixed temperament, 
they are men of genius. If they neglect their health, they 
have a tendency towards the atrabilious diseases, the part 
of the body affected varying in different people ; in some 

30 persons epileptic symptoms declare themselves, in others 
apoplectic, in others violent despondency or terrors, in 
others over-confidence, as happened to Archelaus, King of 
Macedonia. The force which gives rise to such a condition 
is the temperament according as it contains heat or cold. 
If it be cold beyond due measure, it produces groundless 

35 despondency ; hence suicide by hanging occurs most 
frequently among the young, but sometimes also among 
older men. Many men too put an end to themselves after 
drunkenness, and some atrabilious persons continue in a 
state of despondency after drinking; for the heat of the 
955 a wine quenches their natural heat. Heat in the region in 
which we think and form hopes makes us cheerful ; and for 
this reason all men are eager to drink until they become 
intoxicated, for abundance of wine makes all men hopeful, 
just as their youth makes children sanguine ; for old age is 
5 despairing but youth is full of hope. There are a few who 
are seized with despondency while they are drinking, for 
the same reason as makes others despondent after drinking. 
Those then who become despondent as the heat in them 
dies down tend to hang themselves. Hence the young and l 
the old are more likely to hang themselves; for old age 

10 makes the heat die down, and so, in the young, does their 

1 Omitting fj with Richards. 

BOOK XXX. i 955 a 

condition, which is itself natural. 1 When the heat is extin 
guished 2 suddenly, most men make away with themselves 
to the general astonishment of all, since they have given no 
previous sign of any such intention. When the tempera 
ment caused by the admixture of black bile is colder, it 
gives rise, as has been already remarked, to despondency 15 
of various kinds, but when it is hotter to cheerfulness. 
Hence the young are more cheerful, the old more despon 
dent, the former being hot and the latter cold ; for old age 
is a process of cooling. Extinction takes place suddenly 
from external causes, just as objects which have been heated 
in the fire are cooled by unnatural processes, as for example 
when water is poured over hot coals. Hence men some- 20 
times commit suicide after drunkenness ; for the heat of the 
wine is introduced from outside, and when it is extinguished 
the condition which leads to suicide is set up. Also after 
sexual intercourse most people tend to be despondent ; 
those, however, who emit a considerable amount of excre 
ment with the semen become more cheerful, for they are 
relieved of an excess of excrement and breath and heat. 25 
But those who indulge in sexual intercourse 3 are often 
more despondent, for by so doing they become cooled, 
because they lose something which is valuable, as is shown 
by the fact that the amount of semen which is emitted is 
not great. 4 

To sum the matter up, owing to the fact that the effect 
of black bile is variable, atrabilious persons also show varia- 30 
tion ; for the black bile becomes very hot and very cold. 
And because it has an effect upon the character (for heat 
and cold have such an effect to a greater extent than any 
thing else in us), like wine mingling in a stronger or weaker 
form in the body, it gives us our own special characters. 
Now both wine and black bile are full of breath. And 35 

Omitting TO ^apaLvo^vov Bepnov as a gloss on TO nd 

O 701? 

can hardly stand here, and the required sense 
is given by the Latin version, which renders qtiibus autem calor 
exstmctus subiio est. We should probably read 6 cnny <5e afievwrai 
({atyirjs, ot 7rAeio~T(H KT\. ; cp. below, 1. 18. 

3 eKflvoL will be equivalent to ol tt(poSio-iacraj>re?. Possibly ereooi 
should be read ; the Latin version has ceteri. 

4 i. e. it has quality rather than quantity. 


since it is possible for an abnormal state to be well 
attempered and in a sense a favourable condition, and since 
it is possible for the condition to be hotter and then again 
cold, when it should be so, or to change to the contrary 
owing to excess, the result is that all atrabilious persons 
40 have remarkable gifts, not owing to disease but from 
natural causes. 

955 b Why do we say that we acquire a habit as the result 2 
of pursuing some sciences but not others ? Are we said to 
acquire a habit only by such sciences as enable us to make 
discoveries, since discovery is the result of a habit ? 

Why is it that of all the animals man has most practical 3 
5 wisdom ? Is it because he has the smallest head in pro 
portion to his body ? Or is it because he is abnormally 
small in certain parts ? For that is why his head is small, 
and among men those who have smaller heads are wiser 
than those who have larger heads. 

Why is it that a journey seems longer when we traverse 4 
10 it without knowing its length than when we know it, all 
other conditions being equal ? l Is it because to know its 
length is to be able to connect a number with it ? For that 
which cannot be numbered is the same as the infinite, and 
the infinite is always more than the determinate. Just as, 
therefore, if one knows that a journey is a certain length 
it must necessarily be finite, so if one does not know its 
15 length one as it were converts the proposition 2 and the 
mind draws a false conclusion, and this journey appears 
infinite. Furthermore, 3 a quantity is determinate, and that 
which is determinate is a quantity ; therefore when a 
thing does not appear determinate it will appear to be 
as it were infinite, because that which is of a nature to be 
20 determined, if it is not so, is infinite, and that which 
appears not to be determined necessarily appears in a sense 

1 This problem has already been dealt with in V. 25. 

2 See note on 883 b 8. 

3 Reading en for eVel and placing a full stop before it, cp. 883 13 9. 

BOOK XXX. 5 955 b 

5 Why is it that, whereas we become wiser as we grow 
older, yet the younger we are the more easily we can 
learn ? Is it because God has given us two instruments 
within ourselves, which enable us to use external instru 
ments, providing the body with the hand and the soul 25 
with intelligence ? For intelligence is among the things 
implanted in us by nature, being as it were an instrument ; 
and, whereas the sciences and arts are among the things 
created by us, intelligence is one of the gifts of nature. 
So just as we cannot use the hand to the best advantage 
immediately after birth, but only when nature has perfected 
it (for the hand can perform its particular function best as 30 
age progresses), in like manner of our natural endowments 
reason is of most assistance to us not in early life but as we 
get old, and is then at its highest perfection, unless it becomes 
incapacitated by anything, as may happen also to the other 
natural endowments. Intelligence comes to us later than 
the faculty of using the hands, because the instruments 35 
used by the intelligence are posterior to those used by the 
hands. For science is an instrument of the intelligence 
(for it is useful to the intelligence just as flutes are useful 
to the flute-player), and many things in nature are instru 
ments of the hands, but nature itself and its creations are 
prior to science. Now it is natural that where the instru 
ments are prior, the faculties should also come into being 4 
in us first (for it is by using the instruments that we acquire 
a habit) ; and the instrument of each faculty is related 956* 
similarly to that faculty, 1 and conversely, as the instruments 
are to one another, so are the faculties of which 2 they are 
the instruments to one another? Intelligence then for this 
reason comes to us when we are older ; but we learn more 5 
quickly when we are young because we do not yet know 
anything, and when we know more we are no longer so 
well able to acquire knowledge, 4 just as we remember best 

1 i. e. as the instrument of any other faculty is related to that faculty. 

2 Reading with Richards OVTUS (&v) ra opyava. 

3 Reading avrd (Richards). The reasoning resembles that of E. N. 
1131" 5-7 : A is to A as B is to B ; and, therefore, as A is to B so 
is A to B. 

4 Reading with Richards OUKCTI opoitos bvvdpfQa &cx.e<r0ai KT\. 

645-25 Y 


what we come upon early in the day, and then, as the day 
10 goes on, are less able to remember what happens, because 
we have come into contact with a number of incidents. 

Why should man be obeyed more than any other animal ? 6 
Is it because, as Plato answered to Neocles, he alone of all 
the animals can count? Or is it because he is the only 
animal that believes in gods ? Or is it because he is the 
most imitative (for it is for this reason that he can learn) ? 

15 Why is it that we feel no pleasure in the contemplation 7 
or anticipation of the fact that the interior angles of a 
triangle are equal to two right angles, and similar geo 
metrical truths except in so far as we enjoy the specula 
tion, and the pleasure of this is always the same and would 
be equally great if these angles were equal to three or more 
right angles but we rejoice at the recollection of an Olympic 

20 victory or the sea-battle at Salamis, and at the anticipation 
of such events, but not in their opposites ? Is it because l 
we rejoice in such events as having taken place or taking 
place, but as regards what happens in the course of nature 
the contemplation of the real state of affairs alone causes us 
pleasure, whereas actions 2 give rise to the pleasure caused 

25 by their results ? Since, then, actions are various, their 
results too are sometimes painful and sometimes pleasant ; 
and we avoid and pursue anything in accordance with 
pleasure and pain. 

Why do doctors continue their treatment only until 8 
health is restored ? 3 For the doctor reduces 4 the patient, 
and next dries his body, then creates a healthy condition 
30 and at that point stops. Is it because 5 it is impossible for 
any other condition to be produced from health ? Or, if it 
is possible, is it the task of another science, and will what 
is produced from health be something different? Now, 

1 Reading TOIOVTOIS r) on. 

Reading cfrvcriv <^) OK /car d\r)6eiav e^a $ecopia f)doi>r]V fjiovrj i)fjuv Troul, 
at Se 7rpufiy /crX. (W. D. R.). 

3 The text of this chapter is unsatisfactory, but the general sense is 

The Teubner text misprints la-xvaivai for I 
6 Reading Trorepov <(6 ) OVK (Richards.) 

BOOK XXX. 8 956 a 

if health is produced from conditions which are its opposite 
or are intermediate between health and sickness, it is obvious 
that the patient is sick because he is too moist or too dry 
or something else. 1 The doctor, then, from a state of cold 
creates a less extreme condition and, finally, 2 a condition of 
a certain heat or dryness or moisture by change from the 35 
opposite or intermediate condition, 3 until he achieves a state 
which is such as to constitute a condition of health ; and 
from this no condition can be produced except one which 
is intermediate between health and sickness. The possessor 
of the art can, then, create some new condition ; for, when 
he has reached a certain point, he can retrace his steps 
and undo his work ; but the doctor s art has nothing to do 
with such a course, for its aim is always to create a better 4 
condition. 4 So neither the doctor s art 5 nor any other art 
will create anything else out of health ; for either nothing 956 b 
would be being produced, 6 or else the opposite of health, 
if the same science were being employed (so too out of a 
house nothing could make its contrary) : nor is there any 
other art 7 which can make anything out of health, except 
as making a whole out of a part, as, for example, when the 
cobbler s art makes a shoe out of the front part of a shoe ; 8 
for these two things can be produced out of one another 
by two processes, one of composition and the other of 5 

9 Why is it generally considered that the philosopher is 
superior to the orator ? 9 Is it because the philosopher 
spends his time in studying the actual forms of things, 
while the orator deals with the embodiments of these 
forms the former considering what injustice and tyranny 
are, the latter urging that a certain individual is unjust or 
dealing with the character of a tyrant ? I0 

1 Reading TOIOVTOV 

2 Reading re Xos for reXeov : T. G. renders postremo. 

3 Deleting the comma after eVamW. 

4 Reading fteXriovos (Richards). 

;> Reading wore ovre d\Xr) ovrf avrrj. 

6 Reading eyivero (av) (Richards). 

7 Reading ovd ecmv a\\r] r^xyr] (from T. G.). 

8 Cp. Rhet. 1392*31 ff. 

9 A shorter form of this problem occurs in xviii. 5. 

Y 2 


Why are theatrical artists generally persons of bad 10 
character ? l Is it because they partake but little of reason 
and wisdom, 2 because most of their life is spent in the 
pursuit of the arts which provide their daily needs, and 
because the greater part of their life is passed in incontinence 
15 and often in want, and both these things prepare the way to 
villainy ? 

Why did the men of old institute prizes for physical II 
contests but none for wisdom ? Is it because in all fairness 
the judges should in the intellectual sphere be either the 
superiors or at any rate not the inferiors of the competitors ? 
Now if those who were pre-eminent in wisdom had to 

20 compete and a prize had been offered, they would have no 
one to act as judges/ 3 In athletic contests, however, any 
one can judge by merely using his eyes. Further, the 
original institutor of the games did not wish to propose to 
the Greeks such a contest 4 as would be likely to produce 

25 violent disputes and enmity ; for when one is rejected or ac 
cepted in a contest of bodily strength, men do not altogether 
harbour any grievance nor feel sentiments of enmity to 
wards the judges, but they feel great wrath and indignation 
against those who decide their relative wisdom or worthless- 
ness ; and this is a quarrelsome and bad state of affairs. 

30 Furthermore, the prize ought to be better than the contest ; 
for in athletic games the prize is more desirable than, and 
superior to, the contest. But what prize could be found 
superior to wisdom ? 

Why is it that man in particular thinks one thing and 12 
does another ? Is it because the same science deals with 
contraries ? Or is it because the reason has many objects, 
35 desire one ? Now man usually lives by the intelligence, the 
animals by appetite, passion, and desire. 

1 This problem is quoted by Aulus Gellius (xx. 4) with slight 
textual variations as from the Trpo/SXi^arn eyKVK\ia of Aristotle. 

2 Reading Xoyou (*ai) vofpias, which is supported by Aulus Gellius, 
who reads \6yov Kal 0iXoo-o0i ar. 

8 Reading avrols. 

4 Reading e TJS for e &?. 

BOOK XXX. 13 95 6 b 

13 Why is it that some prudent men spend their time 
acquiring rather than using? Is it because they are 
following the habit of doing so? Or is it due to the 
pleasure of anticipation ? 

14 (Why do those who sleep deeply and most pleasantly see 
no visions ? Is it) ] because sensation and thought function 
because the mind is at rest hence the word knowledge 
(67r^o-T?7//7?) seems to be derived from the fact that knowledge 4 
checks the mind (LO-T^O-L) 2 since when it is in motion 

and being carried along it can neither have sensation nor 957 a 
think ? Hence it is that children and those who are drunk 
and the insane are senseless ; for, owing to the abundance 
of heat present in them, they are in a state of considerable 
and very violent movement, but when this ceases they 5 
become more sensible ; for, when the thought is undis 
turbed, they can control it better. Those who have visions 
during their sleep dream because thought is checked, and 
in proportion as it is at rest. For the mind is greatly 
moved during sleep, since, when heat collects in the interior 
from the rest of the body, there is a very considerable and 10 
violent movement ; and it is not true, as most people suppose, 
that it is most at rest and by itself, and especially so when 
no vision is seen. The contrary is really true ; for because it 
is in considerable movement and never rests for a moment, 
it cannot think. And it is naturally in most movement when I5 
it sleeps most pleasantly, because it is then in particular that 
the greatest amount of heat collects in the interior of the 
body. That, when it is in motion, the mind cannot think, 
not only in its waking hours but also in sleep, is proved 
by the fact that one is least likely to see visions during the 20 
sleep which follows the taking of food ; now this is the time 
when the mind is most disturbed owing to the nourishment 
which has been introduced into the body. A vision occurs 
when sleep comes over us while we are thinking or letting 

1 Reading, with the margin of X a AP, Ata ri ol padfws /cat fj8io-Ta 
KadevdovTfs ovftfv evimviov opuxnv ; /}. This reading is also translated in 
the Latin version. 

2 The word eVio-n;/^, which is really derived from fVio-ra/xat, is here 
derived from "lo-rrjfj.i or rather f 0rrr;/zi (cp. below, 95 7 a 6). 


things pass before our eyes. Hence we usually see things 
which we are doing or intend or wish to do ; for it is on 

25 these things that our thoughts and fancies most often dwell. 
And the better men are, the better are their dreams, because 
they think of better things in their waking hours, while 
those who are less well disposed in mind or body have 
worse dreams. For there is a close correspondence between 
the disposition of the body and the images of our dreams ; 

30 for, when a man is ill, the ideas proposed by his thoughts 
are bad, and furthermore, owing to the disturbance which 
reigns in his body, his mind cannot rest. It is for this 
reason that atrabilious persons start in their sleep, because, 
owing to the excess of heat, the mind is in a state of too 
much movement, and, when the movement is too violent, 

35 they cannot sleep. 



1 WHY does rubbing the eye stop sneezing ? * Is it because 
by this means evaporation is given to the moisture ? For 
the eye sheds tears after friction , and sneezing is due to an 40 
abundance of moisture. Or is it because the lesser heat is 957 
destroyed by the greater ? Now the eye when it is rubbed 
acquires more heat than is contained in the nose ; and for 
this reason even if we rub the nose itself the sneezing 

2 W r hy can one see more accurately with one eye than 5 
with both eyes ? Is it because more movements are set up 
by the two eyes, 2 as certainly happens in those who squint ? 
The movement of the two eyes, therefore, is not one, but 
that of a single eye is one ; therefore one sees less accurately 
with both eyes. 

3 Why do the eyes tend to become very red in those who 
are angry, and the ears in those who are ashamed ? Is it 10 
because the eyes are chilled in those who are ashamed (for 

shame dwells in the eyes ), so that 3 they cannot look 
straight in front of them ? (Cowardice also involves a 
cooling in the same region.) Now the heat 4 travels in 
a direction away from the forepart of the head, and the ears 
are situated in the opposite part of the head, and therefore 
they redden most under the emotion of shame. 5 But under 15 

1 This problem is verbally repeated in xxxiii. 8; cp. also xxxiii. 2. 

2 Reading rr\eiovs al (Platt). 

3 Reading (eV o(/)$aA/xoi? yap mSai?) (axrr ^ dvTif3\7Tfiv KrA., war* 
having probably fallen out by haplography owing to the al8a>s preceding. 
The quotation is from the Cresphontes of Euripides, Nauck 2 fr. 457. 

4 Reading TO Qepiiov (cp. 96 1 a n) for ro oTnadev. The Latin version 
of T. G. has calor autem in part em transit adversam, &c. The 
meaning will be that under the influence of shame the eyes become 
cold, and therefore the heat is driven backwards and so reddens the 

5 Cp. xxxii. i, 8, and 12, where additional reasons are given. 



the influence of provocation assistance is sent l to the more 
sensitive and easily affected part, 2 as though it were suffer 
ing violence ; for in those who are frightened it fails alto 
gether there. 

Why is it that, if one eye is held down, the other has a 4 
more intent gaze ? Is it because the origins of sight in the 
two eyes are connected at one source ? So when one eye 
20 moves, the common source of sight is also set in motion ; 
and when this moves, the other eye moves also. When 
one eye therefore is held down, all the movement will be 
concentrated on the other eye, which consequently will be 
able to gaze more intently. 

Why is it that those who are blind from birth do not 5 
become bald ? Is it because the eye is injured by the 
presence of a large quantity of moisture in the region of 

25 the head ? This is why they cauterize the veins round the 
temples of those who suffer from running at the eyes (thus 
closing the ducts through which the humours flo\v), and 
scrape the head, cutting into the skin upon it. Since, 
therefore, it is the excretion gathering in the head which 
injures the eyes, this same excretion by collecting in too 
great quantities in the head might prevent the eyes :>> from 

30 originally coming into being at all. And since the hair 
grows from excretions, and the excretion in the head of 
those who are blind from birth is abundant, it is only 
natural that they are not bald. 

Why are those whose eyes protrude affected more than 6 
others by smoke ? Is it because smoke reaches the pro 
jecting parts most quickly ? 

35 Why is it that we can turn the gaze of both eyes simul- 7 
taneously towards the right and the left and in the direction 
of the nose, and that of one eye to the left or to the right, but 
cannot direct them simultaneously one to the right and the 
other to the left ? 4 Similarly, we can direct them downwards 
and upwards ; for we can turn them simultaneously in the 

1 i. e. there is a rush of heat. 2 i. e. the eyes. 

3 The Teubner text misprint avrovs for avrovs. 

4 i. e. outwards away from the nose. 

BOOK XXXI. 7 957* 

same direction, but not separately. Is it because the eyes, 40 
though two, are connected at one point, 1 and under such 
conditions, when one extremity moves, the other must follow 958* 
in the same direction, for one extremity becomes the source 
of movement to the other extremity ? Since, therefore, it is 
impossible for one thing to move simultaneously in contrary 
directions, it is impossible also for the eyes to do so ; 
for the extremities would move in opposite directions if 
one moved up and the other down, and the source of the 5 
movement of both of them would have to make correspond 
ing movements, which is impossible. 2 The distortion of 
the eyes is due to the fact that the eyeballs possess a 
moving principle and turn, to a certain extent," upwards 
and downwards and sideways. When, therefore, being so 
placed that they are in a similar position to one another 
and midway between an upward and a downward and an 10 
oblique movement, 4 the two eyeballs catch the visual ray 
on corresponding points of themselves, they are not dis 
torted and their gaze is quite mobile " (though when G they 
catch the visual rays on corresponding points of them 
selves, although the vision is not distorted it does not 
follow that the position of the eyes is the same.) 7 Yet, if 
you turn up the whites of the eyes, part of the pupil is 15 
obscured, as for example in those who are about to sneeze ; 
others have oblique vision, madmen for example ; in others 
. the gaze is turned towards the nose, as in tragic masks and 
in those who are nervous, for their glance denotes concen 
trated thought. But those who keep their gaze fixed on 
one point without 8 having their eyeballs similarly situated, 
or who have them similarly situated but do not keep them 

1 Cp. above, 957 b 19 ff. 

2 The movement of each eye corresponds with a movement of their 
common point of connexion ; if, therefore, the two eyes move simul 
taneously in contrary directions, the point of connexion must make 
two contrary movements at the same time, which is impossible. 

Reading ^XP 1 rou - 

4 Placing the comma after Tr\dyiov instead of /avetcr$ai. 

5 Reading KivrjTni : T. G. renders mobiles, 

6 Reading 6 o-ai & {"), as suggested by the Teubner editors. 

7 The point of this sentence seems to be that the previous proposition 
is not convertible. 

8 Reading /^ for p.rjd\ The Teubner text misprints vpoicos for 


20 fixed on the same point, both these have distorted vision ; 
they therefore scowl and screw up the eyes, for they try 
to fix one eyeball in the same position as the other ; so 
they leave one eye alone and try to bring the other into 
position. If the vision of both eyes does not rest on the 
same point, 1 they must be distorted ; for the same thing 

25 happens as in those to whom, when they press under the 
eye, 2 a single object appears double, for in these too the 
source of vision is disturbed. If, therefore, the eye is moved 
upwards, the terminus of the vision is lowered ; if down 
wards, it is raised. And if the position of one eye is 
changed, the object of the vision therefore seems to move 

30 up or down, because the vision also does so, but it does not 
appear double unless the vision of both eyes is in use. 
A similar distortion 3 occurs also in one whose eyes do not 
correspond, 4 causing him to see double ; but this is due 
to the position of the vision, because it is not in the middle 
of the eye. 

35 Why do those who are short-sighted write in small 8 
characters ? 5 For it is strange that those who have not 
acute vision should do what requires such vision. Is it 
because small things appear large when they are near at 
hand, and the short-sighted hold what they are writing 
close to their eyes ? Or is it because they screw up their 
eyes when they write ? For owing to the feebleness of 
their sight, if they write with their eyes wide open, the 
958 b vision, being dispersed, can only see dimly ; but when the 
eyes are screwed up, it all falls on one point, and, since it 
forms a small angle, it necessarily causes the writing of 
small characters. 

1 Reading /caret ravrb with Bussemaker. 

2 The full phrase would be vTrojBdXXova-i TQV 8aKrv\ov v-rro rov o<pda\fj.6v ; 
cp. de Insomniis 44i b 31, and Met. io63 a 8. The reference is to the 
experiment of slightly displacing the eyeball by pressing the finger 
under it. 

3 Putting a full stop after eoo-i and reading KCU Siao-Tpocpq Toiavrr}. 

4 eTep6(l)da\fj,os in Classical Greek means having only one eye ; in 
later Greek it can mean having different eyes ; see L. and S. s.v. 

and cp. erepoyXau/coy, eVepOTrou?, &C. 

6 Cp. below, chapter 15. 

BOOK XXXI. 9 958 1 

g Why can some people see more clearly after suffering" 
from ophthalmia ? Is it because their eyes are thus purged ? 5 
For often the external thickening blocks the vision, but is 
dissolved when the eye discharges. Hence also it is bene 
ficial that the eyes should be made to smart, with onion for 
example ; l but a substance of the opposite kind, such as 
marjoram, has an adverse effect. 2 

IO Why are those who see with only one eye less liable to 
disturbance of the vision ? Is it because their mind is less ro 
affected, and so the disturbance of the vision is less felt? 

11 Why do objects appear double to those whose eyes are 
distorted? 3 Is it because the movement 4 does not reach 
the same point on each of the eyes ? So the mind thinks 
that it sees two objects when it really sees one twice. 
A similar phenomenon occurs if one crosses the fingers ; 
for a single object appears to be two to a single person 15 
touching it twice. 5 

12 Why is it that the senses on the right side of the body 
are not superior to those on the left side, but in all other 
respects the right side of the body is superior ? G Is it 
a question of habit, namely, that we accustom ourselves 
immediately to perceive equally well with the senses on 
both sides of the body ? And it seems that the superiority 
of the right-hand parts of the body is due to habit, for we 
can accustom ourselves to be ambidextrous. Or is it 20 
because to feel sensation is to be passive, and the right 
parts of the body are superior in that they are more active 
and less passive than the left? 

13 Why is it that in all other respects the right side of the 
body is superior, but in sensation the two sides are alike? 7 

1 Cp. 959 b II, 12. It seems necessary to read Kpo^vut for 

2 The reading here is uncertain, but the sense is clear. 

3 Reading diearpa/u/xeWff (cp. a 2o) for Suo-ru/MeVoir, which can hardly 
bear the meaning given by Bonitz (Index 196* 22) of distractis oculis. 

4 i. e. of the visual ray from the object seen. 

5 This phenomenon is referred to again in 959* 15; cp. also Met. 
ion a 33, an d de Somniis 46o b 20 ff. It appears necessary to read 

6 Cp. below, chapters 13, 18, and 29. 

7 Cp. chapters 12, 18, and 29. 


25 Is it because we habitually practise the equal use of sensa 
tion on both sides ? Moreover, to feel sensation is to be 
passive, and the superiority of the right side of the body is 
shown in activity, not in passivity. 

Why is physical exercise detrimental to acuteness of 14 
vision ? Is it because it makes the eye dry, as it does the 
30 rest of the body ? Now dryness hardens every kind of 
skin ; so it has that effect also on the skin covering the 
pupil. This is also the reason why the aged have not 
acute vision ; for their eyes have a hard and wrinkled 
surface, and so the vision is obscured. 

Why do the short-sighted, though they have not acute 15 
35 vision, write in small characters? 1 Yet it is characteristic 
of acute vision to see what is small. Is it because, having 
weak sight, they screw up their eyes ? For when the 
sight proceeds forth in a concentrated glance it sees better, 
but when the eye is wide open its vision is dispersed. So 
owing to the feebleness of their sight they bring their 
eyelids close together, and, because their vision proceeds 
from a small area, they see magnitude on a small scale, and 
959 a the characters which they write are on the same scale as 
their vision. 

Why do the short-sighted bring their eyelids close 16 
together when they look at anything? Is it due to the 
weakness of their sight, so that, just as a man in looking at 
5 a distant object puts his hand up to his eyes, they close the 
eyelids to look at objects near at hand ? They do so in 
order that the vision may proceed forth in a more concen 
trated form, since it passes through a narrower opening, 
and that it may not be immediately dispersed by passing 
out through a wide aperture. A wider vision, however, 
covers a larger field. 

Why is it that if the eye be moved sideways a single 17 
10 object does not appear double ? Is it because the source 
of sight is still in the same line ? It can only appear double 
when the line is altered upwards or downwards ; and it 

1 Cp. above, chapter 8. 

BOOK XXXI. 17 959 

makes no difference if it is altered sideways, unless it is 
also at the same time altered upwards or downwards. 1 
Why, then, is it possible in sight for a single object to 
appear double if the eyes are in a certain position in 
relation to one another, but impossible in the other senses ? 
Is it not possible also in touch that one thing becomes 2 15 
two if the fingers are crossed ? 3 But with the other senses 
this does not happen, because they do not perceive objects 
which extend to a distance away from them, nor 4 are they 
duplicated like the eyes. It takes place for the same 
reason 5 as it does with the fingers ; for then the touch is 
imitating the sight. 

18 Why is it that, though in the rest of the body the left 20 
side is weaker than the right, this is not true of the eyes, 
but the sight of both eyes is equally acute ? 7 Is it because 
the parts of the body on the right side are superior in 
activity but not in passivity, and the sight is passive ? 

19 Why is it that when we keep our gaze fixed on objects 
of other colours our vision deteriorates, whereas it improves 
if we gaze intently on yellow and green objects, such as 25 
herbs and the like ? Is it because we are least able to gfaze 


intently on white and black (for they both mar the vision), 
and the above-mentioned colours come midway between 
these, 8 so that, the conditions of vision being of the nature of 
a mean, our sight is not weakened thereby but improved ? 
Perhaps, just as we take harm from over-violent physical 30 
exertion but moderate exercise is beneficial, so too is it with 
the sight ; for we over-exert the sight if we gaze intently 
on solid objects, but we do not strain it in looking at objects 
which contain moisture, since there is nothing in them to 
resist the vision. Now green things are only moderately 
solid and contain a considerable amount of moisture ; they 35 

1 Reading tav fj.i] Kul ava> (f) Kara)/. 

2 We should perhaps read 0.uVerat for ytVrai. 

3 Cp. above, 958 b 14, 15, and note. 

4 Reading o#re for ov8e. 

5 Reading, with Richards, 8u\ TO.VTO. 

6 i. e. the two crossed fingers resemble the two eyes. 

7 Cp. chapters 12, 13, 29. 

8 Black and white being contraries (cp. de Sensu 445 b 25, &c.). 


therefore do not harm the sight at all, but compel it to rest 
upon them, because the admixture of their colouring is well 
attempered to the vision. 

Why is it that we see other things better with both eyes, 20 
but we can judge of the straightness l of lines of writing 
40 better with one eye, putting it close to the letters ? Do 
959 b both eyes falling on the same point cause confusion, as the 
writers on optics say, whereas, when we look with one eye, 
straightness is more apparent to the straight vision, just as 
it is when a measuring rod is used ? 

5 Why does smoke make the eyes smart more than any 21 
other part of the body ? Is it because they alone are very 
weak, since the inner parts of the body are always the 
weakest ? (This is shown by the fact that vinegar and 
anything pungent causes not the outer but the inner flesh 
to smart, because 2 the latter is the rarest flesh in the body 
and contains most pores.) For the vision finds its exit 

10 through certain pores, and so what causes most stinging 
within is drawn away ;j from the outer flesh. The onion 
too has a similar effect and anything else which causes the 
eye to smart, and of liquids olive-oil more than any other, 
because it is composed of very small particles and so sinks 
in through the pores. Vinegar is used as a medicament for 
the rest of the flesh. 

15 Why is it that the eye, although it is very weak, is the only 22 
part of the body which does not feel the cold ? Is it because 
the eye is of a fatty consistency and does not partake of the 
nature of flesh, and such substances are unaffected by the 
cold ? For if the eye is really a fire, 4 this is not the reason 

1 Reading TO de fvftit with X a . 

2 The Latin version implies a new solution beginning at this point, 
which would necessitate a full stop after eWo? and the reading T) em 
dpaiomroi/ (dpaidrarot/ being read by several MSS., including Y a ). This 
second question is, however, hardly likely, since, where alternatives 
are offered, the first is almost invariably introduced by Trdrepoi/, whereas 
here in 1. 5 we have ?} on. 

3 an-on-iVm is certainly corrupt : the Latin version of T. G. has 
itaque quod his mordacissimum est, ceteris corporis partibus obvium 
subire densiora non potest sed perreptat et decidit, which implies a 
longer text. 

4 Cp. below, 96o a 32, and de Sensu 437* 22 ff., where this view, at 

BOOK XXXI. 22 959 b 

why it does not feel cold, for its fire is not at any rate 
of such a character as to engender heat. 

23 Why are tears warm when we let them fall in weeping", 20 
but cold when we shed them owing to an affection of the 
eyes ? Is it because that which is unconcocted is cold, 
while that which is concocted is hot ? Now every malady 
certainly proceeds from lack of concoction, and the tears of 
those whose eyes are affected are unconcocted and there 
fore cold. It is for this reason that physicians regard cold 35 
sweating as a sign of serious illness, while on the contrary 
they consider that hot sweating tends to get rid of disease. 1 
For if the excretion is abundant, the internal heat cannot 
concoct it, 2 so that it must necessarily be cold ; but when it 

is scanty, the internal heat prevails over it. Now all diseases 30 
are caused by excretions. 3 

24 Why is it that, though the parts of the body on the right 
side are more easily moved, the left eye can be closed more 
easily than the right ? Is it because the parts of the body 
on the left always contain more moisture, 4 and things that 35 
are moist naturally close up more easily ? 5 

25 Why is it that though both a short-sighted and an old man 
are affected by weakness of the eyes, the former places an 
object, if he wishes to see it, near the eye, while the latter 
holds it at a distance ? Is it because they are afflicted with 
different forms of weakness ? For the old man cannot see 40 
the object ; he therefore removes the object at which he is g6o a 
looking to the point at which the vision of his two eyes 
meets, expecting them to be able to see it best in this 
position ; and this point is at a distance. The short 
sighted man, on the other hand, can see the object but 
cannot proceed to distinguish which parts of the thing 

which Empedocles appears at times to hint, is criticized at great 

1 Cp. 8;o a 15 ff., and note. 

2 SvvavTai in the Teubner text is a misprint for dvvurai. 

3 Cp. 8s6 a i. 4 Cp. 96i a 2. 

5 The following sentence efra . . . *# avro appears to be hopelessly 
corrupt. The Latin version of T. G. apparently translates a different 

6 Reading aV e xeZ (Richards). 


at which he is looking are concave and which convex, 
5 but he is deceived on these points. Now concavity and 
convexity are distinguished by means of the light which 
they reflect ; so at a distance the short-sighted man cannot 
discern how the light l falls on the object seen ; but near at 
hand the incidence of light can be more easily perceived. 

Why is man alone, or at any rate more than the other 26 
animals, liable to distortion of vision ? 2 Is it because he 
10 alone, or more than the other animals, suffers from epilepsy 
in his youth. 3 at which time distortion of the vision always 
begins ? 

Why are men alone among the animals liable to distor- 27 
tion of the vision? 4 Is it because they have the smallest 
distance between their eyes and their eyes are in a straight 

15 line, so that any perversion is very obvious ? Or is it because 
the eyes of the other animals tend to be of one colour only, 
and if the eyes were of uniform colour there could be no 
distortion ? Or is it because man alone in the animal 
world is liable to epilepsy, and epilepsy, whenever it 
occurs, causes distortion in the eyes as in the other parts 
of the body ? Distortion, however, sometimes occurs quite 

20 late in life, namely, in those to whom the illness comes 

Why is it that we can see better against the light of 28 
a lamp or the sun, if we place the hand in front of the 
light ? Is it because the light of the sun or of the lamp fall 
ing on our vision makes it weaker by its excess of brightness, 
since by this excess it destroys those very things 5 which 
25 are akin to it ? But if the light is shaded by the hand, it 
does not hurt the sight, and the object seen is equally in 
the light ; so the sight sees 7 better and the object seen is 
just as visible. 

1 Reading T^V avyfjv for 777 avyf] with Bonitz. 
This problem is more f " 
Cp. de Somno 457 a 3-1 
Cp. above, chapter 26. 

2 This problem is more fully treated in the next chapter. 

3 Cp. de Somno 457 a 3-10 and J. I. Beare s note. 

5 Reading KOI avra TO. o-vyyevrj (Richards). 

6 i. e. the brightness of the eye, which is a fire ; cp. 959 b 17-19 and 

7 Reading 6pa for dpa (Richards). 

BOOK XXXI. 29 g6o a 

29 Why is there a difference between the left and the right 
hand x and foot, while this is not so with the eyes and ears ? 2 30 
Is it because the elements, when they are pure, show no 
variation, but variations occur where the elements are com 
pounded ? Now these senses consist of pure elements the 
sight of fire a and the hearing of air. 

1 Reading rrpbs TCI df^ta. TO. dpicrrepa. 

2 Cp. chapters 12, 13, 18. 3 Cp. above, 959 b 17 and note. 

g6o a 


WHY is it that, though the ears are the most bloodless part I 

of the face, they are most affected by blushing 1 in those who 

feel shame ? 1 Is it because extraneous moisture naturally 

makes its way most easily into a void, and so, when the 

moisture is dissolved by the heat engendered in those who 

40 feel shame, it collects in the ears ? Or is it because the ears 

g6o b are near the temples, where the moisture most collects ? 

Now under the emotion of shame the moisture flows into 

the face and causes blushing. But the ears have less 

depth than any other part of the face and are naturally very 

warm and fresh coloured, unless they have been long numbed 

5 by the cold ; they are then the most fresh coloured of all 

the parts of the face, and so the heat, when it is dispersed, 

being nearest the surface in the ears, makes them red. 

Why is it that the ear-drums of divers burst in the sea ? 2 
Is it because the ear, as it fills with water, is subject to vio 
lent pressure, because it retains the breath ? Surely, if this 
10 is the reason, the same thing ought to happen in the air. 
Or is it because a thing breaks more easily if it does not 
yield, and more readily under pressure from what is hard 
than from what is soft ? Now that which is inflated is less 
yielding, and the ears, as has been said, are inflated because 
the breath is retained in them ; and so the water, which is 
harder than the air, when it presses upon them bursts them. 

1 5 Why do divers tie sponges round their ears ? 2 Is it in 3 
order that the sea may not rush violently in and burst the 
ear-drums ? For thus the ears do not become full, as they 
do when the sponges are removed. 

1 Cp. above, xxxi. 3, and below, chapters 8 and 12. 

2 Cp. above, chapter 2. 

BOOK XXXII, 4 9 6o l 

4 Why is the dirt in the ears bitter ? l Is it because sweat is 
corrupt ? It is, therefore, a salty, corrupt substance ; and 
that which is corrupt and salty is bitter. 20 

5 Why do sponge- divers slit their ears and nostrils ? Is it 
in order that the breath may pass more freely ? For it is 
by this way that the breath seems to pass out ; 2 for it is 
said that they suffer more from difficulty of breathing by 
being unable to expel the breath, and they are relieved 25 
when they can as it were vomit the breath forth. It is 
strange, then, that they cannot achieve respiration for the 
sake of its cooling effect ; this appears to be a greater 
necessity. Is it not quite natural that the strain should be 
greater when the breath is held, since then they are swollen 
and distended ? But there appears to be a spontaneous 
passage of the breath outwards ; and we must next consider 3 
whether breathing inwards is so also. Apparently it is ; 
for they enable the divers to respire equally well by letting 
down a cauldron ; 3 for this does not fill with water, but 
retains the air, for it is forced down straight into the water ; 
since, if it inclines at all from an upright position, the water 
flows in. 4 

6 Why do some people cough when they scrape their ears ? 35 
Is it because the hearing is connected with the same duct as 
the lungs and the wind-pipe ? This is shown by the fact that, 

if these parts are filled up, a man becomes deaf. 5 When, 
therefore, heat is set up by the friction, moisture is caused 
by melting and flows downwards from the duct G into the 
wind-pipe and causes coughing. 

7 Why is it that, if a hole is pierced in the left ear, it generally 4 
closes up more quickly than in the right ear ? It is for this 

1 Apollonius, Mirab. 28, seems to be referring to this problem, 
which he cites as occurring eV rot? cpvo-iKols Trpo/SA^acrt. 

2 Omitting avar^vovcri de . . . eunvotav, which is not rendered by 
T. G., and is almost certainly a gloss on OTTCOJ fvnvova-Tfpni &cri. Also 
Trovelv yap KT\. clearly explains eieVcu doKei TO Trvev^a and should follow 
immediately after it. 

3 i. e. used as a diving-bell. 

4 Reading opdov yap (avy OTLOVV irapeyKXidfj) flcrpei (W. D. R.). 

5 Reading ort, {>) ot nTrAr/pooimu, [KCU] yivovrat eVeoi (W. D. R.). 

6 Reading nopov with AP. 

Z 2 


reason that women call the right ear the male and the left 
the female . Is it because the left parts of the body are 
moister 1 and hotter, and such things close up very quickly ? 
This is why green plants grow together again ; and why 
5 wounds close up more readily in the young than in the old. 
That the parts on the left side of the body are moister is 
shown by the fact that they are softer and, generally speak 
ing, partake rather of feminine characteristics. 2 

Why is it that in those who feel shame the extremities of 8 
the ears turn red, but in those who are angry it is the eyes 
that do so ? 3 Is it because shame is a cooling in the eyes 

10 accompanied by fear, so that the heat naturally leaves the 
eyes ? So, when it withdraws thence, it travels to the region 
best adapted to receive it, and this is the extremity of the 
ears ; for the region of the face is otherwise bony. In those 
who are angry the heat travels in the other direction and 

15 makes itself most manifest in the eyes owing to their white 

Why is it that buzzing in the ears ceases if one makes a 9 
sound ? Is it because the greater sound drives out the less ? 

Why is it that, if water has flowed into the ear, one pours 10 
olive oil in, though the moisture in the ear cannot pass out 
20 through another liquid ? Is it because the oil floats on the 
surface of the water and, owing to the adhesive nature of 
the oil, the water clings to it when it comes out, the object 
being to make the water come out with the oil ? Or is it 
in order that the ear may be lubricated and the water there 
fore come out ? For oil being smooth acts as a lubricant. 

Why is it that the 4 ear-drums of divers are less liable to II 
25 burst if they pour olive-oil beforehand into them ? 5 Does 

1 Cp. above, 959 b 33. 

The text makes no sense, since it merely repeats as a (rr^^lov what 
has already been assumed in 1. 2 above. The right sense is certainly 
that of the Latin version of T. G., argumentum paries sinistras esse 
humidiores quod molliores sunt atque effeminatiores, and we must read 
ort vypa p.a\\ov (on /xaAa/ccorfpa) KCU o\a>s 6r]\VKa>Tfpa ra 



3 Cp. chapters I and 12 and xxxi. 3. 
A Reading <ra> &ra as in 96o b 8. 
Cp. above, chapters 2 and 3. 


the reason for their bursting already mentioned l still hold 
good, but the oil poured into the ears cause the sea-water, 
which subsequently enters the ear, to glide smoothly over 
its surface, just as happens on the exterior parts of the 
bodies of those who anoint themselves ? The sea-water 
gliding smoothly along does not make a violent impact 
upon the inside of the ear, and so does not break the drum. 30 

12 Why is it that, although the ears are the most bloodless 
part of the face, they turn red in those who feel shame ? 2 
Is everything carried to that part which is most devoid of 
it ? Now in a man who feels shame the blood seems to be 
carried upwards in a heated condition ; it therefore passes 3 
into the part which is most devoid of it and causes it to 
become red. The same thing happens also in the cheeks. 
A further reason is that the skin of the ears, which is tightly 35 
stretched, is very thin and therefore very transparent. 4 

13 Why is it that no one scrapes out the ear while yawning ? 
Is it because, when one yawns, the drum of the ear, by 
means of which he hears, is inflated ? That this is so is 
shown by the fact that one hears least well while yawning ; 5 
for the breath, as happens also in the mouth, 6 finds its way 40 
into the interior of the ears and thrusts the membrane out 
wards and prevents the sound from entering. If, therefore, 96i b 
one touches the seat of hearing when in this condition in 
such a way as to scrape it, one might cause considerable 
damage to it ; for the impact would be against a resisting 
and unyielding surface inflated by the breath, 7 and it is 
obvious that the skin 8 and the membrane are far from being 5 
solid ; and so great pain is caused and a wound might 

1 96o b 9ff. 2 Cp. above, chapters I and 8 and xxxi. 3. 

3 Reading with Bonitz els ovv TO KfvwTarov (toy) epvOpiav rroiel. 

4 Reading & airoC (Richards). 5 Cp. 9O2 b 9, 904* 16. 

6 Putting a comma instead of a full stop after 

7 Cp. above, 96o b ioff. 

8 Reading TO de (TO) dcppa (Richards). 

96I 1 



WHY is it that sneezing stops hiccuping but does not I 

ro stop eructation ? l Is it because they are not affections of 
the same region, but eructation is a cooling and lack of 
concoction in the stomach, 2 while hiccuping is a similar 
affection of breath and moisture in the region of the lungs ? 
Now the regions about the head (the ears, 3 for example) 
are closely connected with the lungs. This is proved by 
the facts that deafness and dumbness are found together, 

15 and that the diseases of the ears become diverted into 
affections of the lungs ; also in some persons coughing 
results when the ears are scratched. 4 That there is a 
connexion between the region of the nose, in which the 
sneeze takes place, and the lungs is shown by the fact that 
both share in respiration ; and so, while the nose sneezes 
when that region becomes hot, the lower region, 5 where 
hiccuping takes place, also sneezes in sympathy. Now 

20 heat causes concoction ; hence vinegar stops hiccups, as 
also does holding the breath if the hiccup is only slight, 
for it heats the breath which is constricted. 6 So too in 
sneezing the counter-constriction of the breath has this 
effect and expiration takes place properly and from the 
upper region ; for it is impossible to sneeze without expiring. 

25 The impetus then dispels the enclosed breath which is the 
cause of the hiccup. 

Why is it that if, when one is about to sneeze, one rubs 2 
the eye, one sneezes less ? 7 Is it because what causes the 
sneeze is a kind of heat, and friction produces heat, which, 
30 owing to the close proximity to the eyes of the region in 

1 Cp. below, chapters 5, 13, and 17. 

2 Which is too far away to be affected. 

3 Reading ra a>ra for rols waiv. 4 Cp. 96o b 35. 
6 i. e. the lungs. 6 Reading (TO) 

1 Cp. chapter 8 and xxxi. I. 

BOOK XXXIII. 2 g6i b 

which the sneeze occurs, destroys the other heat, just as the 
lesser fire fades away before the greater ? 

3 Why is it that one generally sneezes twice, and not once 
or many times ? Is it because there are two nostrils ? The 
channel, therefore, through which the breath passes is 35 
divided between the two. 1 

4 Why is it that one sneezes more after one has looked at 
the sun ? Is it because the sun engenders heat and so 
causes movement, just as does tickling the nose with a 
feather ? For both have the same effect ; by setting up 
movement they cause heat and create breath more quickly 
from the moisture ; and it is the escape of this breath which 40 
causes sneezing. 

5 Why do sneezing and holding the breath and vinegar 962* 
stop hiccups ? 2 Does sneezing, since it is a displacement 

of the lower breath, act in the same sort of way as medi 
cines which, though applied to the upper part of the body, 3 
affect the lower part of the stomach ? Holding the breath 
stops weak hiccups, because the slight impetus of the 5 
breath which comes forth represses and stifles and com 
pletely dispels the hiccup, just as happens in coughing, 
which 4 ceases if you hold it back. Vinegar stops hiccuping 
because by its heat it vaporizes the surrounding moisture, 
which prevents eructation ; for eructation takes place when 
the moisture in the upper part of the stomach is vaporized 10 
and concocted, whereas hiccuping occurs when by the 
action of moisture breath is retained in an excessive quan 
tity in the region of the lungs ; for this, gaining impetus 
and being unable to break through, causes a spasm, and 
this spasm is called a hiccup. Hence hiccuping seizes 
those who are cold, because the cold causes the moisture 
to acquire consistency 5 from the breath, and the rest of the 15 
breath, being still 6 enclosed, gives a leap, and its movement 
is hiccuping. 

1 Reading *a# cmiTcpov ; the MSS. read Ka 

2 Cp. chapters I, 13, and 17. 3 i.e. through the mouth. 

4 Reading nfpl rrjv (3f)x a {*?)> * l lv KT ^ m 

5 Reading a-wco-ravcu (Y a reads crwia-rav), since Trotel requires an 
infinitive. 6 Punctuating Trvevparos en irfpi\n^av6^vov KT\. 


Why do we sometimes pour cold water over a person s 6 
face when his nose is bleeding ? Is it because the heat is 
20 thus driven inwards ? If, therefore, the blood is near the 
surface, it tends to liquefy it. 

Why do we regard sneezing as divine, 1 but not coughing 7 
or running at the nose ? 2 Is it because it comes from the 
most divine part of us, namely, the head, which is the seat 
of reasoning ? Or is it because the other affections are the 
results of disease, but sneezing is not ? 

25 Why does rubbing the eye stop sneezing ? 3 Is it because 8 
by this means evaporation is given to the moisture ? For 
the eye sheds tears after friction, and sneezing is due to an 
abundance of moisture. Or is it because the lesser heat is 
destroyed by the greater ? Now the eye when rubbed 

30 acquires more heat than is contained in the nose ; and for 
this reason, even if we rub the nose itself, the sneezing stops. 

Why is it that the emission of other kinds of breath, of 9 
wind, for example, and of eructation are not regarded as 
sacred, but that of a sneeze is so regarded ? 4 Is it because 
of the three regions of the body the head, the thorax, and 

35 the lower stomach the head is the most divine? Now 
wind is breath from the lower stomach and eructation is 
from the upper stomach, but sneezing is from the head ; 
because, therefore, this region is most sacred, the breath also 
from it is revered as sacred. Or is it because all discharges 
of breath show that the above-mentioned parts are in a 

40 better state generally (for without any discharge of excre- 
g62 b ment 5 the breath in its passage out lightens the body), and 
so too sneezing shows that the region of the head is in a 
healthy condition and capable of concoction ? For when 
the heat in the head overcomes the moisture, the breath 
turns into a sneeze. This is why men test the dying by 

1 Reading delov (Richards). 

2 This problem is dealt with at greater length in chapter 9. 

4 This chapter is verbally identical with xxxi. I ; cp. also chapter 2. 

4 Cp. chapter 7. 

5 Cp. the impersonal use of Sm^copeu/ in Xen. Anab. iv. 8. 20 Kara) 
difx^pei avrols ( they were suffering from diarrhoea ), and Plato, 
Phaedrus 268 B. 

BOOK XXXIII. 9 962* 

applying something which will cause sneezing, with the 
idea that, if this does not affect them, their case is indeed 5 
desperate. Thus sneezing is revered as sacred as being a 
sign of health in the best and most sacred region of the body, 
and is regarded as a good omen. 

IO Why does man sneeze most of all animals ? l Is it 
because in him the ducts are wide through which the breath 
and scent 2 pass in ? For it is with these w r hen they are full 10 
of breath that he sneezes. That these ducts are wide is 
shown by the fact that man has a weaker sense of smell 
than any other animal, and those who have narrow ducts 3 
have a keener sense of smell. If, therefore, the moisture, 
the evaporation of which causes sneezing, enters in larger 
quantities and more often into wide ducts, and man more 
than any other animal has such ducts, he might naturally 
be expected to sneeze 4 more often. Or is it because 5 his T 5 
nostrils are particularly short, and so the heated moisture 
can quickly become breath and be expelled, whereas in 
other animals owing to the length of their nostrils it cools 
before it can evaporate ? 

II Why is sneezing betw r een midnight and midday regarded 
as a bad thing, but between midday and midnight as a good 20 
thing ? Is it because sneezing seems rather to check those 
who are commencing anything and are at the beginning ? 
And so, if it occurs when we are intending or beginning 
something, we are deterred from action. 6 Now early 
morning and the period after midnight are as it were a new 
beginning; therefore we carefully avoid sneezing so as not 
to hinder the action which has been begun. 7 But towards 25 
evening 8 and up to midnight there is as it were an ending 

1 This problem is almost verbally identical with x. 18. The subject 
is more fully treated in x. 54. 

2 Reading 007^ for piV? (Bussemaker), cp. 892 b 23. 

3 Reading XfTTTo/ropoi for AeTrroi Trdpot (Bussemaker). 

4 Reading TrTapvvoivTO for imipvvvTo. 

6 Reading f) on for oaois, cp. 8Q2 b 30. 

6 orav peXXwa-iv ap^o/ueVois- a-vfjLpijvai of the MSS. gives no sense, and 
orai^ peXXovo-tv r) ap^o/xeVoty (rv/jifirj or something similar must be read. 
The Latin version of T. G. renders: itaque cum rem agere pergitmis 
atque inter initia stermiisse acciderit. 

7 Reading (ro) wp^jueVoy. 8 Reading Se/Xqi/ (Richards). 


and the contrary of the earlier period, so that the same thing" 
that was undesirable becomes, under contrary conditions, 

Why do the old sneeze with difficulty ? Is it because the 12 
ducts through which the breath passes have become par 
tially closed ? Or is it because they are no longer able to 
30 raise the breath l up with ease, and, when they have done 
so, they expel it downwards with a violent effort ? 

Why is it that, if one holds the breath, hiccuping ceases ? 2 13 
Is it because hiccuping is the result of cooling (hence those 
who are frightened and those who are chilled hiccup), 
whereas the breath when it is held back warms the in 
terior region ? 

35 Why do the deaf usually talk through their noses ? 3 Is it 14 
because they suffer from lung trouble, since deafnessis simply 
a congestion in the region of the lungs ? The voice there 
fore does not easily find a passage ; but, just as the breath 
of those who are panting or gasping accumulates owing to 
their inability to exhale it, so it is with the voice of the 

40 deaf. It therefore forces its way even through the nostrils, 
g63 a and, as it does so, owing to the friction, causes the echoing 
sound. For talking through the nose takes place when the 
upper part of the nose, where the openings to the roof of 
the mouth are situated, becomes hollow in form ; it then 
resounds like a bell, its lower part being narrow. 

5 W T hy is sneezing the only phenomenon which does not 15 
occur when we are asleep, but takes place practically always 
while we are awake ? Is it because sneezing is the result 4 
of heat of some kind causing motion in the region from 
which the sneeze proceeds (and this is why we look up at 
the sun when we want to sneeze c ), whereas when we are 
asleep the heat is driven inwards ? 7 This is why the lower 
10 parts become warm in those who are asleep, and the large 

Reading avrb for ra (Richards). 2 Cp. chapters I, 5, and 17. 

3 The same problem is differently treated in xi. 2 and 4. 

4 Omitting KU\ after yiverai. 5 Cp. 96 i b 36 ff. 

6 Reading KaQevddvTwv 8e for (^) on KaOev&ovTtov, the e being implied 
by the preceding jueV. [Bussemaker confirms this reading from Prob. 
Ined. (in his edition) ii. 40.] 

7 Cp. 86; b 32. 

BOOK XXXIII. 15 g63 a 

quantity of breath which collects there is the cause of the 
emission of semen during sleep. 1 It is only natural, there 
fore, that we do not sneeze ; for when the heat (which 
naturally sets in motion the moisture in the head, the 
evaporation 2 of which causes the sneeze) is withdrawn from 
the head, it is only natural that the phenomenon which it 
causes does not take place. Men break wind and eruct 15 
rather than sneeze when they are asleep, 3 because, as the 
region about the stomach becomes hot during sleep, the 
moisture there becomes vaporized and, as it does so, is 
carried into the nearest parts ; for it is thrust together there 
by the breath engendered during sleep. For a man who is 20 
asleep is better able to hold than to expel the breath ; there 
fore he collects the heat within him. Now when a man 
holds his breath he forces it downwards ; for a downward 
course is unnatural to the breath, and that is why it is 
difficult to hold the breath. The same thing is the cause of 25 
sleep also ; for since waking is movement and this move 
ment occurs to a great extent in the organs of sensation 
\vhile we are awake, it is plain that we should go to sleep 
when our organs of sense are at rest. 4 And since it is fire 
which creates movement in our parts, and this during sleep 30 
is driven inwards and leaves the region of the head, where 
the seat of sensation is situated, our organs of sense would 
then be most at rest, and this must be the cause of sleep. 

16 Why do people shiver after sneezing and passing urine ? 5 
Is it because by both actions the veins are emptied of the 
warm air which was previously in them, and, when they are 35 
empty, other air enters from without colder than that which 
was previously in the veins ; and such air entering in causes 
shivering ? 

17 Why does sneezing stop hiccuping ? G Is it because hic- 
cuping (unlike eructation, which comes from the stomach 

1 Cp 86; b 9. " Reading with Sylburg and Bekker e 

3 Omitting /} eyp/y-yopoTe? as a mistaken gloss on /zdXXov. The position 
of KOI epevyovrat after irTtipvvvTai is very awkward and perhaps ^ 

is also a gloss this time a correct one on 

4 Omitting ^wv as a gloss. 

5 A slightly longer version of viii. 8. 

6 Cp. chapters I, 5, and 13. 


4 when it receives food) comes from the lungs l and gene- 
963** rally results from cooling as an effect of chill or pain or 
medicine entering from above ? For the region of the lungs, 
being naturally hot, when it is cooled does not emit all the 
breath but forms as it were bubbles. This is why hiccup- 
5 ing stops if the breath is held (for the region then becomes 
warm) ; and the application of vinegar, which is heating, 
has the same effect. Heat then collecting from the heat of 
the brain also (for the upper regions are connected by 
passages with the lungs) and the lungs being warm, the hold 
ing of the breath which precedes the sneeze, and the down 
ward impetus from above, dissolve the hiccuping. 

10 Why is it that those who have crisp hair and whose hair 18 
curls are usually rather snub-nosed ? Is it because crisp- 
ness resides in fatness, and fatness is accompanied by hard 
ness, and the blood being hard is hot, and heat does not 
produce excrement, and boniness is formed from excrement, 
and the cartilage of the nose is bony therefore a scantiness 

15 of this part is a natural result? This theory is supported 
by the fact that young children are always snub-nosed. 

1 Reading Trvevpovos for Trvevparos [so too Bussemaker], cp. 96l b n 
6 de \vynos TOV rrepi irvfvfiova Kard\l/v^is ; also the mention of some part 
of the body is required to which 6 TO/TO? (963^ 2) may refer. 

963 1 



1 WHY is it that those who have spongy teeth are not 
long-lived ? l Is it because the long-lived have more teeth, 
for instance males have more than females, men than 20 
women, and rams than ewes ? Those then who have 
spongy teeth apparently resemble those who have fewer 

2 Why is it that, though the teeth are stronger than the 
flesh, yet they are more sensitive to cold ? Is it because 
they are closely connected with the pores, in which the 
heat, because it is small, is quickly overcome by the cold 2 5 
and causes pain ? 

3 Why are the teeth more sensitive to cold than to heat, 
while the contrary is true of the flesh ? Is it because the 
flesh partakes of the mean and is of moderate temperature, 
but the teeth are cold and therefore more sensitive to 
cold ? 2 Or is it because the teeth consist of narrow pores 
in which the heat is scanty, so that they are quickly affected 30 
by the opposite of heat ? Now the flesh is warm, so that 

it is unaffected by the cold, but is quickly sensitive to heat ; 
for it is a case of fire added to fire . 

4 Why is it that the tongue is indicative of many things ? 
For in acute diseases it indicates fever by the presence 3 of 

1 This is the same problem as that of x. 48, differently answered. 
The solution of the problem presented here is taken direct from Hist. 
Anim. 5oi b 2ofT. 

2 Reading \lrvxpov for evavriov. The reading of the MSS., 01 de oSoi/re? 
\jrvxpol, OKrre TOV evavriov (i. e. rov Ofp^ov) /udXAot/ aladrjTiKoi, is quite 
impossible, since (i) the problem is discussing why the teeth are more 
susceptible to cold, (2) the flesh, being hot, is stated (in 11. 30, 31) to be 
more susceptible to heat, therefore the teeth, being cold, ought to be 
more susceptible to cold. The Latin version, which renders rem 
frigidam sentire plenius fiossunt, evidently translates 

3 Omitting <al before euv. 

9 6s b PROBLEM AT A 

blisters upon it ; also the tongues of sheep are particoloured 
35 if the sheep are so. Is it because the tongue is capable of 
taking up moisture and is situated near the lungs, which 
are the seat of fevers? Now all things which are parti 
coloured are so because their humours are particoloured, 
and that part first takes on colour through which the humour 
first passes ; and this is what happens to the tongue. Now 
blisters collect on the tongue because it is spongy ; for a 
40 blister is as it were an eruption which has not been con 
cocted within. 1 

964* Why is it that the tongue becomes bitter and salty and 5 
acid, but never sweet? Is it because these qualities are 
corruptions and so the tongue cannot perceive its own real 
nature ? 

Why is it that the coloration of the tongue corresponds 6 
5 with that of the skin ? 2 Is it because it is really an external 
part of the body, though it is enclosed in the mouth, and is it 
because the skin on it is thin that even a slight variegation 
of colour makes itself visible ? Or is it because it is liquid 
that causes change of colour, and the tongue is most affected 
by what is drunk ? 

10 Why is it that one can emit both hot and cold breath 7 
from the mouth ? For one can puff out cold breath and 
breathe out warm breath. 3 That the breath is warm can 
be demonstrated by placing the hand near the mouth. 4 Or 
is the air which is set in motion warm 5 in both cases, but 
does he who puffs out breath not set the air in motion all 
at once but blow through a partly closed mouth, so that, 

15 though he emits but little breath, he sets up motion over 
a large area of the outer air, in which the warmth from his 
mouth is not apparent owing to its scantiness ? But one 
who breathes out breath emits it all at once, and therefore 
it is warm. For it is characteristic of puffing out breath 

1 Cp. 965^ 1 6. 

2 This subject has been already dealt with as part of the problem of 
chapter 4 above. 

3 Cp. 945 b 1 5 and note. 4 Putting a full stop after xelpa. 
5 Reading 0epju6? (Ruelle) for 

BOOK XXXIV. 7 964* 

to 1 pack the air into a particularly small space ; whereas 
breathing out air is emitting it all at once. 

8 Why is it that, if one expires violently and with all the 
breath at once, it is impossible to expire again ? So too 20 
with violent inspiration, which cannot be repeated again 
immediately. Is it because expiration is a local dilatation, 
and inspiration a local contraction, both of which can be 
carried out within certain limits ? Clearly, therefore, the 
two processes must be carried out one after another, but 
neither can be performed twice consecutively. 

9 Why is it that, though there is one passage through 25 
which meat and drink pass and another through which we 
breathe, if we swallow too large a morsel we choke ? In 
this there is nothing strange ; for not only do we choke 

if something penetrates into this passage, but we choke 
still more if it be blocked. Now the passages through 
which we take food and through which we breathe are 3 
parallel to one another ; when, therefore, too large a 
morsel is swallowed, the respiration is also blocked, so that 
there is no way out for the breath. 

10 Why is it that men are very long-lived who have a cut 
right across the hand ? 2 Is it because those animals which 
are badly articulated are short-lived and weak ? As an 
instance of weakness we may take young animals, and of 35 
shortness of life the aquatic creatures. Clearly then those 
who are well articulated must be the opposite, 3 namely, 
those in whom even those parts are best articulated which 
are by nature badly articulated. Now the inside of the 
hand is the least well articulated part of the body. 

II Why is it that, in deep breathing, when we draw in the 
breath the stomach contracts, but when we expire it fills 
out ? Now the contrary of this might be expected to 
occur. Is it because in breathing the stomach is com 
pressed downwards by the flanks and then appears to 
expand again, like bellows ? 

1 Reading ro for r&>, but the corruption is perhaps deeper, though 
the sense is clear. 

2 The so-called line of life . The same problem is treated in a 
slightly different form in x. 49. z i. e. long-lived. 


5 Why do we respire ? Does the breath dissolve into fire, 12 
just as the moisture dissolves into breath ? The heat, then, 
of nature, when the greater part of the breath produces 
fire, causes pain and pressure upon the ducts ; and that is 
why we emit the fire with the breath. 1 Now when the 
breath and fire go forth, the ducts contract and are 

I0 cooled, and pain results ; we therefore draw the breath in 
again. Then when we have opened the breath-ducts 2 and 
given them relief, fire is again engendered and we again 
feel discomfort, and therefore expel it and continue to do 
so indefinitely ; just as we continually blink as the part 

I5 round the eye cools and becomes dry. Also we walk 
without ;J giving attention to the manner of our walking, 
the intellect by itself 4 guiding us. In like manner, there 
fore, we carry out the process of breathing ; for we do so 
by contriving to draw in air, and then continue to draw 
it in. 

1 The Teubner text omits a whole line here by haplography and 
should read TO rrvp (/uera TOV nvevp-aros. orav 8e f^eXOr] TO Trveiyxa /cat TO 


2 Reading -n-vcv^aros with Y a X a . 

3 Reading ov for <wv with Bussemaker. 

4 Reading awf/y for avrols, unless we suppose a lacuna after rtjs 
Btavoias avrols. 

964 1 



I WHY do we shudder more when some one else touches us 
than when we touch ourselves ? Is it because the touch 
of a part of some one else has more power to produce 
sensation than that of a part of oneself, since that which is 
connected by growth with the sense-organ is imperceptible? 
Also anything which occurs unawares and suddenly is more 25 
frightening, and fright is a process of cooling; and both 
these qualities are possessed by the touch of another as 
contrasted with one s own touch. And, speaking generally, 
passive sensation is produced either solely by some one else 
or at any rate in a greater degree 1 than by oneself; as 
happens for example in tickling. 

2 Why do we feel tickling in the armpits and on the soles 30 
of the feet ? Is it owing to the thinness of the skin ? And 
do we feel it most where we are unaccustomed to being 
touched, as in these parts and the ears ? 

3 Why is it that every one does not shudder at the same 
things ? 2 Is it because, just as we do not all feel pleasure 
or pain at the same things, so we do not shudder at the 
same things ? For the same sort of cooling process takes 35 
place. 1 So some people shudder when a garment is torn, 
others when a saw is being sharpened or drawn through 
wood, others when pumice-stone is being cut, others when 
the millstone is grinding on stone. 4 

4 Why is it that, though the summer is warm and the 
winter cold, bodies are colder to the touch in summer than 965* 

1 Transposing 77 plXXoi/ and j? fj.6vov (Richards). 2 Cp. vii. 5. 

3 i. e. when we shudder and when we feel pain. 

4 i. e. when there is no grist in the mill, ovos is always used 
of the upper millstone. 

C45-25 A a 


in winter? Is it because perspiration and the act of per 
spiring cool the body, and this takes place in summer 
but not in winter? Or is it because cold and heat are 
5 driven inwards 1 inversely to the seasons, 2 and in the 
summer the cold takes refuge within and therefore causes 
perspiration to be given off, whereas in winter the cold 
keeps the perspiration in and the body vaporizes it, as does 
the earth ? 

Why do the hairs bristle upon the skin ? 3 Is it because 5 
they naturally stand erect w r hen the skin is contracted, 4 
10 and this contraction occurs owing to cold and certain other 
conditions ? 

Why is it that no one can tickle himself ? Is it because 6 
one also feels tickling by another person less if one knows 
beforehand that it is going to take place, and more if one 
does not foresee it ? A man will therefore feel tickling 
least when he is causing it and knows that he is doing so. 
Now laughter is a kind of derangement and deception (and 
15 so men laugh when they are struck in the midriff; for it is 
no ordinary part of the body with which one laughs 5 ). 
Now that which comes unawares tends to deceive, and it is 
this also which causes the laughter, whereas one does not 
make oneself laugh. 

Why is it that we feel tickling in particular on the lips ? 7 
Is it because the part which feels tickling must be situated 
20 not far from the seat of sensation ? Now the lips are 
essentially in this position, and so of all parts of the head 
the most sensitive to tickling are the lips, which are fleshy, 
and therefore very easily set in motion. 

Why is it that a man bursts out laughing if one scratches g 
the region of his armpits, though he does not do so when 

1 For the doctrine of avrnrepifrTacrt.? see note on 867 a 32. 

2 i. e. cold drives heat inwards and vice versa ; cp. 888 a 34 ff., where 
hot water is said to drive cold inwards. 

3 The same problem occurs in viii. 12. 

4 Reading o-vo-rrdaraan for o-Tratroocrtj cp. 888 a 39. 

5 Laughter being a contraction of the muscles of the midriff or 
diaphragm, which according to the Greeks enclosed the seat of 

BOOK XXXV. 8 965* 

any other part is tickled ? And why does a man sneeze 
if he tickles his nostrils with a feather ? Is it because these 25 
parts are regions where the small veins are situated, and 
when these are cooled or undergo the opposite process l 
they become moist or dissolve 2 into breath as the result of 
the moisture ? (Similarly, if one compresses the veins in 
the neck of one who is asleep, an extraordinarily pleasant 
sensation is caused/ 5 ) And when the breath is engendered 
in greater abundance, we emit it in a single mass. 4 Simi- 30 
larly also in sneezing, when we warm the moisture in the 
nostrils and scratch them with a feather, we dissolve it 
into breath ; and when the breath becomes superabundant 
we expel it. 

9 Why is it that we often shudder after taking solid food ? 
Is it because when food which is cold enters the body 
it prevails at first over the natural heat rather than vice 35 
versa ? 

10 Why is it that an object which is held between two 
crossed fingers 5 appears to be two ? Is it because we 
touch it at two sentient points ? For when we hold the 
hand in its natural position we cannot touch an object 
with the outer 7 sides of the two fingers. 

1 i. e. become hot. 

2 Reading vypaivovrai . . . ftiaXvovrai. 

3 Reading axnrfp lav . . . <jf>Xe/3a? KaOevdova-w J7/*u>, fjftovr] OdVjJMfria ris 
tvriv (W. D. R.). 

4 And this causes an explosion of laughter. 

5 Reading rot? eVaAAu (Wn Aoi? (T. G. renders digitis vice mutata 
implicatis), cp. 958^ 14, 15 and note. 

6 Reading Oiyiiv (W. D. R.) for elneiv. 

7 Reading e/cros-, from T. G., for IVTOS. 

A a 2 


965 b WHY is the face chosen for representation in portraits?! 
Is it because the face shows best what the character of a 
person is ? Or is it because it is most easily recognized ? 

Why is it that one perspires most freely on the face, 2 
though it is far from being fleshy ? 1 Is it because parts 
5 which are rather moist and rare perspire freely, and the 
head has these characteristics? For it contains an abun 
dance of natural moisture ; this is shown by the veins 
which extend from it and the discharges which it produces, 
and the fluidity of the brain and the numerous pores. 
That there are numerous pores extending outwards is 
10 shown by the presence of the hair. The perspiration 
then comes not from the lower parts of the body but 
from the head ; and so one perspires most readily and 
freely 2 on the forehead, for it is highest in position and 
moisture flows down and not up. 

Why do eruptions occur more frequently on the face 3 
than elsewhere ? Is it because this part contains rarities 
15 and moisture ? That this is so is shown by the growth of 
hair on it and by its power of sensation ; and an eruption 
is as it were an efflorescence of unconcocted moisture. 

1 This problem occurs also in Bk. ii. 17. 

2 Reading Trp&Tov (KOI^ /xaXicrra, cp. 868 a 2. 

965 1 




I WHY is it that, though the body is in a state of continual 20 
flux, and effluvia are given off from the excrements, the 
body is only lightened if it perspires ? l Is it because 
the excretion in the form of effluvia is too little (for 
when liquid is transformed into air, much air is formed 
out of little liquid) ? For what is excreted 2 is more, which 25 
accounts for the excretion taking longer to begin. 

2 And what is the reason of this ? Is it because its exit 
takes place through smaller pores ? For the viscous and the 
adhesive matter is expelled with the moisture because it 
mingles with it, but it cannot be expelled with the breath ; 
and it is this thick matter in particular which causes pain. 
Therefore also vomiting lightens the body more than 
sweating, because that which is vomited, being thicker and 3 
more substantial, carries away this viscous matter with it. 
Or is there a further reason, namely, that the region in 
which the viscous and the adhesive matter is, is situated at 

a distance in relation to the flesh (and so it is difficult 
to make it change its position), but near to the stomach ? 
For it is engendered either in or close to it ; and therefore 35 
it is difficult to get rid of 3 it in any other way. 

3 Why is it that friction produces flesh? Is it because 
heat has great power to increase what is in the body ? For 
the bulk of what already exists in it becomes greater if the 

1 This and the following chapter are almost verbally identical with 
ii. 22, but the problem is here divided into two. 

2 i. e. in sweat. 

3 Reading 8vaf dya>yoi> from 868 b 1 1 . 


body is in continual motion and if our internal humours 
are carried upwards and vaporized, and this occurs as 
g66 a a result of friction ; whereas in the absence of this, the 
body wastes away and decreases. Or is it because the flesh 
increases in bulk by nutriment 1 as the result of heat (for 
anything 1 which is hot has the power to attract moisture, 
5 and the nutriment distributed in the flesh is moist and the 
flesh takes up moisture better by being- rare, for the rarer 
a thing is the more it can absorb, like a sponge), whereas 
friction makes the flesh well ventilated and rare and pre 
vents congestion in the body ? Now if there is no conges 
tion, there can be no wasting either ; for atrophy and 

10 wasting are the result of conglomeration. But the better 
ventilated and the rarer and the more homogeneous the 
parts of the body are the more likely they are to acquire 
bulk, for they are better able to take up nutriment and to get 
rid of excrements, since the flesh must be rarefied and not 
densified in order to promote health. 2 For just as a city or 

15 locality is healthy which is open to the breezes (and that is 
why the sea too is healthy), so the body is healthier if the 
air can circulate in it than when it is in the contrary condi 
tion. For either there ought to be no excrement 3 in the 
body, or else the body ought to be able to get rid of it as 
soon as possible and be in such a condition that it can 
reject the excrement as soon as it receives it and be always 

20 in a state of motion and never at rest. For that which 
remains stationary putrefies (standing water, for example), 
and that which putrefies creates disease ; but that which is 
rejected passes away before it becomes corrupt. This then 
does not occur if the flesh is dense (the ducts being as it were 

25 blocked up), but it does happen if the flesh is rare. One 
ought not therefore to walk naked in the sun ; for the flesh 
thereby solidifies and acquires an absolutely fleshy consis 
tency ; for the internal moisture remains, but the surface 
moisture is expelled in the form of vapour, just as in roast 
meat the inner portions are moister than in boiled meat. 

1 Reading rfj rpo^fj (W. D. R.). 

2 966 a 13-34 is almost verbally identical with 86s b 18-37 and 
884 a 24- b 7. 

3 Reading /^SeV (Trfpirrco/za), r) TOVTOV, cp. 865 b 2i, 884 a 29. 

BOOK XXXVII. 3 9 66 a 

Nor ought one to walk in the sun with the chest bare, 
for then the sun draws out the moisture from the best 3 
constructed parts of the body, which 1 least require to 
be deprived of it; but it is rather the inner parts which 
need to be dried, 2 for, because they are remote, it is 
impossible to produce perspiration except by a violent 
effort ; but it is easy to exhaust the moisture in the chest, 
because it is near the surface. 

4 Why is it that, when we are chilled, the same heat causes 35 
more burning and pain ? 3 Is it because owing to its 
density the flesh holds the heat which comes into contact 
with it ? This is the reason why lead becomes hotter than 
wool. Or is the passage of the heat violent because the 
body is congealed by cold ? 

5 Why does dry friction render the flesh solid ? Is it g66 b 
because heat is engendered by the friction and the moisture 

is used up ? Furthermore, the flesh when rubbed becomes 
dense, 4 and everything becomes denser and solider the 5 
more it is rubbed. This can be seen in many examples ; 
dough, for instance, and clay and similar substances, if you 
pour water into them and spread them out, remain moist 
and fluid, but, if you apply more friction, they quickly 
densify and solidify and become viscous. 

6 Why does friction produce more flesh than running ? Is 10 
it because running cools the flesh and makes it less ab 
sorbent of nutriment, but part of the nutriment is shaken 
downwards, while the part on the surface, 5 owing to the 

1 Reading , as in the parallel passage 865 b 34. 

2 Punctuating (as in the parallel passage 865 b 32-5) ovde ru orq&j {\Qvra ftadieiv eV j]Xi &> dnb yap . . . dfpaipfaecos, dXXa juaXXof ra 
evrbs r]pavTov. 

3 i. e. than it would if we were not chilled. This chapter is almost 
verbally identical with viii. 19. 

4 This is a direct contradiction of the doctrine of chapters 3 and 6 
( a 7> b I 5)j where it is stated that friction rarefies the flesh. 

8 Reading eVwroXfJff [so too Bussemaker] for the meaningless eVl 
noXXov, which probably arose from the dittography of the X and the 
subsequent assimilation of the gender to that of Qeppov ; cp. a 27 TO 8c 


exhaustion of the natural heat, becomes quite thin and is 
expelled in the form of breath ? But the hand by friction 
"5 makes the flesh rare and able to take up nutriment. More 
over, the external contact, opposing by its pressure the 
natural impetus of the flesh, makes it compact and drives 
it back upon itself. 

9 66 l 



1 WHY is it that the sun bleaches wax and olive oil, but 
darkens the flesh ? l Is it because it bleaches the former 
by extracting the water from them (for that which is moist 
is naturally black owing to the admixture of the earthy 
element), whereas it scorches the flesh ? 

2 Why have fishermen reddish hair, and purple-fishers and 25 
in short all who work on the sea ? Is it because the sea is 
hot and full of dryness because it is salty ? Now that 
which is of this nature, like lye and orpiment, makes the 
hair reddish. Or is it because they are warmer in their 
outer parts, but their inner parts are chilled, because, owing 30 
to their getting w r et, the surrounding parts are always 
being dried by the sun ? And as they undergo this 
process, the hair being dried becomes fine and reddish. 
Furthermore all those who live towards the north have fine, 
reddish hair. 

3 Why is it that running in clothing and anointing the 
body under the clothing with oil makes men pale skinned, 2 35 
whereas running naked makes them ruddy ? Is it because 
ventilation produces a ruddy colour, while suffocation has 
the opposite effect and causes :! pallor, because the moisture 
on the surface is heated up and does not cool ? Now per 
spiring in clothes and anointing the body under the cloth 
ing both have the same effect, namely, that the heat is 
enclosed. But running naked makes the flesh ruddy for 967 
the opposite reason, because the air cools the excrements 

1 Cp. below, chapter n. 

2 The same subject is dealt with in Hippocr. de Diaet. ii. 63 and 
Theophrastus de Sudore, 39. 

3 Reading" TOvvavriov, &iu fie. 


which form 1 and ventilates the body. Further, the oil, 
which is moist and thin, being smeared over the body 
under the clothing- and blocking up the pores, does not 
5 allow either the moisture and breath from the body to 
escape or the external air to penetrate inwards. Therefore 
the moist excrements being choked in the body decay and 
produce pallor. 

Why is it that the ventilation of the flesh makes it 4 
ruddy ? Is it because pallor is as it were a corruption of 
the flesh ? When, therefore, the surface is moist and hot, 
10 it becomes yellow unless it is cooled and gives off the heat 
in the form of breath. 

Why is it that those who perspire are ruddy as a result 5 
of their exercises, whereas athletes are pale ? Is it because 
as the result of moderate exertion the heat is burnt up and 
comes to the surface, whereas by constant exertion it is 
15 drained off with the perspiration and breath, the body 
being rarefied by exertion ? When, therefore, the heat 
comes to the surface, a man becomes ruddy, just as he does 
when he is hot or ashamed ; but when the heat fails, he is 
pallid. Now ordinary persons indulge in moderate exercise, 
whereas athletes are constantly training. 

20 Why are men more sunburnt who sit still in the sun than 6 
those who take exercise ? 2 Is it because those who are 
in motion are as it were fanned by the breath owing to 
the movement of the air which they set up, whereas those 
who are sitting still do not undergo this process ? 

Why does the sun scorch, while fire does not ? Is it 7 
25 because the heat of the sun is finer and can penetrate 
farther into the flesh ? 3 Fire, on the other hand, if it does 
scorch, only raises the surface of the flesh by creating what 
we call blisters, and does not penetrate within. 

g67 b Why is it that fire does not make men black, whereas 8 
the sun does so, and why does fire blacken earthenware, 

1 And so causes them to evaporate. 

2 Cp. Theophrastus, de Igne, 36. 

3 Cp. Theophrastus, op. cit., 38. 


while the sun does not ? Or do they produce their effects by 
dissimilar means, the sun blackening the flesh by scorching 
it and the fire permeating the earthenware with the soot 
which it sends up ? (Now soot consists of fine ember-dust, 5 
formed by the simultaneous breaking-up and burning of 
the charcoal.) The sun, then, makes men black, while the 
fire does not do so, because the heat of the sun is gentle 
and owing to the smallness of its parts it can scorch the 
flesh itself; and so, because it does not set the flesh on fire, 
it does not cause pain, but it blackens it because it scorches it. 10 
Fire, on the other hand, either does not kindle at all or else 
penetrates within ; for what is burnt by fire also becomes 
black, but it does not burn merely that part of the body in 
which the colour is situated. 

9 Why do men become darker complexioned as they 
become older ? l Is it because anything which decays 
becomes blacker, except mildew ? And old age and decay 
are the same thing. 2 Further, since the blood when it T 5 
dries up becomes blacker, it is only likely that the older 
men are the darker they are ; for it is the blood which 
naturally gives colour to our bodies. 

10 Why is it that, of persons engaged in the preparation of 
cereals, those who handle barley become pale and are 20 
subject to catarrh, while those who handle wheat are 
healthy ? 3 Is it because wheat is more easily concocted 
than barley, and therefore its emanations are also more 
easily concocted ? 

11 Why is it that the sun bleaches olive oil but darkens the 
flesh ? 4 Is it because it extracts the earthy element from 
the olive oil, and this, like the earthy element in wine, is 25 
the black part of it ? Now it darkens the flesh because it 
burns it; for that which is earthy always becomes black 
when burnt. 

1 Cp. 89o a 16 ff. 2 Reading TUVTO for roCro. 

3 This problem is identical with xxi. 24, where see note on 929 b 28 ; 
cp. also 863 b i ff. 

4 The problem here dealt with is the same as that of chapter I above, 
but somewhat differently answered. 


Abortion, occurs most frequently 

in spring, 86o a i8ff. 
Abscesses, 885*31; diagnosis of, 

863 a 8. 
Accompaniment, musical, adds to 

the pleasure of a solo, 9i8 a 22; 

antiphonal a. more pleasing 

than * symphonic , 91 8 b 30 ; see 

also Flute, Lyre. 
Acorn, 925*32, 37, 930*16, 

Acquittal of a wrongdoer less 

serious than condemnation of the 

innocent, 95i a 39- 
Actors, 901*2, 904*4, 916*35; 

their aim is to give pleasure, 

* 37 ; are imitators, 918* 28. 
Aegean Sea, 932*21, 25. 
Agathyrsi, 92O a i. 
Age, see Old age. 
Ague, 947*21. 
Air, Problems connected with the, 


Air, not moistened by contact with 
water, 938 a i7fT., 939 a i7rT. ; 
cannot penetrate through solids, 
a io; cannot saturate anything, 
a 29 ; does not rise, a 39 ; warmer 
in small quantities, * 23 ; does 
not become corrupt, * 27 ; move 
ment of, in large rooms, 94O a 3. 

Ajax, afflicted by melancholy, 95 3 a 

Alcmaeon, 9i6 a 34. 

Aleian Plain, the, 953 a 24. 

Alum, 937 b 23- 

Anaxagoras, 903*8, 914* 10. 

Anger, physical effect of, 86g a 5, 
947*23 ; prevents chill, 889 a 15 ; 
makes the eyes red, 957*9, 

Angles, right, 913*10, 28, 33, 36 ; 

notes compared to, 9i8 a 2o; ob 

jects thrown rebound at similar 

a.s, 913* 6 ff., Q.i5*iSff. 
Animals, growth in, 9i6 a 12; origin 

of, 892* 26. 
Animate Things, Problems con 

nected with, 915* 36-9 i6 a 39. 

Anise, 949 a 2. 

Anointing, a cure for fatigue, 863* 
19, 884 b 37 ; of the eyes by child 
less women, 876*12; its effect 
upon odour, 908*24, 34; under 
the clothing produces pallor, 

1 Antiphonal , accompaniment, 918* 
30; notes, *39, 9i9 a 2, 8, 10. 

Antiphony , 918* 34 ; more pleas 
ing than homophony , 92i a 7; 
how produced, a 9. 

Antistrophe, 9i8 b 13, 19. 

Aphrodite, 953 b 3!; see also 

Apoplexy, 86o a 33 , 874*29, 875*7, 
37, 887 a 24, 903*9, 905 a i7, * 35, 

954 a 24- 

Apples, 923* 5. 

Aquatic animals, short-lived, 896* I. 

Arabia, 906* 1 8, 9o8 a 14. 

Arcadia, winds in, 947 a 15 ; no out 
lets to the sea in, a 19. 

Archelaus, King of Macedonia, 

Archytas, 9i5 a 29. 

Arcturus, 859 a 23. 

Artemis, 894* 34. 

Articulation, vocal, effect of drun 
kenness on, 875* 27 ff. ; of the 
body, 896* iff, 964 a 34ff. 

Arts, analogy of the, 895* 32. 

Ashes, take up no space in water, 
938*26 ff. ; attract water, 939 a i. 

Asses, 893*27, 894 b i2, ^97 b 35, 

Astronomer, 9i7 a 8. 

Atarneus, hot waters at, 937* 7. 

Athletes, 862*22; unable to bear 
cold, 888 a 23 ; paleness of, 967** 

Athletic contests, prizes for, 956* 

Athos, Mt., no wind on, 944* 13. 

Atlantic, 946 a 29. 

Atrabilious, see Melancholic. 

Attica, 942 a 19, 946*33, 947 a 2 ; 
effect of soil in A. upon plants, 
925* 8 ff. 


Bakers, 863* i, 929*26, 96; b 19. 
Baldness, 8;8 b 23, 893* 38, 897*23, 

29 ; not found in those blind 

from birth, 957*236^. 
Barley, 863 a 34ff, 929*2? 5 less 

nourishing than wheat, 927 a 17 ; 

gluing b. with water , 929 b 17. 
Barley-cake, 927 b 2i, 32, 928 a I, 

929*7, b 19. 
Barley-gruel, 927*11. 
Barley-meal, Barley-cake, and the 

like, Problems connected with, 

Barley-meal, 927*23, b 16, 33, 

928*35, 929 a 8, ii, 25, 31, 36, 

b 9, 36, 39- 

Baths, a cure for fatigue, 863 b 19, 
884 b 36; theft from the, 952* 
1 7 ff. ; see also Vapour baths. 

Beans, 890*25. 

Beautiful, the, as an object of 
desire, 896 b 10. 

Beauty, not communicable to 
others, 951*5. 

Bellerophon, a victim of melancholy, 

Bellowings , subterranean, 937 b 
39 ^ 

Bile, 86o b 22, 948 b 10 ; black b. 
(melancholy), 86o b 24 ; its com 
position and effects, 954* 14 ff. ; 
see also Melancholic. 

Biliousness, causes the feet to swell, 
859 b 2 ; more serious in winter 
than summer, b 5. 

Birds, 895 b 3, 12, 896 b 32, 897 b 10, 
898*4, 17, 27; are lustful, 880* 
35, 893 b 10 ; have no bladder, 
891*18 ; legs of 895*22. 

Birth, claims of, preferred to pro 
visions of wills, 95o b 5 ff. 

Black Sea, 932*21. 

Bladder, 924*14, 936*31, 949 a I I 
human, 8g5 b 5 ; of cloven-hoofed 
animals, 895* 39 ; none in birds, 
89i b i8; none in some fishes, 
895 b i ; effect of garlic on, 908* 7. 

Blight, 862*25. 

Blind, those b. from birth do not 
become bald, 95 7 b 23 ff. 

Blood, staunching of, 862*13; 
becomes darker in the old, 967 b 
15 ff. 

Blows, effect of, 88g b 27, 32, 890* 

Blushing, 889* 20, 903* 3, 905* 7, 
957 b 10, 960*366% 961*8, b 3 1. 

Boar, wild, 896*23. 

Body, Problems connected with the 

whole, 965 b 2o~966 b 19. 
Body, cooler to the touch in 

summer, 964 b 39 ff. 
Boreas, see North wind. 
Bowels, effect of fear on the, 869* 3, 

947 b i4, 19, 29, 948 b 35> 949 a i- 
Brain, the, 891*11, 17, 896*33, 

963 b 7 ; the source of semen, 

897 b 23. 

Brambles, 906*1 1. 
Brave, the, fond of wine, 948* 13; 

see also Courage. 
Bread, lighter if mixed with salt, 

927*35; effect of kneading upon, 

929* 17 ; effect of toasting upon, 

b 30 ; see also Loaves. 
Breath, can be emitted both hot 

and cold, 964* loff. 
Breathing, nature of, 964 h 5 ; effect 

of deep, 964* 39 ff. 
Briers, 906* n. 
Bronze, 89o b 9 ; b. vessels resonant, 

99 b 33- 
Bruises, Scars, and Weals, Problems 

connected with, 889 b 10-891* 5. 
Bruises, cures for, 890*25, b 7, 20. 
Bubbles, bases of, are white and 

throw no shadows, 91 3*1 9 ff. ; 

why hemispherical, * 29 ff. ; in 

boiling water, 936 b 2; in soup, 

b 36 ; air in b.s not wet, 939* 25. 
Bulls, effect of castration upon, 

894*23, 897 b 26; sacred b.s, 

938* i. 

Cabbage, prevents the ill effects of 

drinking, 873* 37 ff. ; useful as 

a purge, b 2. 

Caecias, see North-East wind. 
Calm, usually occurs at midday or 

midnight, 938* 23 ; on high 

mountains, 944 b 12 ff. 
Caper-plant, does not grow on 

tilled ground, 924* I. 
Castration, effects of, 894 b 19 ff. ; 

897 b 26 ff. 
Catarrh, 92 9 b 27. 
Cauterization, X surgery, 863* 10 ; 

X drugs, 863* 19; as a cure for 

running at the eyes, 957*25. 
Celery, benefited by salt water, 

923* 6 ; method of cultivation, 

b 10. 
Chaeremon, tragic poet, quoted, 



Chaff, used for preserving fruit, 

Chilblains,careof,S65 b 38 ff.,866 a 5ff. 

Children, dislike wine, 872 a 2 ; have 
hot and moist temperaments, a 7 ; 
methods of communication, 8o.5 a 
13; phenomenon of speech in, 
9<D2 a 5ff. ; have shrill voices, 
a 32 ; hesitate in speech, b 16. 

Chill and Shivering, Problems 
connected with, 887 b io-8S9 b 7. 

Chill, makes the flesh livid, 887^ 
10 ; prevents sleep, b 15, 889 b 4; 
affects stout persons most, 887 b 
32 ; effect on the tongue, 888 b 7; 
effect on the hair, 888 a 39, b 16 ff ; 
prevented by anger, 889 a i5; 
caused by fear, a 24, 948 b 13 ; 
see also Cold. 

Choking, cause of, 964 a 25 ff. 

Chorus, c.-singers practise before 
taking food, 9oi b 2, 9O4 b 3 ; con 
sisting of free citizens, 9i3 b 2o; 
songs of, antistrophic, 9i8 b 27; 
less imitative than actors, o,i8 b 
29; large c. keeps better time, 
9i9 u 36ff., 922 a 3off. ; modes 
suitable and unsuitable for tragic 
c., 92o a 8 ff, 922 b 10 ff. ; function 
of, b 26. 

Circle, human life is a c. , 916* 28. 

Cistern, 899^7. 

Clay, a cure for bruises, 89O a 26. 

Clazomenae, 87 5 a 35. 

Clock, water-c., 866 b 12, 868 b 23 ; 
phenomena connected with the, 
9i4 b 9ff. 

Cloud-winds, 94o b 30, 94i b 37. 

Cloudy weather hotter than clear, 

937 b 33- 

Coat, shedding of, by animals,, 893* 
4ff., 8 9 8 a 33- 

Cold, effect of, on those who are ill, 
or in pain, or angry, 887 b 19 ff. ; 
affects the extremities most, b 26 ; 
effect on the feet, b 29 ; athletes 
unable to bear c., 888 a 23 ; reason 
of c. at dawn, b 27, 938* 32, 939 b 
5 ; excessive cold causes brutish- 
ness, 909 a i3; c. climate makes 
men courageous, b 9, 9io a 39; see 
also ChilL 

Coloration of the Flesh, Problems 
connected with the, 9(56 b 20-96 7 b 

Coloration oftheeyes,892 a 1, 9io a 13. 

Cone, the vision has the form of a 

c., 872 a 37, 91 i b 5, 1 6, 20 ; formed 

by the light of the sun through 

a rectangular hole, 9i2 b 15 ff. ; 

movement of a c., 91 3 b 39 ff. 
Conjurer, 9i7 a 8. 
Consonants, 895 a 9. 
Contagiousness of diseases, cause 

of, 886 b 4ff,887 a 22fT. 
Continence and Incontinence, Prob 

lems connected with, 949 a 21- 

95<D a 19. 
Continence, most praised in the 

young and wealthy, 949 b 20. 
Contraries, sometimes produce the 

same result, 874 b 36, 888 a 32 ; 

destroy one another, 8S9 a 6; 

mingling of, in music, 92i a 2; 

change into one another, 94i b 6. 
Cooking, effect of, on vegetables, 

923 a 17, 21. 
Copper, 864 a 34 ; surgical instru 

ments made of, 863 a 25 ff. ; burns 

inflicted by, a 31 ; curative effects 

of, 89o a 27, b 2o, 37. 
Corn, cut off by frost, 935 a 1 8 ; see 

also Wheat, Barley. 
Coughing, 89i a S, 962*22; caused 

by scraping the ears, 96o b 35. 
Counting, by tens, 9io b 23ff. ; on 

the fingers, b 39 ; by fours, 91 i a 2. 
Courage, Problems connected with 

Fear and, 947 b io-949 a 20. 
Courage, why so highly honoured, 

948 a 3iff. 
Courageousness of those who live 

in cold regions, 9<D9 b 9. 
Cowardice of those who live in hot 

regions, 9O9 b 9, 9io a 38. 
Crocodiles eggs, 926 a 9. 
Crow, does not change its colour, 

89i b 16. 

Cucumber, 923* 13, 925 b 3i. 
Cultivated X wild plants, 896 a 6, 

924 a 1 8, 927 a 4. 
Cylinder, path described by, in 

motion, 9l3 b 37- 
Cypris, 896* 24. 

Dawn, reason of coldness at, 888 b 

27, 938 a 32, 939 b 5- 
Deaf, the, speak through their 

nostrils, 899 a 4, 15, 962 b 35 ff. 
Deafness, 898 b 28, 96o b 37 ; often 

found with dumbness, 96i b i4. 
Death, a process of cooling, 874 b i ; 

as a penalty for theft, 95 3 a 3. 


Defect, a cause of disease, 859*3. 

Defendant, position of, on the right 
hand in court, 95i*i5ff. ; wins 
if the votes are equal, 95i a 2off, 

Deposit, robbery of a, more serious 
than of a loan, 95o a 28 ff, b 28 ff. 

Dew, 9 38 a 34, 939 b 36. 

Diameter, 9io b 11 ff, 19 ff. 

Dice, loaded, 913* 35, 9i5 b 8. 

Diet, in disease, 863 a 34ff, 865* 
35 ff, 866 a 8 ff. ; in summer, 863 b 
24, 885 a 2 ; reduction of, healthy, 
864 b 36, 884 a 22 ; human d. moist 
rather than dry, 897 a 19, 36 ; 
effect of monotonous d., 928 a 33, 

Dionysius, the tyrant, 949*25. 

Dionysus, 953 b 3i. 

Disease, due to excess or defect, 
859 a 2; cured by excess, a 5, or 
by starvation, a 7 ; effect of the 
seasons on, 859 b 9ff., 86i b I ff, 
21 ff. ; effect of the weather on, 
859 b 2iff. ; contagiousness of, 
886 b 4ff, 887 a 22ff. 

Disputations, as a mental exercise, 
9i6 b i8ff. 

Dithyrambs, 9i8 b 19. 

Divers, their ear-drums burst in the 
sea, 96o b 8 ff. ; protect their ears 
with sponges, b 15 ff. ; slit their 
ears and nostrils, b 2off. ; use 
cauldrons as diving-bells, b 32. 

Dizziness, occurs in those standing 
rather than in those sitting, 885 b 


Doctors, aim of treatment by, 956 a 
28 ff. 

Dogs, prolific, 892 b i, 898** 13; 
change their coats, 893 a 4 ; bad- 
tempered after bearing young, 
894 b 12 ; produce monstrosities, 
898* 12 ; Melitaean d.s, 8c;2 a 2i ; 
wild in India, 895 b 25- 

Dog-star, 859*23, 94i a 37, b 3> 8, 
944* 4. 

Dough, 927 b 33, 38, 928* 27, 929* 6, 
b i8. 

Dreams, 956 b 39 ; cause of, 957 a 7, 

Dropsy, 887*24; drunkards liable 
to, 87^25. 

Drugs, effect of, 863 b 4off., 864* 
3ff, 23 ff, 865 a 3ff.; X surgery 
and cauterization, 863 a I9ff. 

Drunkards, Drunken, the, cannot 

endure cold, 87i a I ff., b 33 ff. ; 
the slightly d. more troublesome 
than the very d., 871* 7 ff, 875 a 
29 ff. ; infertile, 87 i a 23 ; why the 
d. tremble, a 27 ff., 874 b 22 ff. ; 
often dropsical or rheumatic, 
87i b 25; more sensitive to salty 
and bad water, 872 a 9ff, 873 b 
37 ff. ; incapable of sexual inter 
course, 872 b i5ff, 875 b 39ff ; 
easily moved to tears, 874 b 8 ff. ; 
those who like sweet wine do not 
become d., 87 5 b I ff. ; fond of 
the sun, b 5ff, 34 ff; voices of, 
broken, 904 b i ; deep voice of, 

95 a 25- 

Drunkenness, Problems connected 
with tJie drinking of wine and, 
87i a i-876 a 28. 

Drunkenness, 87i a I, 876 a 28 ; 
effect on the vision, 872 a i8ff, 
b 3ff, 874 a 5ff., b 9ff.; more 
seriously affects those who take 
physical exercise, 873 a 13 ; ill 
effects prevented by taking 
cabbage, a 37 ff. ; effect on the 
speech, 875 b i9ff. ; oil beneficial 
against, 876 a 26. 

Dumb, the, speak through their 
nostrils, 899 a 6, 17. 

Dumbness, 895 a i6, 898 b 32 ; often 
found with deafness, 96 i b 14. 

Dwarfs, 892 a 6. 

Dysentery, 86o a 32, 86i b 4. 

Ear-drums, inflated by yawning, 
96o a 38 ; of divers, burst in the 
sea, b 8 ff. ; protected by sponges, 
b 15 ff. ; oil poured into, 96i a 24. 

Ears, Problems connected with the, 
96o b 36-96i b 6. 

Ears, turn red from shame, 957 b 10, 
96o a 36ff, 96i a 8, b 3i; slitting 
of, by divers, 96o b 2lff. ; scrap 
ing the e.s causes coughing, b 35 ; 
holes close up more quickly in 
left e., b 40 ff. ; male and 
female e.s, 96i a 2 ; buzzing in, 
a 16 ; oil placed in e.s, to drive 
out water, a i8ff. ; closely con 
nected with the lungs, b !3ff. ; 
see also Hearing. 

East wind (Apeliotes), 940*32, 
943 b 33 j begins in early morn 
ing, 944 a 20 ; origin of its name, 
944 a 24; (Hellespontias), 946 b 
33, 947 a 2. 


Echo, 899*24, b 3o, 9<Di b i7, 904* 
38, b 28 ; higher than original 
sound, 9i8 a 35. 

Eclipse of the sun, 9i2 b n, 942*22. 

Edible plants, 923 a 25 ff. 

Eggs, as a cure for weals, 889 b n ; 
raw, will not spin round, 88$ b 37 ; 
double-yolked, 898* 17 ; of croco 
diles, 926*9. 

Egypt, cultivation of melons in, 
926 b 5 ; S. wind does not blow in 
the maritime regions of, 945 a 21 ff. 

Egyptians, bandy-legged, 909* 27. 

Elaterium, 864* 5. 

Elements, when pure show no 
variation, 960* 31. 

Elysian Plains, 943 b 22. 

Emetics, 859* 25. 

Empedocles, on the pigmentation 
of the eye, 910*15; quoted, 
929 b 1 6 ; on petrifaction, 937* 15 ; 
afflicted by melancholy, 953* 27. 

Enslavement, accusation of, 95 i b 2. 

Enthymemes, 9i6 b 26, 29. 

Epilepsy, 896 b 6, 953*16, 954 b 30 ; 
occurs only in man, 960* 1 8. 

Epitrite , 920*36. 

Equinox, 942 b 25, 30, 36, 943* 2. 

Ethiopians, have white teeth, but 
dark nails, 898 b i2; bandy 
legged, 909* 27. 

Eunuchs, 879 b 8 ; vision of, 876 b 
25 ; swollen legs of, b 31 ; physical 
peculiarities of, 894 b 19, 36, 895* 
35 ; do not suffer from varicocele, 
894 b 39 ; have sore legs, 895* 31 ; 
do not become bald, 897 b 23 ; 
have shrill voices, 9Oo b i5, 903* 
27, 906*3. 

Euripides, quoted (lost play), 895* 
14, (Crespho?ites] 95 7 b 11. 

Eurus, see SoutJi-East wind. 

Evil eye, 926 b 20 ff. 

Examples , 9i6 b 25. 

Excess, a cause of disease, 859*2, 
862 b 10. 

Exercise, physical, effect on health, 
865* i ; increase of, healthy, 884* 
22; distends the body, 885 b 23; 
the voice shrill after violent e., 
901*30; detrimental to the vision, 
958 b 28. 

Eyebrows, grow thicker with ad 
vancing years, 878 b 28. 

Eyelashes, falling off of, 878 b 22. 

Eyes, Problems connected ivith the, 

Eyes, the, position of during sexual 
intercourse, at death, and in 
sleep, 876*31 ff. ; effect of sexual 
intercourse upon, *36ff, 88o b 
8 ff. ; anointed by childless 
women, 876 b 12 ; watering of e.s 
of riders on horseback, 882* 3, 
884 b 22 ; scars on e.s are white, 
889 b 21 ; coloration of, 892* I ff. ; 
human, why near together, 8g2 b 
4 ff. ; effect of climate on colour 
of, 9io*i3ff. ; effect of various 
plants upon, 925*27^". ; two e.s 
better than one, 957 b 5 ; become 
red from anger, 957 b 9, 961*9; 
do not feel cold, 959 b 15 ; sneez 
ing stopped by rubbing, 957* 38, 
96i b i4, 962 a 25ff. ; the two e.s 
connected at their source, 957 b 
19, 40; sometimes benefited by 
ophthalmia, 858*4; sight of two 
e.s equally acute, 959* 20 ; various 
movements of, 957 b 35 ff. ; causes 
of distortion of, 958* 6 ff, 960* 9, 
13 ; effects of distortion of, 95 8 b 
12; the e. is a fire, 959 b 18, 960* 
33 ; left e. more easily closed than 
right, 959 b 3i ; see also Vision. 

Face, Problems connected with the, 

Face, the, perspires most freely, 
867* 23 ff, b 34 ff., 9 65 b 4 ff ; why 
chosen for representation in por 
traits, b 2 f . ; eruptions on, b 14. 

Fasting, makes sexual intercourse 
easier, 877 b 4ff. ; odour resulting 
from, 9o8 b II. 

Fat, consumed by exertion, 88o b 34, 
37; not natural, 882*22; dis 
tribution of, on the body, 891* 19. 

Fatigue, Problems connected with, 
88o b i5-885 b ii. 

Fatigue, cures for, 863 b 19 ff, 881* 
4, 12; more f. caused to the arm 
from casting if the hand is empty, 
*39ff. ; more f. caused by lying 
on a flat than on a concave sur 
face, b 28 ff. ; caused by short 
walks, b 37 ff, 884 b 8 ff. ; persons 
of equable temperament liable to 
f., but easily throw it off, 883 b 
1 1 ff. ; felt less by the legs than 
by the thighs, b 14 ff. ; cured by 
baths in summer, by anointing 
in winter, 884 b 36 ff. 



Fatness, a condition of health, 888 a 

Fear and Courage, Problems con 
nected with, 947 b io-949 a 20. 

Fear, causes chill, 889 a 24, 903* 12, 
94S b 13 ; a process of cooling, 
89S a 6; causes trembling, 947 b 
12, 948 a 35, b 6; effect on the 
bowels, 869 a 3, 948 b i4, 19, 29, 
35 ff. ; effect on the heart, 947 b 
29 ; causes thirst, b 20, 948 a I, 7, 
b 13 ff. ; makes men silent, b 20 ff. ; 
causes urine to pass, b 36 ff. 

Feet, the, swelling of, from bilious 
ness and starvation, 859 b 2 ff. ; 
of the nervous, perspire, 868 b 34, 
869 b 4ff. ; bareness of, prejudicial 
to sexual intercourse, 87 7 a 5 ff. ; 
effect of cold upon, 887 b 29 ; 
reason for an even number in 
animals, 893 b 20 ff, 894 a 17 ff. 

Females, smaller than males, So.l b 
21 ; shorter-lived, 896 a 35 ; f. in 
fants more likely to be born in 
damp districts, 9O9 a 32 ; naturally 
inferior to males, 95i a i2; have 
fewer teeth, 963 b 20 ; male and 
f. ear, 961* 2. 

Fennel-stalks, 9O5 b 7, 19, 923 b 25 ; 
effect of blows from, 8S9 b 27, 32, 
8 9 o a 37. 

Fever, 859 b 6, 7, 10, 23, 86i b 33ff., 
862 a 18 ff, b 25, 32, 873 b 17, 874 b 
18, 8 7 5 a 13, 887 a 24, 94^ 25; 
treatment of, 866 a 8 ff. ; caused by 
dry S. winds, 946 a 4 ; the tongue 
as an indication of, 963 b 34; burn 
ing f.s more common in cold 
weather, 862 b 32 ff. ; quartan f., 
86i h 5, 866 a 31. 

Fifth (musical), 92o a l5; how 
obtained in wind instruments, 
9i9 b 7ff. ; singing in f.s, 9i8 b 
34 ff. ; double f. not concordant, 
92o a 24, 92i b I ; ratio of, 92o a 32, 

9 2I b 3. 

Fig-tree, grafting on, 924 b 36 ff. 

Figs, 93o b 20, 32 ff., 39 ff. 

Fire, a greater f. overpowers a less, 
86o b i8, 86i a 32, 874 b 5, 876 a 2, 
88o a 2i, 93o b 3o, 93i a 19, 937 a 26, 
96i b 3i, 962 a 28; stimulates the 
passing of urine, 886 a 36 ; does 
not become corrupt, 939 b 27 ; the 
eye consists of f., 959 b i8, 96o a 

Fishermen, have red hair, 966 b 25. 

Fishes, sexual intercourse of, 878 a 
39 ; some f. have no bladder, 
^8 9 5 b i. 

Flesh, Problems concerning the 
coloration of the, 966 b 2o-9O7 b 27. 

Flesh, the, should be rare rather 
than dense, 865 b ioff., 884 a 26 ff., 
966 a 13 ff. ; effect of friction on, 
882 a i3, 965 b 36ff., 966 b I ff., 
10 ff. ; nature of human f., 893 b 
29 ff. ; more sensitive to heat 
than to cold, 963 b 26 ; effect of 
running on, 966 b 10 ff. ; darkened 
by the sun, b 2iff., 967 b 23fT. ; 
cause of pallor in, 966 b 34ff., 
967 a 9, 13; cause of ruddiness in, 
966 b 36ff, 967 a 8ff., 12 ff. ; be 
comes blacker in old age, 967 b 
13 ff. 

Flood, the, 9io a 35. 

Flour, wheaten, 927 a 23, b 15, 35, 
9 28 a 6, 16, 35, 929 b 8/35, 9 3 o a 3 ; 
whitened by oil, 927 a 1 1 ff. 

Flowers, odour of, 9o6 a 3i, b 23, 35, 
907 a 2o, 29, b i, 9o8 b 37, Q09 b 3, 
95o a 16. 

Flute, 9oo a 3i, 9i8 a 23, 3i,9i9 b 4; 
used both by those who grieve 
and those who rejoice, 9i7 b i9; 
a more pleasant accompaniment 
to song than the lyre, 922- I ; 
covers up the mistakes of the 
singer, a 15. 

Fomentations, 866 a 25. 

Food, not taken immediately after 
exercise, 883 b 33 ; effect of sweet 
f., 93o a 14, 24 ; see also Diet. 

Forerunners, the (winds), 939 b II, 
94i b 7, 946*16. 

Fourth (musical), 92o a 15 ; how 
obtained in wind instruments, 
9i9 b iiff. ; double f. not con 
cordant, 92O a 24, 92 i b I ; ratio of, 

Friction, effect on the flesh, 882 a 
13, 965 b 36ff., 966 b iff., b ioff. ; 
more difficult to apply to the left 
than the right leg, 884* 1 6. 

Frogs, 862 a u. 

Fruit, Problems connected with, 
93Q a 5-93i a 32. 

Fruit, as an article of diet, 93o a 7 ; 
methods of preserving, b I, 93 i a 
23 ; dried, 93O b 12 ; how to enjoy, 

b 20. 

Furniture, spontaneous noise made 
by, 902 a 36 ff. 


Gall-stones, man alone suffers from, 

S95 a 37fT- 
Garlic, 865 a 22, QO3 b 29, 9o; b 7, 

9o8 a 28, b 4, 925 b 10, 926*3, u, 

1 6, 26, 949 a 6. 
Geometrical truths, contemplation 

of, gives no pleasure, 956 a 15 ff. 
G cry one (play by Nicomachus), 

922 b 13. 
Gestation, period of, 89i b II, 25, 

896 a 14, S9S b 10 ; varies in man, 

S95 a 24. 

Glass, 905 b ;, 18, 939* 14. 
Gnomon, 9i2 a 4o, b 7. 
Goats, milk of, 891** 4; change of 

colour in, 89i b i3; prolific, 898 a 

Gourds, grow well if buried, cj23 b 

i6ff. ; keep fresh in wells, 924 a 

36 ff. ; methods of producing 

early, 924 b loff. 
Grafting, 924 b 36 ff. 
Grapes, 9O9 a 2i; dried sweeter 

than fresh, 925 b i5; stones of, 

b 2 4 . 

Grass, 923*31. 

Green objects, beneficial to the 
sight, 959 a 24ff. 

Growth, in different dimensions, 
9i6 a i2ff. 

Gruel, 929 b I ; see also Barley- 

Gums, inflammation of the, 863 b 1 1, 
8S7 b i. 

Hail, 94o a 13. 

Hair, growth of, at puberty, 876 b 
33 ff. ; men with thick h. are 
lustful, 88o a 34 ff, 893 b 10 ff. ; 
cause of bristling of, 886 b 24, 
88S a 39, b i6ff, 889 a 26ff, 96s a 
8 ff. ; does not grow on human 
scars, 89o b 38, 893 b 28, 894 * 13 ff; 
turns grey through leprosy, 89 i b 
i, 894 b 6 ; grows harder if plucked 
out, 893 a i8; soft in northern, 
hard in southern people, a 3i; 
softer when long, a 36 ; grows on 
scars upon animals, b 27, 894- 
I2ff. ; distribution of, in man 
and animals, 896 b 29 ff, 898 a 
20 ff; turns white in man only, 
a 31 ff ; curliness of, 909- 30, 963 
I iff.; reddish, of those who 
work on the sea, 966 b 25ff, of 
those who live in the north, b 33. 

Halo, solar, 9i2 b 34. 

Hare, prolific, 892 b I. 

Head, the, sores on, 86i a 33, 909* 
35 ; effect of running on, 88 i b 7 ; 
movement of, by animals, 892 b 
19; some animals live after their 
h.s have been cut off, 893 b 2i; 
the most divine part of man, 962 a 

23, 35- 

Health, a state of rest, 886 b 6 ; fat 
ness a condition of h., 888 a 3o; 
not communicable to others, 95 i a 

Hearing, often defective from birth, 
898 b 28 ; has the same source as 
the voice, b 2Q.; better in those 
who hold their breath, 9O3 b 34, 
9O4 b u ; prevented by yawning, 
902 b 9 ff, 904 a 16 ff. ; see also 

Heart, the, not controlled by the 
mind, 882 a 35; effect of fear 
upon, 947 b 29. 

Heat, lack of, causes old age, 875 a 
13 ; feeds on moisture, a 14 ; the 
cause of motion in animals, a 25 ; 
excessive h. causes brutishness, 

99 a J 3- 
Heavenly bodies, nine in number, 

9io b 35 ; appear always to retain 

the same shapes, 91 i a 5 ff. 
Hellebore, 864 a 4. 
Hellespont, 946 b 34, 38. 
Hellespontias (Kast Wind), 946 b 

33, 947 a 2. 

Hemlock, effects of, 874 b 2. 
Heracles, affected by melancholy, 

953 a i4- 

Heraclitus, 908*30, 934 b 34- 
Herbs, 923 a 32. 
Hesiocl, quoted ( Works and Days, 

582, 586), 879 a 28, (ib. 40) 892 il 29. 
Hesitation in speech ; see Speech. 
Hiccups, cause of, 963 a 39; stopped 

by sneezing, 96i b 9 ff, 96"3 a 38 ff. ; 

stopped by vinegar, 96i b 20, 

962 a i, 963 b 6 ; other preventives, 

962 a i ff., b 3i ff. 
Hoar-frost, 888 b 30, 938 a 34, 939 

36, 94o b 8. 
Homer, quoted (//. v. 75), 8o.o b 9 ; 

(Od, xx. 71) 894 b 34 ; (// vii. 64) 

934 a i4; (Od. iv. 567) 943 b 235 

(//. vi. 200-2) 953 a 23 ; (Od. xix. 

122) b 12. 
Homophony , less pleasant than 

antiphony , 92 i a 7 ff. ; produces 

only a simple sound, a 12. 

b 2 


Honey, 89o b 25; mixed with flour, 
9 2S a 5. 

Hoofs of animals, gelatinous matter 
in, 935 b 38. 

Horned animals, less hairy, 898 a 24. 

Horse-back, riders on, water at the 
eyes, 882^3, 884 b 22. 

Horse-parsley, 923 a 34, b 8. 

Horses, 893 b 27, 894* 12, 896 b 10, 
S97 b 35> 898*11, 33, b 6; period 
of gestation in, 89i b 28; colour 
of eyes of, 892 a i ; wild, 895 b 25. 

Hunger, not felt immediately after 
exercise, 884 a I ; stimulated by 
recollection, 886 a 33; ravenous, 
in cold weather, 88; b 38 ff. ; more 
tolerable than thirst, 949 b 26, 32. 

Hypate, 9i8 a i4, 17, 9i9 b 9, 12, 
92i a io, 21, 24, 922 b 4; easy to 
sing, 9i7 b 35 ; stopped down pro 
duces nete, 91 8 b I ; is double nete 
(in length of string), 9iQ b i ; is 
half nete (in frequency of pitch), 
92o a 30 ; effect of h. produced by 
stopping down nete, gi9 b 15, 
921^14; one of the extremities 
of the scale, 922 a 27. 

Hypodorian mode, unsuited for 
tragic chorus, 92O a 8, 922^ 10 ff. ; 
characteristics of, b 15 ff. 
Hypophrygian mode, unsuited for 
tragic chorus, 92o a 8, o.22 b loff. ; 
has a character of action, b 13. 

Imitation, in music, 9iS b 17 ; by 
actors, b 28 ; of parents by young, 
894 a 3<>. 

Inanimate Things, Problems con 
nected with) 9i3 a 19-915^ 35. 

Incontinence, only used of the 
pleasures of touch and taste, 
949 b 6ff., 37 ff. 

India, wild dogs in, 895^ 25. 

Infertility, of drunkards, 87 i a 23 ff. ; 
caused by varicocele, 878 b 36ff. 

Inflammation, cured by salt and 
vinegar, 889* 19. 

Injustice, varying degrees of, 952 a 
22 ff. ; in respect of money, a 20, 

b 2 3 . 

Instruments, wind, 9i9 b 3 ; impor 
tance of mese in tuning, 9i9 a 
I4ff., 92o b 7ff. ; see also Flute, 

Intelligence and Wisdom, Problems 
connected with Prudence, 95 3 a 

Intelligence, use of the, 955 b 26ff. 
Interval, musical, 917^2, 36; see 
also Fifth, Fourth, Octave. 

Jars, buried, cause resonance, 899^ 
25 ff. ; two, one full and the other 
half full, give an accord in the 
octave, 922 b 35 ff; capacity of, 
938 b i4ff. 

Journeys, unfamiliar, seem longer, 
88 3 b 3ff., ?55 b 9 ff. 

Jumpers, weights held by, 88l b 4. 

Justice and Injustice, Problems 
connected with, 95o a 2i~953 a 7. 

Justice, association with, makes 
men just, 95 i a 5 ff. 

Kidneys, 876 b 20. 

Knees, strain on, in ascending, 
882 b 25 ff. 

Lacedaemonian, 953 a 19. 
Lame, the, are lustful, 88o b 5. 
Lameness, more common in man 

than in the animals, 895 a 2off. 
Language, 898 b 30, 35. 
Larynx, 901 a 2, b ii, 903*^34, b 29, 

9o6 a I. 
Laughter, a deep sound, 900*21, 

b 7 ; more difficult to restrain 

among friends, 95o a 17 ff. ; nature 

of, 965 a 14 ff. ; caused by tickling, 

965 a 23 ff. 

Laws, originally sung, 9i9 b 38. 
Lead, 88g A 13. 
Leeks, make the voice loud, 9O3 b 

27 ; cannot endure salt water, 

9 23 a 7. 
Left side of the body, more com 

fortable to lie upon, 8S6 a i5ff. ; 

moister and hotter than the right, 

961*3 ff. ; inferior to right except 

in the senses, 958 b 16, 23, 959* 

20, 96o a 29. 
Legs, sores on, 86i a 34, 895*31, 

9O9 a 36 ; of eunuchs, swollen, 

S76 b 31 ; feel fatigue less than the 

thighs, 883 b 13 ff. 
Lentil-soup, 936 b 24. 
Leopards, never tame, 8 9 5 b 26. 
Leprosy, 887 a 34 ; white 1., 891* 

26 ; found only in man, 8 9 4 a 37 ; 

turns hair grey, 89 i b i, 894 b 6. 
Lesbos, 946 b 34, 947 a 4. 
Letters, use of, in speech, 895* 8, 


Libya, 9o6 b 19, 933 b 33 ; sheep in, 
896*26; winds in, 942 a 8, 14, 

945 b 35- 

Lice, 86i a ioff., 924* 9. 
Lichanos, 9i9 a 17. 
Life, human 1. is a circle , 9i6 a 

28 ff. 
Light, cannot penetrate through 

dense objects, 9O4 b i5ff., 939* 

loff. ; travels farther and quicker 

than sound, 904** 16 fF. 
Lily, 926 a 2. 

Line of life , 896* 37 ff., 964 a 33 ff. 
Lion, 95o a 12 ; not prolific, 892 b 2 ; 

never tame, 895** 26. 
Lip, trembling of lower, 948 a 36, 

b i, 7 ; sensitive to tickling, 965 a 


Lips, see South- West wind. 
Lisping, 902 b 23 ff., 9O3 b 23 ff. 
Literary Study, Problems connected 

with, 9i6 b 2-9i7 b 16. 
Loan, robbery of a, less serious 

than of a deposit, 9$o a 28 ff, 

b 28ff 

Loaves, whiter when cold, 927 a 
27 ff. ; heavier without salt, 
a 35ff. ; do not cohere when cold, 
b 7 ff. ; twice-baked, do not be 
come hard, 928 a 1 1 ff. ; see also 

Locality, Problems connected with 
t/ie effect of, on Temperament, 
909 a i3-9io b 9. 

Longevity, causes of, 909** i, 25, 34 ; 
indicated by the line of life , 
8c,6 a 37ff, 964 a 33ff. 

Lye, 863 b i7, 88; b 7, 966 b 28. 

Lying, in a curved position, recom 
mended by physicians, 88 5 b 27 ff; 
on right side induces sleep, 886 a 

3 ff - 

Lymph, 89i a 18. 

Lyre, 9i8 a 23, 31, 922 b i6; less 
pleasing than flute as accom 
paniment to solo, 922 a i ff. ; 
Phoenician, 9i8 b 8. 

Lyrical character of early tragedies, 
920* 12. 

Lysander, a victim of melancholy, 
953 a i 9 . 

Macedonia, 954 b 32. 

Madness, due to black bile, 86o b 

* Magadizing , 9i9 a i, 92i a 13, 29. 

Magnesia, sheep in, 896* 26 ; hot 
waters in, 937 b 7, n. 

Males, larger than females, 89i b 
21 ; longer-lived, 896 a 35; deeper- 
voiced, 9oi b 28; naturally sup 
erior, 95 1 a 12 ; have more teeth, 
963 b 20 ; m. and female ears, 
96i a 2. 

Man, sneezes more than other 
animals, 897 a I ff., 962 b S ff. ; the 
most unjust of the animals, 95O b 
32 ; has most wisdom of the 
animals, 955 b 4 ; reasons for his 
superiority, 956 a ii; incon 
sistency of his thought and 
action, 956 b 33 ; alone liable to 
gall-stones, 895 a 57 ff., to distor 
tion of vision, 960* 9, 10, to 
epilepsy, a 18. 

Maracus, the Syracusan, 954 a 38. 

Marine animals, well nourished, 
897 b 14- 

Marjoram, 924*37, 958 b 8; put in 
wine, 926 b 32. 

Market-place, theft from the, 952* 
1 8. 

Marshes, effect of living among, 
99 a 35> b2 > 37, 9io a 2; subter 
ranean roarings in, 937 b 38 ff. 

Masks, tragic, 958* 17. 

Mathematical Theory, Problems 
connected with, 9io b n-9i3 a 16. 

Mead, 872 b 26, 974 b u. 

Meat, ways of preserving, 93o b i. 

Medicine, Problems connected with, 
859* i-866 b 6. 

Medicine, not administered just 
after exercise, 883 b 33 ; see also 

Melancholic (atrabilious), effect of 
wine upon the, 873 a 32 ; the m. 
suffer from sleeplessness, 874 
1 8 ; m. diseases, 878 b 38 ; the m. 
particularly inclined to sexual 
intercourse, 880*30; those who 
hesitate in their speech are m., 
9O3 b i9; m. humours, 9i6 b 6, 
9i7 a 22; the m. temperament, 
possessed by many eminent 
men, 95 3 a 10 ff, characteristics 
of, b 23 ff. ; the m. start in their 
sleep, 957 a 33- 

Melitaean dogs, 892 a 2i. 

Melons, cultivation of, 926 b 4 ff. 

Memphis, 945*22. 

Menstruation, 891*31, 35, 895*34, 
896 a 29. 


Mese, 918*38, 39, o,i9 a n, o, 2 2 b 6; 
importance of m. in tuning instru 
ments, 9i9 a 14 ff., 92o b 7 ff. ; 
occurs most frequently of all 
notes, 9 1 9 a 19, 26; why so called, 
b 20, 922 a 2i ; the highest note in 
the tetrachord, 92O a 2i; ratio of 
nete to m., a 3i. 

Messina, Straits of, 932 a 5. 

Milk, 89i b 4, 929 a 3i. 

Millstone, 964^7. 

Mint, cooling effect of, 923 a 10. 

Mirror, Q,i5 b 3o. 

Mixolydian mode, Q22 b 22. 

Modes of music, 9i8 b 22 ; Hypo- 
dorian, 920 a 8, 922 b 10 ff. ; Hypo- 
phrygian, 92o a 8, 922 b 10 ff. ; 
Mixolydian, 922 b 22 ; Phrygian, 

b 2I. 

Moisture, naturally carried down 
wards, 9O4 b 27. 

Money, injustice in respect of, 
95o2 4 ff, b 2 3 ff. 

Monstrosities, 878 a 20, 898 a 9 ; their 
cause, a I4ff. 

Moon, appearance of, at eighth 
clay, 91 i b 28 ff. ; appearance when 
half full, b 35ff ; reason of flat 
appearance of, 9i2 a 28ff. ; casts 
longer shadows than the sun, 

9 I2 b 4 ff. 

Moral character, in music, and its 
nature, 9i9 b 26 ff, 92o a 2 ff, 
b 32ff. 

Motion, movement, in animals, 
caused by heat, 875*25 ; usually 
produces heat but sometimes has 
a cooling effect, 884 b 12 ; disease 
a state of m., 886 b 5 ; of head in 
animals, 892 b 19 ; the sun a 
cause of m., 899^ 21. 

Month and the parts therein, 
Problems concerning the, 963 b 
i6~964 b 19. 

Murder, of woman worse than of 
man, 95i a nff. ; accusation of, 

b 2. 

Music, Problems connected with, 

9i7 b i9-923 a 3- 

Music, familiar m. more pleasing, 
9i8 a 3ff, 920 a 32; moral char 
acter of, 9i9 b 26 ff, 920* 2 ff, 
b 32ff ; reason of pleasure caused 
by, b 29. 

Musicians, 9i6 b 35 ; their aim is to 
give pleasure, b 37. 

Myrrh, 9o6 a 25. 

Myrtle, berries, 925 b 13, 23, 93i b 7 ; 
branches, methods of preserving, 
926*33; trees, 927*3. 

Narcissus, 925 a 19. 

Narratives, concentrated n.s give 

more pleasure than diffuse, 9i7 b 


Nasturtium, 925 a 30. 
Navel, size of, in man and the 

animals, 896 a 12 ff. 
Necks, some animals are without, 

892 b 20. 

Neocles, 956 a 12. 

Nervous, the, their feet but not 
their faces perspire, 868 b 34 ff , 
869 b 4 ff. j their voice trembles, 
9<D2 b 30, 9o6 a 13; their voice is 
deep, 902 b 36, 9C>5 a 5 ; their heat 
travels upwards, 9O3 a i. 

Nervousness, increases hesitancy 
of speech, 9O3 b 7 ; makes the 
voice shrill, b 1 1 ; a kind of 
shame, 905 a 8 ; in singers, 9o6 a 

Nete, 917*31, 9i8 a 14, b I, 9*9*9, 
13, 92o a i7, 92i a io, 23, 922 b 4; 
is \\3\ihypate (in length of string), 
9i9 b i; is double hypate (in 
frequency of pitch), 92o a 30 ; 
when n. is stopped down, hypate 
seems to sound, 9i9 b 15, 92i b 
14 ; ratio of n. to mese, 92G a 31 ; 
the most violent note, 92i b 35 ; 
one of the extremities of the 
scale, 922 a 27. 

Nomes , 9i8 b i3; why so called, 
9i9 b 38. 

North, dwellers in the, have fine, 
red hair, 966 b 33. 

North-East wind (Caecias), attracts 
the clouds to itself, 94o a i8ff, 
943 a 32 ff. 

North wind, brings cold, 939 b i8, 
945 b 2 ; dispels cloud, 939 b 20 ; 
occurs at fixed times, 94o a 35, 
94 1 b 38 ; ceases to blow at night 
on the third day, 941*21, b 34; 
frequency of, 94 i a 27, _ 944*36 ; 
cannot change to the wind on its 
right, 94i b 12 ; is strong when it 
begins, weak as it ceases, 944 b 
30, 945 a 8, 27; causes hunger, 
945 a l8; follows quickly upon 
south wind, b 5 ; keen during the 
day, but falls at night, 947 a 28 ; 
effects of, in winter, b 4 ff. 


Nose, Problems connected with the, 
96i b 9~963 b 1 6. 

Nose, the, bleeding at, 89i a 13, 
962* 17 ; the deaf speak through, 
$99 a 4, J 5> 9 62b 35 ff -; closely 
connected with the lungs, 96 i b 
17 ; cartilage of, 963 b 14. 

Note, scale of seven n.s, 9i8 a i3, 
9i9 b 22, 92o a 16, 922 a 22; scale 
of eight n.s, 919^ 21, 922*21; 
n.s compared with angles, 91 8 a 
20 ; low n.s more conspicuous if 
out of tune, 9i9 a 29 ; easier to pass 
from a high to a low than from a 
low to a high n., 920* 19 ff. ; a 
low n. nobler than a high, a 23 ; 
sound shrillest in the middle of 
a n., a 38 ; a high n. requires 
more effort, b i6; lower of two 
n.s in a chord more suited to 
melody, 922* 28. 

Numbness, cause of, 886 a 10. 

Nuts, 93o b 15. 

Octave, 9iS a i7, b 3, 919*3, 13, 
92i a i2, 14, 29, 31; accord in 
the o. gives the effect of unison, 
9i8 b 7; alone used in singing, 
9i8 b 40 ; the most beautiful of all 
accords, 92o a 27 ; in anliphony , 
92i :l 8; produced by two jars, one 
full and the other half full, 922 b 
35 ff. ; or by two wine-skins, one 
double the size of the other, 923 a 
2 ff. ; double o., how obtained in 
wind instruments, 9i9 b 5 ; is con 
cordant, 920 a 25 ; the ratio of the 
o., 92i b 7. 

Odour, Problems connected with 
tilings of pleasant, 9o6 a 23-9O7 b 
19 ; Problems connected ivitJi 
things of unpleasant, 9O7 b 20- 
9C>9 a 10. 

Odour, of persons after puberty, 
877 b 2iff., 879 a 22; of flowers, 
9o6 a 3i, b 23, 35, 907 a 2o, 29, b i, 

33, 98 b 37> 99 b 3, 95 a l6 5 of 
trees, affected by the rainbow, 
9o6 a 36 ff. ; of things in motion is 
stronger, 9o/ a 5,9o8 b 8 ; of urine, 
907 b 21, 9o8 a 28 ; of animals, un 
pleasant, except the panther, 9O7 b 
35; of perspiration, 9o8 a 2, b 27, 
99 a 5> 9 2 6 b 17 ; of the breath of 
the deformed, 9o8 b 29 ; o.s are 
less perceptible in winter, 9O7 a 8 ; 
are smoke or vapour, 907=* 29 ; 

unpleasant o.s not perceived in 
eating, b 27 ; rendered more un 
pleasant by heat, 9o8 a 20 ; see 
also Perfumes. 

Oeta, Mt.,~ 953 a 18. 

Offspring, resemblance of, to 
parents, 89i b 32. 

Oil, olive oil, 863 b 22, 865 a 11, 925 b 
3, 927 a i2, 28, 929 a i2, 932 b 23, 
9 3 6 a 12, 959 b 12, 966 b 35, 967 a 3 ; 
beneficial against drunkenness, 
876 a 26; mixed with water stops 
fatigue, 88i a 4; contains heat, 
884 b 39; use ^ to expel water 
from the ears, 96 i a 18 ff. ; poured 
into the ears of divers, a 24 ff. ; 
bleached by the sun, 966 b 2iff, 
967 b 23 ff. 

Old age, due to lack of heat, 875 a 
13 ; long sight in, 959 b 39 ; flesh 
becomes blacker in, 967 b 13 ff. 

Olympic victory, 956 a 19. 

Onions, 924*31, 925 a i9, 27, 926 a 

II, 16, 32,95^7. 

Ophthalmia, 859 b 23ff, 86o a 2i; 
dry o., 860*30; why contagious, 
887 a 22ff. ; sometimes beneficial 
to the eyes, 958 b 4. 

Optics, treatises on, 9i3 a 27, 959 b 2. 

Orator, 9i6 b 35, 9i7 a io; aim of 
the, 9i7 a I ; inferior to the philo 
sopher, 9i7 a 3, 956 b 6 ; deals with 
the particular, 9i7 a 4, 956 b 8. 

Orchard-watcher, 938 a 16. 

Orchestra of a theatre, 901 30. 

Orchomenus, 926 b 5. 

Organisms engendered in the body 
by corruption, 924 a 8. 

Orion, 859 a 23 ; causes changeable 
weather, 941^24. 

Orpiment, 966 b 28. 

Orthian Songs , 92o b 20. 

Oxen, do not cough, 89i a 9 ; do not 
change their coats, 898 a 33- 

Oxymel, 922 a 6. 

Paesus, Lake of, peculiar properties 
of its waters, 935 b 34- 

Pain, caused by a fire to the chilled, 
888 b 39. 

Painters, primitive, 895 b 37 ; repre 
sent rivers pale yellow, the sea 
blue, 932 a 31. 

Pan-pipes, 9i9 b 8. 

Panther, pleasant odour of, 9O7 b 35. 

Paramese, 92 2 b 6. 

Paranete, 9i7 b 39, 9i8 a 38. 


Parhelion, 912^7. 
Parhypate, the voice breaks most 
on, 9i7 b 3O; difficult to sing, 

b 35- 

Parmenon, the actor, 948 a 3. 

Particles, connecting, 9i9 a 22. 

Partridges, 9O3 b 28. 

Pea-soup, 936 b 24. 

Penalties, tor theft, 932 a i;, 953 a 3; 
for assault, 953 a 4. 

Pennyroyal, 925*19. 

Pentathlon, 88i b 4. 

Pepper, as a drug, 864 b 12, 17. 

Per accident \ per se, 898 b 37, 
9 o6 b 5. 

Perfumes, burnt, less perceptible 
near at hand, 9o6 a 23, 30, b 35, 
9O7 a 24 ; burnt on ashes, more 
pungent, 9O7 a 13, 35 ; made from 
flowers, 909 a 3. 

Perspiration, Problems connected 
with, S66 b 9-87o b 38. 

Perspiration, when caused, 866 b 
7 ff. ; why not caused under water, 
b 15 ff. ; why salty, b 19 ff. ; why 
freer en the upper part of the 
body, b 28 ff. ; why produced 
freely by exercising the arms 
only, b 33 ft". ; why less odorous 
from head than from body, 867 a 

4 ff. ; why more copious after a 
rest, a 8 ff., 868 a 15 ff. ; why freer 
on the clothed than the naked, 
867 a 1 8 ff. ; why freest on the face, 
*2 3 ff., *34ff. f 965 b 3. ff-J why 
most copious if heat is applied 
gently, 867 a 28 ff. ; why more 
copious if a scraper is used, b 4 ff. ; 
effect of rue upon odour of, b 8 ff. ; 
why freer on back than front, 
b i2if. ; why freer during sleep, 
b 3iff., 869 a i3ff. ; what is the 
cause of vomiting after p., 868 a 

5 ff. ; why freest on head and feet, 
a 10 ff. ; why freer after than 
during exertion, 868 a 1 5 ff., b 12 ff. ; 
why more necessary in summer 
than in winter, a 26 ff., 869 b 32 ; 
why does p. lighten the body, 
868 a 35ff., 965 b 2off. ; why less 
free if one eats as well as drinks, 
868 b 29 ff. ; why do the nervous 
perspire on the feet and not on 
the face, b 34ff., 869 b 4ff. ; how 
can the face be red without per 
spiring, 869 a 8 ff. ; in vapour 
baths, a i9, b 2o; why healthier 

to perspire naked than clothed, 
a 24 ff. ; hot p. healthier than cold, 
870* 15 ff., 959 b 25 ; less free in 
front of a large fire, 870*21 ff. ; 
freer in the clothed, a 26 ff. ; freer 
in those walking up hill, a 32 ff. ; 
freer in summer, b 6 ff. ; spon 
taneous inferior to artificial, 
b 14 ff. ; less free in winter, b 27 ff. ; 
odour of, 9o8 a 2, b 27, 909* 5, 
o,26 b i7. 

Philosopher, superior to orator, 
9 I 7 a 3? 956 b 6; deals with the 
general rather than the particular, 

9.i 7 a 4, 5> 956 b 7- 

Philoxenus, 950*3. 

Phlegm, 86o a 25, 30, b 3, 10, 88o a 
24, 891*12, 9<Di a 2, 9o6 a 2, 9o8 b 
15 ; diseases due to, 878 b 14. 

Phoenician lyre, 9i8 b 8. 

Phrygian mode, 922^21. 

Phrynichus, 920*11. 

Phthisis, 86o b i ; emission of semen 
during sleep by sufferers from, 
884*6; why contagious, 887 a 22. 

Physical Problems, Summary of, 

Physics, the, of Empedocles, 929 a 
1 6. 

Pigs, prolific, 892 b i, 898 a 12 ; does 
not shed its coat, 893* 4 ; bad- 
tempered after bearing young, 
894 b i3; compared with wild 
boar, 896* 23. 

Plague, why contagious, 8$9 b 15 ff. 

Plaintiff, advantages of, in a suit, 

Plane-tree, 9i2 b 12. 

Plants, wild X cultivated, 896* 6 ff , 
924 a i8; stones dislodged by, 
902 b 2 ; contain no excretion, 
908* 10 ; roundness of stems in, 
915* 29 ff. ; growth of, 916* 12 ff. ; 
cooking of, 923 a 17, 21; edible 
and inedible, a 25 ff. ; annual and 
biennial, a 33 ; time to water p.s, 
924 b i5ff. ; effect of watering, 

926 a 2I ff. 

Plaster, fresh p. gives resonance, 

899 b 1 8. 
Plato, a victim of melancholy, 953* 

27 ; his answer to Neocles, 956* 


Pleiads, 859*23, 86i a 20. 
Pleurisy, drunkards liable to, 871* 

3, b 33- 
Poet, 954 a 39. 


Poetry, 953** n. 
Pomegranate, 923 a 14, b 25. 
Pontus, corn in, 9O9 a 19 ; extreme 
variations of temperature in, 938* 

Porridge, 863 b 6. 
Portents, 9<D2 a 8. 
Positions assiimed in lying down 

and in other postures, 885 b 12- 

886 a 2i. 

* Posterior , meaning of, 9i6 a 18 ff. 
Poultices, 863 a 6, 864 b 32. 
Poverty, more common among the 

good than among the bad, 95o b 


Prior , meaning of, 9i6 a 18 ff. 
Professions, honourable X mean, 

9i7 a 6ff. 
Property, law-suits regarding, 95 i b 

Proportions of the human body and 

their relation to longevity, 898 a 

37 ff. 
Proverbs quoted, 938 b 10, 941*21, 

94 2 b 2, 943*35, 33, 945 tt , 28, 

36, b 3, 947 a 7. 
Prudence, Intelligence, and Wis 

dom, Problems connected With, 

Prudent, the, acquire rather than 

spend, 956 b 37. 
Pumice-stone, noise of cutting p. 

causes shuddering, 886 b n, 939 a 

38 ; porosity of, 964 b 38. 
Pumpkins, 923 a 14 ; grow well if 

buried, b 16 ff. ; keep fresh in 

wells, 924 a 36 ff. 
Purse-tassels, 926- 6, 19. 
Purslane, 863 b ii, 887 b i. 
Pycnon , 922 b 7. 
Pygmies, 892* 12. 
Pythagoreans, 9io b 37. 

Quadrupeds, hair of, 896 b 30 ; do 
not sneeze, 897 a io; small q.s 
produce monstrosities, 8g8 a 9. 

Quartan fever, 86i b 5, 866 a 3i. 

Radishes, 89o a 25, 9o8 b 3, 923 b 37 ; 

cultivation of, 924 a 24 ff. 
Rainbow, its effect on trees, 9o6 a 

37 ; due to refraction, 9o6 b 7. 
Raisin-wine, 926 b 38. 
Rams, 963 2 1 ; their hides, 889 b 

II ; effect of castration upon, 

894 b 23. 

Reading, keeps some awake and 

sends others to sleep, 9i6 b 2 ff. 

9i7 a i8fT. 
Recitation with musical accompani 

ment, 918* 10. 
Recollection, a cause of sympathetic 

action, 886 a 33, 887 a 6; gives an 

impulse to sexual desire and 

hunger, 886 a 34. 
Rectilinear figure, 9io b n, 19. 
Retraction, of light, 9o6 b 7, 9i2 b 30 ; 

of sound, 899 a 25, b 22, 9oi b 19, 

22, 90^38, b 3o. 
Respiration, rhythmical, of runners, 

882 b i ff. ; see also Breathing. 
Reticulum , the, 895 b 20. 
Revolutions of unevenly weighted 

objects, 9 I 3 a 33 ff -, 9 I 5 b 6ff. 
Rhetorical displays, 9i6 b 25. 
Rheumatism, drunkards liable to 

8 7 I b 2 5 . 

Right side of body, easier to sleep 
on, 886 a 3, 16; the more active, 
a 7 ; superior to the left except in 
the senses, 958 b i6, 23, 959 a 2o, 
96o a 29 ; more easily set in 
motion, except the eye, 959 b 3i ; 
less moist and hot than. the left, 
96i a 3 ff. 

Roll (of a book), 9i4 a 25ff. 

Roses, scent of, 907*20, 9O9 b 3, 
95o a i6; perfume made from, 

Roundness, of parts of animals and 

plants, 91 5 a 25 ff. ; of extremities, 

915^33 ff. 
Rue, 867 b 8, 926 b 16 ; grows best if 

grafted on a fig-tree, 924 b 35 ff. ; 

a remedy against the evil eye, 

926 b 20ff. 

Runners, use of arms by, 88 i b 4 ff. ; 
rhythmical respiration of, 882 b 
I ff. ; shock to r.s when stopped 
suddenly, 885* 6 ff. 

Running, effect on the head, 88 i b 
7 ; effect of violent r., 882 a 29 ; 
more liability to fall while r. than 
walking, b 22; why more difficult 
than walking, 883 b 37 ; colder 
than standing in the winter, 888 b 
21 ; produces less flesh than 
friction, 966 b 10 ff. 

Salamis, the battle of, 956 a 2O. 

Salt, effect of, on the gums, 863 b 
II, 887 b i ; a cure for inflamma 
tion, 889 b 19 ; crackling of, in the 


fire, 902 a i ff., 904 a 4, 13 ; makes 
bread lighter, 927*35^". ; melts 
more freely in salt water than in 
fresh, 934 a I fif. 

Salt Water and the Sea, Problems 
connected with, 93i a 35-936 a 10. 

Salt water, drunkards sensitive to, 
8;2 a 9 fif., 8;3 b 37 fif. ; suits celery, 
923 a 6; warmer than fresh, a 39 fif. ; 
dries quicker than fresh, b 25 ff. ; 
combustible, 933 a 17 fif., 935 a 5 fif. ; 
drinkable when heated, 933 b 
12 fif. ; does not flow readily, 933 b 
22 fif. ; see also Sea. 

Sand, 934 b 12 ; does not form in 
lakes, 93 5 a i off. 

Satyrus of Clazomenae, &75 a 35. 

Saw, sharpening of a, causes 
shuddering, 886 b 10. 

Scale, of seven notes, 91 8 a 13, 9i9 b 
22, 920 a 1 6, 922 a 22; of eight 
notes, 9i9 b 21, 922 a 21. 

Scammony, as a drug, 864 a 5, b 13, 

Scars and Weals, Problems con 
nected with Bruises, 889 b 10- 

Scars, 877 a 2 ; black on body, white 
on eye, 889 b 2off., 890^2 fif., 
b 27 ; black on splenetic persons, 
890 a 10 fif. ; congenital, a 19 ; hair 
does not grow upon human s.s, 
b 38f., 893*28, 894 a i3ff. ; but 
grows on animal s.s, 893 b 27, 
40 ff, 894 a 12 ff. 

Scent ; see Odour, Smell. 

Science, created by man, 953 b 27; 
an instrument of the intelligence, 
b 37- 

Scraper, athlete s, 867*4. 

Sculpture, primitive, 895** 37. 

Scurvy, why contagious, 887 a 22, 

Scythia, quick growth of crops in, 
925 a 26. 

Scythians, fond of wine, 872 a 3. 

Sea, Problems connected with Salt 
Water and the, 93 l a 35-936* 10. 

Sea, calmed by throwing in objects, 
93i b io,ff. ; whiter in the BlackS. 
than in the Aegean, 932 a 2i ; 
more transparent than fresh 
water, 932 b 8ff, 935 b i7; more 
transparent when the wind is N. 
than S., 932 b i6ff. ; contains an 
oily substance, b 5, 19; easier to 
swim in than fresh water, 933 a 

9 ff. ; saltier on the surface, C34 b 
23 ff. ; fresher near land, b 37 ff. ; 
why salt, 935 a 34 ; why shells and 
stones are round in the s., 93 5 a 
37 ff. ; white when calm, black 
when rough, 936 a 5 ff. ; made 
black by N., and blue by S. wind, 
944 b 2iff. 

Sea-lungs , 89o a 26. 

Seasons, effect of, on the body, 859 a 
9 if., 86i a 2off, b iff, 21 ff, 862 a 
34, b 7ff. 3 n ff, 25 ff. 

Sea-weed, 926 a 35, b 2. 

Seeds, sweet-smelling, promote the 
flow of urine, 9c>7 b 3 ; plants live 
to produce seeds, 923 a 30, 35, b 4 ; 
more pungent than roots, b 30 ; 
older s.s produce more stalk, 
924* 27 ff. 

Semen, alone produces offspring, 
878 a I ff. ; an excretion from the 
whole body, b 3, 879 a 5 ; passed 
from the brain through the spine, 
897 b 25 ; emission of, during 
sleep, 876** n, 892 b i5, 963*12, 
in illness, 876 a 12, by the dying, 
a J 3> 8?7 a 26, owing to fright, 
876 a 13, 877 a 25, 949 a 20, by 
those who are fatigued and by 
the phthisical, 884 a 6. 

Sexual Intercourse, Problems con 
nected with, 876 a 3o-88o b 12. 

Sexual intercourse, beneficial in 
diseases caused by phlegm, 865 a 
32 ff, 878 b l4ff. ; the drunken 
are incapable of, 872* 15 ff. ; 
position of eyes during, 876 a 
31 ff. ; effect on eyes and flanks, 
a 36ff, 88o b 8; effect on vision, 
876 b 24 ff. ; bareness of feet 
prejudicial to, 877* 5 ff. ; man 
languid after, a i6ff, b 32, 879 a 
4 ff. ; a turgid state necessary for, 
^77 a 35ff ; easier when fasting, 
b 44ff. ; the young feel loathing 
after, b 10 ff. ; riding predisposes 
to, 14 ff; difficult in the water, 
878 a 35 ; of fishes, a 39; why 
pleasant, 878 b I ff. ; cools and 
dries the stomach, b I7ff. ; those 
who wish to pass urine cannot 
have, b 33ff. ; men less capable 
of, in summer than in winter, 
879 a 26ff, 88o a iiff. ; why some 
prefer an active, others a passive 
part in, 879 a 36 ff. ; why a cause 
of shame, 88o a 6ff. ; effect of 


abstinence from, 88o a 22ff. ; the 
melancholic particularly addicted 
to, 88o a 30 ff. ; desire for, stimu 
lated by recollection, 886 a 33 ; 
the beautiful as a stimulus to, 
896 * 12 ff. ; effect upon offspring 
of condition of parent at time of, 
89i h 34ff. ; production of life 
without, 892 a 23 ff.; more frequent 
among tame than wild animals, 
896 a 20 ; the intemperate in s.i. 
called incontinent, 95o a i ; makes 
men despondent, 95 5 a 26. 

Sexual organ?, effect of fear upon 
the, 948 h 10, 949 a 8. 

Shadows, cast by sun, their increase 
and decrease not uniform, 91 i a 
14 ff. ; shortest at midday, a 34 ff. ; 
longest at sunrise and sunset, 
9i2 a 34ff. ; moon casts longer s.s 
than sun, b 4ff. ; extremity of s. 
trembles, 9i3 a 5 ff. ; no s. thrown 
by the base of a bubble, a 19 ff. ; 
of floating wood, a 23. 

Shame, causes blushing, 9O3 a 3, 
905 a 7 ; makes the ears red, 957 b 
10, 96o a 36ff, 96i a 8, 31 ; s. 
dwells in the eyes , 957 b n. 

Sheep, milk of, 89i b 4 ; eyes of, far 
apart, 892 b 13 ; wool of, 893" 13, 
17, 36; Maynesian and Libyan, 
896 a 26; prolific, 898^2. 

Ships, seem more heavily laden in 
harbour than out at sea, 93 i b 
9 ff. ; travel more quickly towards 
than from land, b 10 ff. ; sudden 
disappearance of, at sea, b 39 ff. ; 
shape of, 932 a 18. 

Shivering, Problems connected with 
Chill and, 887 a io-889 b 7. 

Shivering, simultaneous with per 
spiring, 878 a 6 ff. ; after sneezing, 
887 b 35 ff., 963 a 33 ff. ; after pass 
ing urine, 887 b 35, 888 b I, 963 a 
33 ; caused both by hot and by 
cold water, 888 a 32 ff. ; see also 

Short-sighted, the, write small, 
958 a 35, b 34 ; screw up the eyes, 
959 a 3 I hld objects near to the 
eyes, b 39. 

Shrewdness, meaning of the term, 
91 7 a i ; to whom applied, 9i6 b 35. 

Shrill, weeping a s. sound, 9Oo a 
20 ff., b 7ff. ; voices shriller, at a 
distance, 899 a 22 ff., 9oi a 20 ff, 
in winter, 9O5 a 24 ff. ; s. voices 

audible farther, 9O4 b 7 ff. ; see 
also Voice, shrillness of. 

Shrubs and Vegetables, Problems 
concerning, 923 a 5~927 a 9. 

Shuddering, causes of, 8S6 b 9ff, 
964 b 32 ff. ; at the touch of others, 
964 b 2 1 ff. ; after taking solid food, 
96 s a 33 ff. ; see also Shivering. 

Sibyls, 954 a 37- 

Sight, long, in old age, 959 b 39 ; see 
also Eyes, Short-sighted, Vision. 

Silver, 864 a 34 ; purification of, 936 b 
25 ff. 

Sitting, makes some fat, others lean, 
88s b i5ff. 

Skin, effect of hot water on the, 
936 b i2ff, 937 a loff. ; s.s for 
holding liquid, 938 b 15, see also 
Wine-skins; inflated s.s, pre 
servation of food in, 93i a 39ff., 
939 b 12 ff, pain caused to limbs 
enclosed in, 937 b 3iff, cause of 
their floating, 939 a 33 ff. 

Skull, 896 a 31 ; sutures in, a 35. 

Sky, clearer at night than by day, 

Slander of public official more 

serious than of private persons, 

952 b 28. 
Sleep, perspiration more copious 

during, 867 b 31 ff, 869* 13 ff ; 

position of eyes during, 876 a 

32 ff. ; easier if one lies on the 
right side, 886 a 3 ; is absence of 
movement, a 7 ; prevented by 
cold, 887 b i5, 889 b 3; shortness 
of, in animals, 894 a 2 1 ; induced 
or prevented by reading, 9i6 b 
2ff, 9i7 a i8ff. ; men in deep s. 
see no visions, 956 b 39ff. ; sneez 
ing never occurs during, 963 a 5 ff. 

Smell, as a stimulus to sympathetic 
action, 887 a ioff. ; see also 

Smoke, effect of, on the eyes, 896 b 
8> 957 b 33> 959 3 5 odours are s. 
or vapour, 9o7 a 29. 

Sneezing, a turgid state necessary 
for, 877 a 35 ; followed by shiver 
ing, 887 b 35ff, 963 a 33ff- ; com 
monest in man, 892 b 22ff, 897 a 
i ff, 962 b S ff. ; cause of, 897 a 12, 
963^ 7 ; stopped by rubbing the 
eye, 957 a 3, 96i b 27fF., 962* 
25 ff.; cause of s. twice, 96i b 

33 ff. ; after looking at the sun, 
96i b 36 ff. ; cures hiccups, 962 a 


I ff., 963 a 38 ff ; regarded as 
divine, 962 a 2iff, 32 ff. ; a good 
sign between midday and mid 
night, 962 b 19 ff. ; difficult for the 
old, b 28 ff. ; never occurs during 
sleep, 9 63 a 5 ff 

Snub-nose, cause of, 903 b 1 1 ff. 

Socrates, a victim of melancholy, 

Soda^86 3 b i7, SS7 b 7, 936 a 2. 

Solstice, 862 b 8, 94i b 15, 20. 

Soothsayers, 954 a 37. 

Sores, treatment of, 86s ;i 25 ; on 
head, 86i a 33, 9O9 a 35 ; on legs, 
86i a 34, 99 a 36, (of eunuchs) 
895 a 31 ; caused by exertion, 883 * 
26; by black bile, 953 a 18, 954 a 

Sound, every s. is a breath, 886 b 
15 ; is air set in motion, 899 a 34, 
902 b i3, 920 b 4; refraction of, 
899 a 25, b 22, 9oi b 19, 22, 9c>4 a 
38, b 3o ; more audible at night, 
899 a 19 ff, 903 a 7 ff. ; audibility 
of, in buildings, b i3ff. ; can 
penetrate through dense objects, 
904 b 19 ff, 905 a 36 ff. ; travels less 
far and more slowly than light, 
904 b i6ff. ; not audible through 
water, 90 5 b 10 ff. ; effect of a 
number of persons making the 
same s. simultaneously, 9O4 b 
33fT. ? 9i7 b 2iff. 

South wind, attracts clouds, 939 b 
19 ff, 945 a 38 ff. ; does not occur 
at fixed times, 94o a 35ff ; blows 
after hoar-frost, b 8 ff. ; less 
frequent than N. wind, 94 i a 27 ff. ; 
in winter blows as much by night 
as by day, a 31 ff. ; blows regularly 
in the season of the dog-star, 
a 37 ff, 944 a 4 ff ; periods of 
the, 942 a 5 ff. ; causes evil odours, 
a i6ff. ; rainy when it begins and 
ends, a 29 ff. ; when weak, brings 
clear weather, a 34 ff. ; why rainy, 
943 a 5 ff. ; one of the most frequent 
winds, 944 a 36 ff. ; makes the sea 
blue, b 2iff. ; its effect on the 
clouds, b 25 ff. ; weak when it 
begins, strong when it ceases, 
b 31 ff, 945 a 8 ff, 27 ff. ; makes 
men heavy and weak, a i4ff. ; 
does not blow in the maritime 
parts of Egypt, a 20 ; if dry, causes 
fever, 946 a 4 ff. 

South-East wind (Eurus), why 

rainy, 943* 5 ff. ; rises at dawn, 
a i3; makes objects look larger, 

946 a 33t 
South-West wind (Lips), brings 

rain at the Equinox, 942^25 ff. ; 

naturally moist, b 33, 943 a 2 ; in 

Egypt, 945 a 24- 
Speech, effect of drunkenness upon, 

87 5 b 19 ff. ; the mind is the source 

of, b 3 1 ; many forms of human, 

895 a 6; defined, a io; hesitation 

in, 895 a is, 902*38, b 17, 903*7, 

19, 905 a 16, 20, b 29 ; peculiar to 

man, 899 a 2. 
Spiders webs (gossamers), a sign 

of wind, 947 a 33 ff. 
Spine, 897 b 26. 
Splenetic persons, have black scars, 

89o a 10. 
Sponge, 938 b 20 ; used to protect 

the ears of divers, 96o b 15 ff. 
Sponge-divers ; see Divers. 
Spontaneous generation, 898 b 5. 
Squills, 926 a 6, 19. 
Squinting, 89& b 5. 
Stammering, 902^ 24 ff. 
Standing, less cold than running in 

the winter, 888 b 2i. 
Stars, are warm, 939 b 16 ; are cold, 

according to the ancients, b 34 ; 

shooting, a sign of wind, 942^ 

Starvation, as a cure for disease, 

859 a 7 ; swelling of the feet due 

to, b 2ff. 
Stature, effect of climate upon, 9<D9 b 

15 ff. 
Stomach, dissolvent power of the, 

936 a 27. 
Stones, dislodged by plants, 9o2 b 

2 ; form more in hot than in cold 

water, 93 7 a n ff. 
Straw, effect on sound of spreading 

s., 9oi b 30. 
Strength, not communicable to 

others, 95i a 5. 
Strings, thinner give shriller note, 

901 a i8; the lower s. gives the 

note, 9i8 a 37 ff. ; tuning of, 919* 

14 ff, 92o b 7ff. ; tight, give a 

shrill note, 92o b 3. 
Stucco, 899 b 22. 

Suicide, after drinking, 955 a 8, 22. 
Sulphur, 93 7 b 24, 28. 
Sun, the, drunkards like the warmth 

fj 875 b 5 ff., 34 ff. ; warmer to 

stand than to sit in, 884 b II ff. ; 


a source of movement, 899 a 2i ; 
disturbs the air in the daytime, 
903 a 8 ; shadows cast by, do not 
increase and decrease uniformly, 
9ii a i4fL ; shapes formed by, 
passing through quadrilaterals, 
b 3 ff. ; reason of flat appearance 
of, 9i2 a 2Sff. ; casts longest 
shadows at sunrise and sunset, 
and shortest at midday, a 34 ff. ; 
casts shorter shadows than the 
moon, b 4 ff. ; eclipse of, b II ; a 
parhelion forms only at the side 
of, b 27 ff. ; rising of, effect upon 
the winds, 944 a 35 ff., 946 b 3ff., 
947 a 26 ff. ; looking at, causes 
sneezing, 96i b 36ff. ; bleaches 
wax and oil, but darkens the 
flesh, 966 b 2iff, 96; b 23 ff. ; its 
effects upon the flesh, 966 b 21 ff, 
96; a 2off., b 24ff. 

Sunset, signs of coming weather at, 
94i a i ff. 

Superparticular ratio, 920* 26, 92 i b 

Surgery, X cauterization, 863 a 10 ff. ; 
X drugs, a i9ff. ; use of copper 
instruments in, a 25 ff. 

Sweat ; see Perspiration. 

Swimming, easier in the sea, 933 a 
9 ff. ; effect upon the bowels, 
935 b 28ff. 

Syllogism, 91 7 b 5. 

Sympathetic Action, Problems con 
nected ivith, 886 a 24-887 b 8. 

Sympathy with suffering, cause of, 
S87 a i5ff. 

Symphonic, accompaniment, 91 8 b 
30; notes, b 35. 

Syracusan, 954 a 38. 

Syria, 9o6 b 18, 9o8 a 14. 

Tame, X wild, animals, 895 b 23 ff. 

Taste, pleasures of, 949 b 6, 37. 

Tears, hot and cold, 959 b 20 ff. 

Teeth, 898 a 22, 26; set on edge, 
886 b 12 ff. ; men with porous, 
spongy teeth are short-lived, 
8o.6 a 3off., 963 b i8ff. ; of Ethio 
pians, 898 b 12 ; effect of figs upon, 
93 i a 27 if. ; sensitive to cold, 963 b 
22 ff, 26 ff. more numerous in 
males than in females, b 20. 

Temperament, Problems connected 
with the effect of Locality on, 
909 a u-9io b 9. 

Temperament, persons of moist, 

more affected by exertion, 883* 
3 ff. ; persons of equable, feel 
fatigue but throw it off, b 1 1 ff. 

Temperance and Intemperance, 
Continence and Incontinence^ 
Problems connected with, 949 a 
21-950* 19. 

Temperance, ill effects of a sudden 
change to, 949 a 23 ff. 

Temperate, association with the, 
makes men t., 95i a 5- 

Tens, counting in, 9io b 23 ff. 

Terpander, 92o a i7. 

Thapsia, 864 a 5, 89o b 7, 18, 25. 

Theatrical artists, bad character of, 
956 b iiff. 

Theft, penalties for, 952 a 17 ff, 953 a 

Thighs, strain upon the, in descend 
ing, 882 b 25ff, 883 a 9; on long 
journeys, 882 b 37 ff. ; feel more 
fatigue than the legs, 883 b 13 ff, 
885 a 30 ff. 

Thirst, caused by fear, 947 b 16, 
94 8 a I, 7, b 13 ; less tolerable than 
hunger, 949 b 26, 32. 

Thracians, 91 i a 2. 

Thriasian Plain, 942 a 19. 

Thunderbolt, 937 b 26, 28. 

Thyme, 925 a 8. 

Tickling, felt most in the armpits 
and the soles of the feet, g64 b 
30 ff. ; a man cannot tickle 
himself, 965 a n ff.; stimulates 
laughter, a 16 ; the lips sensitive 
to, a i8ff. 

Tongue, the, effect of drunkenness 
upon, 875 b i9ff. ; effect of cold 
upon, 888 b 7 ff. ; of animals, 892 
33 ff. ; effect of sour matter upon, 
93 1 a 12 ; as an indication of 
disease, 963 h 33 ff. ; of sheep, 
b 35; coloration of, b 38, 964 a 
4ff. ; becomes bitter but never 
sweet, a i ff. 

J^ouch, Problems connected with 
the effect of, 964 b 20-965* 39. 

Touch, the pleasures of, 949 b 6, 37. 

Tragedies, early, writers of, pri 
marily musicians, 920* II ; main 
ly lyrical, a 1 3. 

Tragic chorus ; see Chorus. 

Trembling, of drunkards, 87 l a 
27 ff, 874 b 22 ff. ; of shadows, 
91 3 a 5 ff. ; from fear, 947 b 12 ff., 
948* 35 ff, " 6ff. ; see also Voice, 
trembling of. 


Trite, 9i8 a l5, 920*17. 

Troy, 916* 19. 

Tug-of-war, 888*21. 

Tunes running in the head , 9O2 a 

30 ff. 
Twins, difference of sex in, 894* 7 ff. 

Unguents, 926*17; see also Per 

Unison, 9i8 b 8. 
Unsymmetrical, appearance of the, 

9i5 b 37ff- 

Urethra, 895 1 9. 

Urine, examination of, 865^ 6 ff. ; 
incontinence of, 876* 15 ff. ; those 
who wish to pass u. cannot have 
sexual intercourse, 878 b 33 ; pass 
ing of, as a result of sympathy, 
886 a 26, 36, 887* 5, as a re 
sult of fear, 94S b 36 ; odour of, 
9<D7 b 2i ; shivering after passing, 
887 b 35,888 b i, 963*33; flow of, 
promoted by sweet-smelling seeds 
and plants, 9c>7 b 3, 924 b 18 ff. ; 
by garlic, 9O7 b 7, 908* 28, 949 b 
6 ; by anise and wormwood, a 2. 

Vapour baths, 867*29, 869*9, 

b 20 ff. 
Varicocele, prevents procreation, 

878 b 36 ff. ; not found in eunuchs, 

894 b 39- 

Vegetables, Problems connected with 
Shrubs and, 923* 5-927* 9. 

Veins, swollen, 885 b 31. 

Vinegar, 959 h 7, 14; a cure for in 
flammation, 889 b i9; stops hic 
cups, 96i b 20, 962* I, 963 b 6. 

Violets, white, 909* I, 7. 

Vipers, never tame, 895 b 26. 

Vision, the, effects of drunkenness 
upon, 872* 1 8 ff., b 3 ff., 874* 5 ff., 
875 b 9ff.; takes the form of a cone, 
872*37, 9ii b 5, 1 6, 20; effect of 
sexual excess upon, 876 b 24 ff. ; 
cannot penetrate hard objects, 
905* 35 ff, or porous objects, 939* 
12 ; physical exercise detrimental 
to, 958 b 28ff. ; green and yellow 
the only colours beneficial to, 959* 
24 ff. ; why improved by shading 
the eyes, 960* 2 iff.; see also 
Eyes, Sight. 

Voice, Problems connected with the, 
898 b 28-906* 20. 

Voice, defined, 899* 22, 900* 34, 
904*25, b 27, 948 b 27; man can 

utter many v.s, 895* 5 ; animals 
possess v. but not speech, 895* 
18; travels in every direction, 
899 b 35 ; comes to perfection late 
in man, 905*30; v. and hearing 
have the same source, 898 b 29, 
31 ; loss of, 888* 8 ; more audible 
below than above, 904* 23 ; higher 
when echoed back, 918*35; 
breaks on parhypate, 9i7 b 30 ff. ; 
broken, after meals, 900* 17, of 
drunkards, 9O4 b i ; deep, in 
adults, 90o b 16, in winter, b 29, 
901*1, 905 b 38, after drinking 
and vomiting, 9co b 39 ; less 
audible at a distance, 901* 7 ; of 
males, b 28, 903* 28 ; of the 
nervous, 9O2 b 36, 905* 5 ; of the 
drunken, 905* 25 ; loud, of hot- 
natured persons, 899* 10, after 
eating leeks, o.O3 b 27 ; low, of 
those who hesitate in speech, 
903*38; rough, after sleepless 
ness, 900* 10 ; shrillness of, 899* 
22 ff., 900*22, 901*20, in child 
ren, *32, 9oi b 24, in boys, 
women, and eunuchs, 9oc b 15, 
9oi b 24, 903*27ff, after violent 
exertion or illness, 88o b 29, 901* 
30 ff, due to weakness, 903*30, 
of the frightened, 9O2 b 37, 905*6, 
in winter, 905* 24 ; shriller at a 
distance, 9OO*2off, b 7 ff ; shrill 
v.s audible farther, 9O4 b 7ff. ; 
trembling of, 9O2 b 30 ff., 906* 10, 
948*35, b 7. 

Vomiting, after perspiring, 868* 
5 ff. ; caused by watery wine, 873 b 
24 ff. ; a turgid state necessary 
for, 877*25 ; cures fatigue, 88i a 
12; the voice is deeper after, 
901* i ; lightens the body, 965 b 

Votes, if the v.s are equal the de 
fendant wins, 951* 10 ff., 952 b 36. 

Vowels, 895* 10. 

Walking, over level and uneven 
ground compared, 88o b 15 ff, 
88i b 18 ff., 883 a 22 ff, 885 a 14 ff. ; 
fattens the legs, 88i b n ; short 
distances, fatiguing, b 37ff, 884 b 
8 ff. ; effect of violent w., 882* 
29 ff. ; less liability to fall when 
w. than when running, b 22 ff. ; 
why easier than running, 883 b 
37 ff. 


Wafer, Problems connected with 
Hot, 936 a Ii-937 b 28 ; Salt, and 
the sea, Problems connected with, 
93* a 35-936 a io. 

Water, effect upon health, 86o b 
26 ff., 86 1 a I ff., a 10 ff. ; upon 
colour of animals, 891^ 13 ff. ; 
present in most foods, 86o b 35, 
in bread, 92; a 30 ; becomes cor 
rupt, 939 b 27 ; powers of satura 
tion, 939* 29 ff. ; contact with, 
does not moisten the air, 938 a 
17 ff., 939 a i;ff. ; effect of drip 
ping, 902 b i ; less white when in 
motion, 934* 13 ff. ; more salty in 
regions facing S., a 3off. ; tire- 
heated more wholesome than sun- 
heated, 937 a 34 ff., b 5 f. ; in wells, 
temperature of, 936 a i6ff. ; boils 
over more easily in winter, a 37 ; 
boiling, temperature of vessels 
containing, 936 a 32ff, b i3ff., 
no scum on, b 23 ff. ; cold, makes 
a shriller sound than hot, 9oo 1 
4ff, effect upon the fainting, 
937 a 2 9 1 hot, causes wrinkles, 
936 b 10 ff, 937 b 2, at Atarneus, 
b 7, at Magnesia, b 7, n, stones 
form in, a 1 1 ; see also Salt 

Water-clock; see Clock. 

Waves, only ripple in a confined 
space, 93 i a 35 ff, 934 a 25 ff. ; 
begin to move before the wind 
reaches them, 93i a 38ff., 932 b 
37 ff-) 934 b 4ff-5 an indication of 
wind, 932 b 29; calm down more 
slowly in the open sea, 933 b 4 ff. 

Wax, bleached by the sun, 966 b 


Weals, Problems connected witJi 

Bruises, Scars, and, 889 * 10- 

8 9 i a s. 

Weals, prevention of, 889 b loff. 
Wealth, more often found in the 

hands of the bad than of the 

good, 95o 36ff. 
W 7 eariness ; see Fatigue. 
Weather, effect of, on disease, 859 

21 ff. 

Weights, held by jumpers, 88i h 4. 

West wind, caused by the sinking 
sun, 942 b 6 ; makes scent hard to 
follow, b 13 ff. ; drives the largest 
clouds, b 20 ff. ; brings fair 
weather, 943 b 2i ff., 946 21 ff. ; 
blows towards evening, 944 a 

I off., 31 ff. ; gentle but cold, 946* 
1 7 ff. ; its seasons, a 1 8 ff. 

Wheat, 863 a 35 ff, 929 b 28 ; more 
nourishing than barley, 92 7 a 17. 

Wheaten-bread, 927^2. 

Wild X tame, animals, 895 b 23 ff., 
896 a 20 ff. ; ;( cultivated, plants, 
896 a 6 ff, 924 a 1 8 ff., 927 a 4 ff. 

Wills, set aside in favour of claims 
of birth, 95o b 5 ff. 

Windpipe, 901 b 7, 14, 96o b 36. 

Winds, Problems connected ivitJi 
the, 94o a i6-947 b 9. 

Winds, effect of, upon health and 
disease, 859 a 9 ff, 862 a 17 ff, 
26 ff.; coming w.s indicated by 
waves, 932 b 29ff. ; blow cold in 
early morning from rivers but 
not from sea, 933 a 27 ff., 943 b 
4 ff. ; alternating, cause of, 94o b 
i6ff, come from the sea, b 2i ff., 
blow in bays, not in open sea, 
945 a i ff. ; rise before eclipses, 
942 a 22 ff. ; strongest as they end, 
b 23 f. ; cause dryness, 943 a 28 ff. ; 
change into their contraries or 
those on their right, b 29 ff. ; effect 
of sunrise on, 944 a 25 ff. ; source 
of, b 4 ff. ; none on high mountains, 
b 12 ff. ; due to motion caused by 
heat, 945 b 8 ff. ; different w.s bring 
rain in different places, 946 b 
32 ff. ; in Arcadia, 947 a 15 ff. ; 
last if they begin at dawn, a 25 ff. ; 
see also East wind, North 
wind, &c. 

Wine and Drunkenness, Problems 
connected with the drinking of, 
87i a i-876 a 28. 

Wine, contains heat, 87i a I, 39, 
874 b 35; children dislike, 872* 
2 ; the brave are fond of, 948* 
13 ; has the same effects as black 
bile, 953 a 34j unmixed, less 
violent in its effects, 87i a 16 ff, 
873 a 4ff, 874 a 28ff, fatal to the 
lean, a 35 ff., to be taken with 
fruit, 930 b 21 ff. ; sweet, effects of, 
872 b 26 ff., 32 ff., 874 b 1 1 ff, those 
who drink do not become drunk 
ards, 875 b I ff. ; seems sweetest if 
taken with barley-meal, 9?-9 a 3i; 
causes both frenzy and stupefac 
tion, 873 a 23 ff. ; effect on the 
melancholic, a 32ff. ; watery, 
causes vomiting, b 24ff. ; im 
proves hesitation of speech, 9O3 b 


8 ff. ; causes lisping, b 25 ff. ; 
yields up its odour more quickly 
when diluted, 9c>7 b i3ff. ; effect 
of marjoram upon, 926** 32 ff. ; 
taste of, after eating rotten fruit, 
93o b 5 ft, and sour fruit, 93l a 6 ff. 

Wine-skins, two, one double the 
size of the other, give an accord 
in the octave, 923* 2 ff. 

Wisdom, Problems connected with 
Priidence, Intelligence, and, 953 a 

S-957 a 35- 

Wisdom, superior, of those who live 
in warm regions, 9io a 26 ff. ; 
practical, of man, 955 b 4fL; in 
creases with age, b 22 ff. ; no 
prizes offered for, 956 b 1 6 ff. 

Woman, murder of a, more terrible 
than of a man, 951*11 ff. ; see 
also Females. 

Words, uttered by man only, 905* 


W 7 ormwood, 949* 2. 

Wounds heal more readily in the 

young, 96i a 5. 
W 7 restling-school, theft from, 952* 

Wrinkles, caused by hot water, 

936 b ioff., 937 a 2ff. 

Yawning, 96i a 37ff. ; why infectious, 
886 a 24ff, 31 ff, 88; a 4ff. ; pre 
vents hearing, 9O2 b 9 ff, 9O4 a 

Yellow objects, beneficial to the 
sight, 959 a 24ff. 

Zephyr ; see West wind. 

Printed in England at the OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
By John Johnson Printer to the University 

B 407 .86 1910 v.7 SMC 

Ar istot le. 

The works of Aristotle